|• Mayor||Masao Omori|
|• Total||789.92 km2 (304.99 sq mi)|
(February 1, 2017)
|• Density||910/km2 (2,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+09:00 (JST)|
Okayama (岡山市, Okayama-shi, Japanese: [okaꜜjama] ) is the capital city of Okayama Prefecture in the Chūgoku region of Japan. The city was founded on June 1, 1889. As of February 2017 [update] , the city has an estimated population of 720,841 and a population density of 910 persons per km2. The total area is 789.88 square kilometres (304.97 square miles).
The city is the site of Kōraku-en, known as one of the top three traditional gardens in Japan, and Okayama Castle, which is ranked among the best 100 Japanese castles.The city is famous as the setting of the Japanese fable "Momotarō".
Before the Muromachi period, Okayama was one corner of a farm region and included a small castle built by the Kanemitsu. In the Sengoku period, Ukita Naoie attacked Okayama and attacked the castle for the transportation resources and extensive farmland in the region. Naoie remodeled the castle, built the old Sanyo road to the central part of the castle town, and called in craftsmen both from inside and outside of Bizen Province. Okayama became the political and economical capital of Bizen Province.
In 1600, Ukita Hideie, who was the son of Naoie and the lord of Okayama, lost at the Battle of Sekigahara. The next year, Kobayakawa Hideaki came to Okayama and became the feudal lord of Okayama Domain. Hideaki died in 1602, however, ending the Kobayakawa line. Ikeda Tadatugu, who was the feudal lord of Himeji Domain, became the next lord of Okayama. After this time, Okayama was ruled by the Ikedas until the latter part of the 19th century. Continuing its economic development, Okayama became one of the ten best large castle towns in Japan in the 18th century. The Korakuen Garden was developed by the fourth feudal lord, Ikeda Tsunamasa.
On August 29, 1871, the new Meiji government of the Empire of Japan replaced the traditional feudal domain system with centralized government authority (Prefectures of Japan). Okayama became the capital of Okayama Prefecture. In 1889, Okayama City was founded. In the Meiji period, a railroad was built in Okayama city that greatly enhanced the development of the city. For example, the Sixth Higher Middle School (第六高等学校, Dairoku Kōtōgakkō) and Okayama Medical College (岡山医科大学, Okayama Ika-daigaku) were established in Okayama City. Okayama became one of the most important places in western Japan for transportation and education. When World War II began, Okayama city had a Japanese Army base camp. On June 29, 1945, the city was attacked by the US Army Air Forces with incendiary bombs. Almost all the city was burned, and more than 1700 people were killed. Okayama suffered terrible damage in the war, losing more than 12,000 households.
During Japan's economic boom of the 1960s, Okayama developed rapidly as one of the most important cities in the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions. In 1972, the San'yō Shinkansen began service between Shin-Ōsaka and Okayama stations. Two years later, Shinkansen service was extended to Hakata.
In 1988, the Seto-Ōhashi Bridge was opened, and connected Okayama with Shikoku directly by rail and road.
The city became a core city in 1996 and a designated city on April 1, 2009.
The city of Okayama is located in the southern part of Okayama Prefecture, which in turn is located in western part of the island of Honshū. The city is bounded on the south by the Inland Sea. Asahi River crosses Okayama.
Since Okayama became a designated city in 2009, the city has been divided into four wards (ku).
| Kita-ku |
| Naka-ku |
| Higashi-ku |
| Minami-ku |
|Population as of October 1, 2010|
Kojima, Mitsu, and Akaiwa Districts have all since been dissolved as a result of these mergers.
Okayama has a mild climate in comparison to most of Japan. It has the most rain-free days (less than 1mm of precipitation) of any city in Japan. It is ranked as the second driest and the fourth sunniest city in the Chūgoku region.The climate is classified under the Köppen climate classification as humid subtropical (Cfa).
The local climate is warm enough throughout the year to support olive trees. Okayama is often called "Land of Sunshine" because of its low number of rainy days per year.
|Climate data for Okayama (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1891−present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||18.8|
|Average high °C (°F)||9.6|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||4.6|
|Average low °C (°F)||0.1|
|Record low °C (°F)||−8.9|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||36.2|
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||0|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)||5.4||6.9||9.2||9.6||9.4||11.6||10.9||7.7||9.7||7.7||6.4||6.3||100.8|
|Average relative humidity (%)||69||66||65||60||64||71||74||69||71||71||72||71||69|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||149.0||145.4||177.8||192.6||205.9||153.5||169.8||203.2||157.5||171.5||153.7||153.8||2,033.7|
|Source: Japan Meteorological Agency|
The city is located in the Okayama Plain, where rice, eggplant, and white Chinese chives are notable products.White peaches and grapes are cultivated in the mountainous, northern part of the city.
In 2005, the city's gross domestic product was 800 billion yen,nearly 10% of the GDP of Okayama Prefecture. Greater Okayama, Okayama Metropolitan Employment Area, has a GDP of US$63.1 billion as of 2010. The main industries are machine tools, chemicals, foodstuffs and printing. Kōnan, a district in the southern part of the city, is the most developed industrial zone.
Okayama is the core of the Okayama metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Kurashiki and Sōja. The main commercial district is Omotechō, near Okayama Castle and Kōraku-en, and the area surrounding Okayama Station. Omotechō has many covered shopping arcades.
The headquarters of Aeon Corporation, a private English language school with more than 3,000 employees, is located in Okayama.
Okayama Castle and Kōraku-en are Okayama's most notable attractions.
Okayama Castle (nicknamed Ujō (烏城 'crow castle') was constructed in 1597 by Ukita Naoie, a Japanese feudal lord. It was destroyed by bombing in 1945 during World War II but reconstructed in 1966.
Kōraku-en, known as one of the three best traditional gardens in Japan, lies south of the castle grounds. Kōrakuen was constructed by Ikeda Tsunamasa over 14 years, and completed in 1700.
Sōgen-ji, a large Buddhist monastery belonging to the Rinzai sect, is located near the center of the city. Several of the abbots of major monasteries in Kyoto are from Sōgen-ji.[ citation needed ]
Every August since 1994 Okayama has seen the Momotarō Matsuri (Festival), which is an amalgam of three different festivals, including the Uraja 'ogre' festival, which is a kind of Yosakoi dance.
Okayama has a professional symphony orchestra, the Okayama Symphony Orchestra, which performs at the Okayama Symphony Hall.
There are many museums in the city, including the Okayama Prefectural Museum, the Okayama Prefectural Museum of Art, the Hayashibara Museum of Art, the Okayama Orient Museum, the Yumeji Art Museum, and the Okayama Digital Museum.
Okayama has several traditional dishes.Barazushi, a dish made with sushi rice, contains fresh fish from the Seto Inland Sea. Kibi dango (Okayama) (吉備団子) gel-like balls made from a powder of millet and rice, are well known sweets from the area.
The Sanyo Shimbun is the local newspaper serving the greater Okayama area. There are six television stations serving the Okayama area and part of Kagawa Prefecture. Three FM and three AM radio stations also serve the region.
|Channel ID||Name||Network||Established year||Call sign|
|1||NHK General TV Okayama||NHK General TV||1957||JOKK-DTV|
|2||NHK Educational TV Okayama||NHK Educational TV||1963||JOKB-DTV|
|4||Nishinippon Broadcasting Co.,Ltd.(RNC)||NNN||1958||JOKF-DTV|
|5||Setonaikai Broadcasting Co.,Ltd.(KSB)||ANN||1969||JOVH-DTV|
|6||Sanyo Broadcasting Co.,Ltd.(RSK)||JNN||1958||JOYR-DTV|
|7||TV Setouchi Broadcasting Co.,Ltd.(TSC)||TXN||1985||JOPH-DTV|
|8||Okayama Broadcasting Co.,Ltd.(OHK)||FNN||1969||JOOH-DTV|
|Channel||Name||Network||Established year||Call sign|
|AM 603 kHz||NHK Radio Daiichi Okayama||NHK Radio Daiichi||1931||JOKK|
|AM 1386 kHz||NHK Radio Daini Okayama||NHK Radio Daini||1946||JOKB|
|AM 1494 kHz||Sanyo Broadcasting Co,Ltd.Radio (RSK)||JRN, NRN||1958||JOYR|
|FM 88.7 MHz||NHK FM Okayama||NHK FM||1964||JOKK-FM|
|FM 76.8 MHz||FM Okayama||JFN||1999||JOVV-FM|
|FM 79.0 MHz||Radio MOMO (Okayama City FM)||J-WAVE||1997||JOZZ8AD-FM|
Okayama has many sports teams. In recent years, volleyball team Okayama Seagulls and football club Fagiano Okayama have been established. In 2009, Fagiano Okayama FC gained promotion to the J. League, the highest football league in Japan.
|Fagiano Okayama FC||Football||J. League Division 2||Kanko Stadium (Okayama Prefectural Multipurpose Athletic Stadium)||2004|
|Okayama Seagulls||Volleyball||V.League||Momotaro Arena (Okayama Prefectural Multipurpose Grounds Gym)||1999|
|Okayama Standing Bears||American football||X-League||Kanko Stadium (Okayama Prefectural Multipurpose Athletic Stadium)||?|
|Citylight Okayama Baseball Team||Baseball||Semi-professional baseball||2008|
Okayama was the birthplace of the 31st Yokozuna, Tsunenohana Kan'ichi, in 1896. He won 10 championships, 8 during his time as a Yokozuna.
Okayama University, founded as a medical school in 1870 and established in 1949 as a national university, is in the city. Today, Okayama University is one of Okayama's largest universities, with 11 faculties and six graduate schools.
There are seven private universities, three junior colleges, 24 high schools (16 public, eight private), seven combined junior high/high schools (two public, five private), 37 junior high schools (36 municipal, one national) and 93 elementary schools (91 municipal, two private) in the city.[ citation needed ]
JR West's Okayama Station is a major interchange, with trains from Shikoku, Sanin and Sanyo connecting to the Sanyo Shinkansen. Local rail lines serving Okayama Station include: Sanyo Main Line, Hakubi Line, Akō Line, Uno Line, Seto-Ōhashi Line, Tsuyama Line, and Kibi Line.
Okayama has kept an operational tram system since the Meiji period. It is managed by Okayama Electric Tramway and offers two lines: the Higashiyama Main Line and the Seikibashi Line.
Seven bus companies provide service within the city limits: Bihoku Bus (備北バス), Chūtetsu Bus (中鉄バス), Okaden Bus (岡電バス), Ryōbi Bus (両備バス), Shimoden Bus (下電バス), Tōbi Bus (東備バス), and Uno Bus (宇野バス).
Okayama Airport, located in the northern part of the city, provides domestic service to Tokyo-Haneda, Sapporo-Chitose, Okinawa-Naha, and Kagoshima. International air service is provided to Seoul-Incheon, Guam, Beijing, Hong Kong, Shanghai-Pudong, and Dalian.
Kōnan Airport, located to the south, has been a general aviation airport since the opening of Okayama Airport in 1988.
Okayama is twinned with:
Hiroshima Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūgoku region of Honshu. Hiroshima Prefecture has a population of 2,811,410 and has a geographic area of 8,479 km². Hiroshima Prefecture borders Okayama Prefecture to the east, Tottori Prefecture to the northeast, Shimane Prefecture to the north, and Yamaguchi Prefecture to the southwest.
Okayama Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūgoku region of Honshu. Okayama Prefecture has a population of 1,906,464 and has a geographic area of 7,114 km2. Okayama Prefecture borders Tottori Prefecture to the north, Hyōgo Prefecture to the east, and Hiroshima Prefecture to the west.
Niimi is a city located in northwestern Okayama Prefecture, Japan.
Mihara is a city located in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The city was founded on November 15, 1936. As of July 31, 2016, the city has an estimated population of 97,324 and a population density of 206.62 persons per km2. The total area is 471.03 km2.
Kyōto Station is a major railway station and transportation hub in Kyōto, Japan. It has Japan's second-largest station building and is one of the country's largest buildings, incorporating a shopping mall, hotel, movie theater, Isetan department store, and several local government facilities under one 15-story roof. It also housed the Kyōto City Air Terminal until August 31, 2002.
Bizen Province was a province of Japan on the Inland Sea side of Honshū, in what is today the southeastern part of Okayama Prefecture. It was sometimes called Bishū (備州), with Bitchū and Bingo Provinces. Bizen borders Mimasaka, Harima, and Bitchū Provinces.
Okayama Airport is an airport in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. It is also known as Okayama Momotaro Airport.
Okayama Castle is a Japanese castle in the city of Okayama in Okayama Prefecture in Japan. The main tower was completed in 1597, destroyed in 1945 and replicated in concrete in 1966. Two of the watch towers survived the bombing of 1945 and are now listed by the national Agency for Cultural Affairs as Important Cultural Properties.
Okayama Station is a railway station in Kita-ku, Okayama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The station is operated by West Japan Railway Company.
Shimonoseki is a city located in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. With a population of 265,684, it is the largest city in Yamaguchi Prefecture and the fifth-largest city in the Chūgoku region. It is located at the southwestern tip of Honshu facing the Tsushima Strait at the entrance to the Kanmon Straits across from the city of Kitakyushu and the island of Kyushu. It is nicknamed the "Fugu Capital" for the locally caught pufferfish, and is the largest harvester of the pufferfish in Japan.
Kurashiki Station is a JR West Sanyō Main Line and Hakubi Line railway station located in 1-1 1-chōme, Achi, Kurashiki, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. All Sanyō Main Line and Hakubi Line express and limited express trains stop at this station. The Mizushima Coastal Railway Kurashiki-shi Station is near the station.
Fagiano Okayama is a Japanese football club based in Okayama, the capital of Okayama Prefecture. They play in the J2 League, the second tier of the country's football league system. Their home stadium is City Light Stadium, in Okayama City, though some home matches are played at Tsuyama Stadium, in Tsuyama.
Ukita Kōkichi was a Japanese aviation pioneer who experimented with artificial wings and is considered the first Japanese person to fly. He is also called Kōkichi the Birdman, Kōkichi the Papermaker, Sakuraya Kōkichi, Bizen'ya Kōkichi, or Binkōsai (備考斎).
Kibi Line is a railway line in Okayama Prefecture, Japan, operated by the West Japan Railway Company. It is also referred to as the Momotaro Line (桃太郎線).
Okayama is the capital city of Okayama Prefecture in the Chūgoku region of Japan.
A Kibi dango, is a type of wagashi sweet or snack with an eponymous reference to Kibi-no-kuni, an old province roughly coincident with today's Okayama Prefecture. It is made by forming gyūhi, a sort of soft mochi, into flat round cakes. Glutinous rice, starch, syrup and sugar are the basic ingredients. It is manufactured by some fifteen confectioners based in Okayama City. While perhaps originally made from kibi, the modern recipe uses little or no millet, and substantively differs from kibi dango of yore, famous from the Japanese heroic folk tale of Momotarō or "Peach Boy"; nevertheless, "Kibi dango" continues to be represented as being the same as the folk hero Peach Boy's dumpling.
Kibi dango is Japanese dumpling made from the meal or flour of the kibi grain. The treat was used by folktale-hero Momotarō to recruit his three beastly retainers, in the commonly known version of the tale.
The Okayama Expressway is a national expressway in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. It is owned and operated by West Nippon Expressway Company.
Ryobi Holdings Co. Ltd. is a Japanese transport, logistics, travel, retailer, retirement home operator and real estate development company. Its headquarters are in Okayama City, Okayama Prefecture, Japan.
Kameyama Castle also well known as Numa Castle is the remains of a castle structure in Higashi-ku, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Its ruins have been protected as a Okayama City Designated Historic Site.
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