Oleh Tyahnybok

Last updated
Oleh Tyahnybok
Олег Ярославович Тягнибок
Oleh Tyahnybok September 2014.jpg
Leader of the All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda"
Assumed office
14 February 2004
Preceded by Yaroslav Andruschkiv
Deputy of the Lviv Oblast Council
2nd session
In office
1994–1998
Constituency Independent
People's Deputy of Ukraine
3rd convocation
In office
12 May 1998 14 May 2002
Constituency Social-National Party, Lviv Oblast,
District No.119 [1]
4th convocation
In office
14 May 2002 25 May 2006
Constituency Social-National Party (till Feb. 14, 2004), Svoboda, Lviv Oblast District No.120 [2]
7th convocation
In office
12 December 2012 27 November 2014
Constituency Svoboda, No.1 [3]
Personal details
Born (1968-11-07) 7 November 1968 (age 50)
Lviv, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union
Political party All-Ukrainian Union Svoboda
Spouse(s)Olha Tyahnybok (née Demchyschyn)
ChildrenJaryna-Maria (1992)
Daryna-Bohdana (1995)
Hordiy (1997)
OccupationUrologist, politician
Website http://www.tyahnybok.info/

Oleh Yaroslavovych Tyahnybok (Ukrainian : Оле́г Яросла́вович Тягнибо́к, born 7 November 1968) is a Ukrainian politician who is a former member of the Verkhovna Rada and the leader of the nationalist far-right Svoboda political party. [4] [5] Previously he was elected councilman of the Lviv Oblast Council for the second session. [6]

Ukrainian language language member of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages

Ukrainian is an East Slavic language. It is the official state language of Ukraine and one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria, the other two being Romanian and Russian. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic script.

Ukraine Sovereign state in Eastern Europe

Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religions in the country are Eastern Orthodoxy and Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi), making it the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world.

Verkhovna Rada Ukrainian Parliament

The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, often simply Verkhovna Rada or just Rada, is the unicameral parliament of Ukraine. The Verkhovna Rada is composed of 450 deputies, who are presided over by a chairman (speaker). The Verkhovna Rada meets in the Verkhovna Rada building in Ukraine's capital Kiev. The deputies elected in the 21 July 2019 Ukrainian parliamentary election have not been inaugurated yet but will take their seats 30 days after the official announcement of the results of the elections.

Contents

Biography

Tyahnybok was born in the city of Lviv to a family of doctors and is a doctor himself. [7] [8] His father, Yaroslav Tyahnybok, a Merited Doctor of Ukraine, was a distinguished sports doctor, chief physician of the Soviet national boxing team, and a former boxer himself who achieved the title of the Master of Sports of the USSR. [9] Oleh's great-grandfather was a brother of Lonhyn Tsehelsky, a politician in the West Ukrainian People's Republic. [7] Tyahnybok states he remembers from when he was younger searches conducted by the agents of the KGB in his family's apartment.

Lviv City of regional significance in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine

Lviv is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of 724,713 as of January 2019. Lviv is one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine.

Sports medicine medical branch concerned with the effects of sport and exercise

Sports medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise. Although most sports teams have employed team physicians for many years, it is only since the late 20th century that sports medicine has emerged as a distinct field of health care.

Boxing combat sport

Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring.

After secondary school, Tyahnybok enrolled into the Lviv Medical Institute and received part-time medical jobs as a corpsman and nurse, but after the second year was drafted to the army. After returning to the institute, he initiated the creation of the Med Institute Student Brotherhood - the first step in his life as a civil activist. Tyahnybok graduated from the institute in 1993 as a qualified surgeon (as he sometimes mentions, majoring in urology). In 1994 25-year-old Tyahnybok was elected to the Lviv Oblast Council, and in 1998 he was elected to the Verkhovna Rada.

Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University

Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, — formerly known as the Lvov State Medical Institute, earlier the Faculty of Medicine of the John Casimir University and, before that, Faculty of Medicine of the Francis I University — is one of the oldest and biggest medical universities in Ukraine. LNMU begins from the Medical Faculty of Lviv University, which was opened on November 16, 1784, according to the privilege of the Austrian emperor Josef II. The Medical School is named after King Daniel of Galicia, the historical founder of the city in 1256 AD. In 2009 University celebrated its 225 anniversary.

Unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) is a class of paraprofessionals who assist individuals with physical disabilities, mental impairments, and other health care needs with their activities of daily living (ADLs). UAPs also provide bedside care—including basic nursing procedures—all under the supervision of a registered nurse, licensed practical nurse or other health care professional. UAPs must demonstrate their abilities and competencies before gaining any expanded responsibilities within the clinical setting. While providing this care, UAPs offer compassion and patience and are part of the patient's healthcare support system. Communication is key between UAPs and registered nurses (RN) as they are working together in the best interests of the patient. The scope of care UAPs are responsible for is delegated by registered nurses or other clinical licensed professionals. Communication is key between UAPs and the delegator as they are working together in the best interests of the patient.

Surgeon physician with surgical specialty

In modern medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgical operations. There are also surgeons in podiatry, dentistry maxillofacial surgeon and the veterinary fields.

Political career

In October 1991 Tyahnybok became a member of the Social-National Party of Ukraine. [10] He is characterised as representative of Ukraine's far right. From 1994 until 1998, Tyahnybok served as a member of the Lviv Regional Council. [11] In 1998, Tyahnybok was first elected to the Ukrainian Parliament as a member of Social-National Party of Ukraine; [10] in the parliament he became a member of the People's Movement of Ukraine faction. [10] In 2002, Tyahnybok was reelected to the Ukrainian parliament as a member of Victor Yushchenko's Our Ukraine bloc. [10] In parliament he submitted 36 motions for debate, but the parliament adopted only four of them. [12] In the majority of his motions, he opposed the introduction of the Russian language as the second official state language; proposed recognition of the fighting role of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and Ukrainian Insurgent Army during World War II; called for the lustration (regulation of political involvement) of former communist officials, security service officers and undercover agents; and demanded the prohibition of communist ideology. [12] None of these motions were adopted. [12]

Social-National Party of Ukraine far right party in Ukraine

The Social-National Party of Ukraine (SNPU) was a far right party in Ukraine that would later become Svoboda. The party combined radical nationalism and neo-Nazi features.

1998 Ukrainian parliamentary election

Parliamentary elections were held in Ukraine on 29 March 1998. The Communist Party of Ukraine remained the largest party in the Verkhovna Rada, winning 121 of the 445 seats.

Peoples Movement of Ukraine Ukrainian pro-independence organisation, then political party

The People's Movement of Ukraine is a Ukrainian centre-right political party. Often it is simply referred to as the Movement. The party under the name Rukh was an observer member of the European People's Party (EPP) until 2013.

On 20 July 2004 Tyahnybok was expelled from the Our Ukraine parliamentary faction [10] [13] after he made a speech in the Carpathian Mountains at the gravesite of a commander of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. [13] In the speech, which was aired on television in the summer of 2004, he made comments such as, [14] "[You are the ones] that the Moscow-Jewish mafia ruling Ukraine fears most [13] " and "They were not afraid and we should not be afraid. They took their automatic guns on their necks and went into the woods, and fought against the Muscovites, Germans, Jews and other scum who wanted to take away our Ukrainian state. [12] :226"

Carpathian Mountains Mountain range in Central and Eastern Europe

The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a range of mountains forming an arc throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Roughly 1,500 km (932 mi) long, it is the third-longest European mountain range after the Urals with 2,500 km (1,553 mi) and the Scandinavian Mountains with 1,700 km (1,056 mi). The range stretches from the far eastern Czech Republic (3%) in the northwest through Slovakia (17%), Poland (10%), Hungary (4%) and Ukraine (10%) Serbia (5%) and Romania (50%) in the southeast. The highest range within the Carpathians is known as the Tatra mountains in Slovakia, where the highest peaks exceed 2,600 m (8,530 ft). The second-highest range is the Southern Carpathians in Romania, where the highest peaks range between 2,500 m (8,202 ft) and 2,550 m (8,366 ft).

Ukrainian Insurgent Army paramilitary wing of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (Bandera movement)

The Ukrainian Insurgent Army was a Ukrainian nationalist paramilitary and later partisan formation. During World War II, it was engaged in guerrilla warfare against Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, the Polish Underground State and Communist Poland. Its ultimate purpose was an independent and unified Ukrainian state. The insurgent army arose out of separate militant formations of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists—Bandera faction, other militant national-patriotic formations, some former defectors of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police, mobilization of local populations and others. The political leadership of the army belonged to the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists—Bandera. It was the primary perpetrator of the ethnic cleansing of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia.

Moscow Capital city of Russia

Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities.

In his defence Tyahnybok said he had not offended Russians in calling them an occupying force, as this was based on historical fact. He also denied that he was anti-Semitic, saying he was rather pro-Ukrainian. [15] [16] The prosecutor's office initially filed criminal charges for inciting ethnic hatred, but later withdrew for lack of evidence. Since that time Tyahnybok has won nine court cases in that regard. By the decisions of courts it was recognized that the criminal case was raised unlawfully, and the actions of TV-channel "Inter" that showed the footage of Tyanybok's speech as well as the Head of the Derzhkomnatsmihratsia H. Moskal were recognized as ones that insult the honor and dignity of Oleh Tyahnybok and caused him moral damage. The actions around that issue led to creation of the "Program in defense of Ukrainians". Tyahnybok stated in 2012 "this speech is relevant even today" and "All I said then, I can also repeat now". [6]

Russians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe, the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The majority of ethnic Russians live in the Russian Federation, notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Brazil, and Canada. The culture of the ethnic Russian people has a long tradition and it is a foundation for the modern culture of the whole of Russia. The Russian language originally was the language of ethnic Russians. They are historically Orthodox Christians by religion.

Since February 2004 Tyahnybok has headed the All-Ukrainian Union "Freedom". [11]

In April 2005, Tyahnybok co-signed an open letter to President Yushchenko calling for a parliamentary investigation into the "criminal activities of organized Jewry in Ukraine." [6] [17]

Tyahnybok stood as a candidate for the post of Mayor of Kiev during the Kiev local election in 2008. [12] In the elections Leonid Chernovetskyi was reelected with 37.7% of the vote, while Tyahnybok received 1.37% of the vote. [12] [18]

Tyahnybok's results in the presidential election of 2010 Oleg Tiagnibok po okrugakh 2010.png
Tyahnybok's results in the presidential election of 2010

Tyahnybok was a candidate for President of Ukraine in the 2010 presidential election for the All-Ukrainian Union "Freedom" party. He received 352,282 votes, or 1.43% of the total. [19] He received most of his votes in the Halychyna oblasts--Lviv oblast, Ternopil oblast and Ivano-Frankivsk oblast—and his vote share in this region amounted to five percent of the total ballots cast. [20] In the second round, Tyahnybok did not endorse a candidate. He did present a list of some 20 demands that second round candidate Yulia Tymoshenko had to fulfil first before gaining his endorsement - which included publicizing alleged secret deals Tymoshenko had with Vladimir Putin and ridding herself of what he called Ukraine-haters in her close circles. [21]

During the 2010 Ukrainian local elections Tyahnybok's party won between twenty and thirty percent of the votes in Eastern Galicia where it became one of the main forces in local government. [7] [22]

During the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election Tyahnybok was re-elected (he was top candidate on his party list) to the Ukrainian parliament when his party won 38 seats. [23] [24] [25] Tyahnybok was elected leader of the party's parliamentary faction. [26]

In June 2013, Tyahnybok and another Svoboda Party leader were barred from entering the U.S. for their open anti-Semitism, according to the Kiev-based newspaper Sevodnya. [27]

Tyahnybok with John Kerry during a meeting of Ukrainian parliamentary members, in 2014. Secretary Kerry Meets With Ukrainian Members of Parliament March 2014.jpg
Tyahnybok with John Kerry during a meeting of Ukrainian parliamentary members, in 2014.

In March 2014 Russia launched a criminal case against Tyahnybok, and some members of Ukrainian National Assembly – Ukrainian National Self Defence for "organizing an armed gang" that had allegedly fought against the Russian 76th Guards Air Assault Division in the First Chechen War. [28]

In the 2014 Ukrainian presidential election he received 1.16% of the vote. [29] In the October 2014 parliamentary election Tyahnybok was again first on the election list of his party; since the party came 0,29% short to overcome the 5% threshold to win seats on the nationwide list he was not re-elected into parliament. [30] [31]

On 14 October 2018, Tyahnybok announced he would not take part in the 2019 Ukrainian presidential election but that his party had instead decided to nominate Ruslan Koshulynskyi as the candidate of nationalist political forces. [32]

In the 2019 Ukrainian parliamentary election Tyahnybok is placed first on the joined list of Svoboda with National Corps, the Governmental Initiative of Yarosh and Right Sector. [33]

Political positions

Unlike both imperialism and globalism, modern nationalism seeks a healthy balance between domestic development and productive international relations. Nationalists will always find a common language with patriots in other countries because true nationalism means both love of your own nation and respect for others. Only he who respects himself has the power to respect others.

— Tyahnybok in a January 2010 interview with Business Ukraine

Tyahnybok regards Russia as Ukraine's biggest threat. [14] He has accused the Medvedev presidency of "waging virtual war on Ukraine along many fronts – in the information sphere and the diplomatic sector, within the energy trade and throughout the world of international PR spin.". [7] He is pro-NATO and critical of the European Union, but supports a Europe of free nations. According to polls both stances put him at odds with the majority of Ukrainians. [14] Tyahnybok also wants to deprive Crimea of its autonomous status and Sevastopol of its special status. [34] [35]

Tyahnybok wants to introduce an "ethnicity" section into Ukrainian passports, start a visa regime with Russia, and require Ukrainians to pass a Ukrainian language test to work in the civil service. [36]

Tyahnybok wants to re-establish Ukraine as a nuclear power. [36] He believes this would stop the "Russian virtual war on Ukraine". [7]

Tyahnybok wants Ukrainian to be the official state language of Ukraine, but also believes there should be no discrimination against linguistic minorities. [37]

Cultural and political image

Opposition leaders Oleh Tyahnybok, Vitali Klitschko and Arseniy Yatsenyuk, addressing demonstrators, 27 November 2013 Opposition leaders by the Cabinet of Ministers on Wednesday.jpg
Opposition leaders Oleh Tyahnybok, Vitali Klitschko and Arseniy Yatsenyuk, addressing demonstrators, 27 November 2013

During a visit by Tyahnybok to Sevastopol on 6 January 2010, some 1,500 activists of parties and public movements picketed the Business and Culture Center where Tyahnybok had a meeting with voters. [38]

Tyahnybok was voted Person of the Year for 2012 by readers of the country's leading news magazine, Korrespondent . [6] Tyahnybok was ranked #43 in the 2012 list of "Top 100 Most influential Ukrainians" by Korrespondent. [39]

See also

Related Research Articles

This article presents the historical development and role of political parties in Ukrainian politics, and outlines more extensively the significant modern political parties since Ukraine gained independence in 1991.

Elections in Ukraine

Elections in Ukraine are held to choose the President, Verkhovna Rada, and local governments. Referendums may be held on special occasions. Ukraine has a multi-party system, with numerous parties in which often not a single party has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.

The All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland", often referred to as Batkivshchyna even in English, is a Ukrainian political party led by Yulia Tymoshenko. The party has been an observer member of the European People's Party (EPP) since 2008.

Svoboda (political party) Far-right Ukrainian nationalist political party

The All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda", translated as Freedom, is a Ukrainian nationalist political party.

2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election Ukrainian parliamentary election of 2012

The Ukrainian parliamentary election of 2012 took place on 28 October 2012. Because of various reasons, including the "impossibility of announcing election results" various by-elections have taken place since. Hence, several constituencies have been left unrepresented at various times.

Oksana Bilozir Ukrainian politician and musician

Oksana Volodymyrivna Bilozir, née Rozumkevych, is a People's Artist of Ukraine (1994), former People's Deputy of Ukraine and in 2005 Minister of Culture and Tourism of Ukraine.

2014 Ukrainian presidential election

Presidential elections were held in Ukraine on 25 May 2014, resulting in Petro Poroshenko being elected President of Ukraine. Originally scheduled to take place on 29 March 2015, the date was changed following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution. Poroshenko won the elections with 54.7% of the votes, enough to win in a single round. His closest competitor was Yulia Tymoshenko, who emerged with 12.81% of the votes. The Central Election Commission reported voter turnout at over 60% excluding those regions not under government control. Since Poroshenko obtained an absolute majority in the first round, a run-off second ballot was unnecessary.

Andriy Parubiy Ukrainian politician, chairman of Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine

Andriy Volodymyrovych Parubiy is a Ukrainian politician who has been the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada, the Ukrainian parliament, since 14 April 2016. He previously served as Secretary of the National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine, appointed after leading the anti-government protests in the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, until his resignation on August 7, 2014.

Radical Party of Oleh Lyashko nationalist political party in Ukraine

The Radical Party, whose official name is the Radical Party of Oleh Lyashko and formerly known as the Ukrainian Radical-Democratic Party, is a political party in Ukraine that was registered in September 2010.

Oleh Lyashko Ukrainian politician

Oleh Valeriovich Lyashko is a Ukrainian politician and journalist who is a member of Verkhovna Rada and leader of the Radical Party.

7th Ukrainian Verkhovna Rada

The 7th Ukrainian Verkhovna Rada is the previous session of the legislative branch of the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's parliament. Its composition was based on the results of the 2012 parliamentary election. Half of the seats in the parliament were apportioned between the five winning parties based on the popular vote, while the other half was apportioned between 4 parties and 44 independents between 225 constituencies throughout the country. It first met in the capital Kiev on December 12, 2012 and ended its session on November 27, 2014 after the 8th Verkhovna Rada began its first session.

Local elections in Kiev for the post of Mayor and members of Kiev City Council took place on 25 May 2014 as part of the 2014 Ukrainian local elections. Vitali Klitschko won the mayoral election with almost 57% of the votes, while his party the Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform won 73 of the 120 seats in the Kiev City Council.

2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election

A snap election of the Verkhovna Rada took place on 26 October 2014.

Ruslan Koshulynskyi Ukrainian politician

Ruslan Koshulynskyi is a Ukrainian politician, soldier and former Member of Parliament who served as the 9th Deputy Speaker of the Verkhovna Rada (2012-2014). He is also the Deputy Leader of Svoboda party.

Union "Self Reliance" or "Self Help" is a political party in Ukraine. The party’s leader is currently, vacant, as of 21 July 2019. It was founded on 29 December 2012, and identifies with the ideology of "Christian morality and common sense." The name of the party is similar to the name of the NGO, founded by former leader, Andriy Sadovyi in 2004. The party won 33 seats in the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election. In the 2019 Ukrainian parliamentary election the party won 1 seat.

Second Yatsenyuk government

The second Yatsenyuk government was created in Ukraine after the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election. On 2 December 2014, 288 members of the Ukrainian parliament approved the composition of the cabinet. The Government was backed by Petro Poroshenko Bloc, People's Front, Self Reliance, Fatherland and Radical Party.

8th Ukrainian Verkhovna Rada

The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine of the 8th convocation is the current convocation of the legislative branch of the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's unicameral parliament. The 8th convocation met at the Verkhovna Rada building in Kiev, having begun its term on November 27, 2014 following the last session of the 7th Verkhovna Rada. Its term lasted five years and closed its last session on July 24, 2019.

2019 Ukrainian parliamentary election Parliamentary election held in Ukraine

Snap elections to the Ukrainian parliament were held on 21 July 2019. Originally scheduled to be held at the end of October, these elections were brought forward after newly inaugurated President Volodymyr Zelensky dissolved parliament on 21 May 2019, during his inauguration.

References

  1. "People's Deputy of Ukraine of the III convocation". Official portal (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine . Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  2. "People's Deputy of Ukraine of the IV convocation". Official portal (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine . Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  3. "People's Deputy of Ukraine of the VII convocation". Official portal (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine . Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  4. Tiahnybok reelected Svoboda party head, Kyiv Post (8 December 2012)
  5. , a former candidate for President of Ukraine Kyiv Post. 22 November 2012. ''Svoboda tames radicals to get into parliament'' Article written by Katya Gorchinskaya
  6. 1 2 3 4 Svoboda: The rise of Ukraine's ultra-nationalists, BBC News (26 December 2012)
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 (archived) Ukrainian nationalist leader thriving in hard times, Business Ukraine (January 20, 2011)
  8. Gorchinskaya, Katya. "Svoboda tames radicals to get into parliament". Kyiv Post . Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  9. "1984: радянський фільм про батька Тягнибока". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). December 13, 2012. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 ‹See Tfd› (in Ukrainian) Олег Тягнибок, Ukrinform
  11. 1 2 Political Pulse: Presidential field takes shape, Kyiv Post (11 November 2009)
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Shekhovtsov, Anton (2011)."The Creeping Resurgence of the Ukrainian Radical Right? The Case of the Freedom Party". Europe-Asia Studies Volume 63, Issue 2. pp. 203-228. doi : 10.1080/09668136.2011.547696 (source also available here)
  13. 1 2 3 Yushchenko Finally Gets Tough On Nationalists, The Jamestown Foundation (3 August 2004)
  14. 1 2 3 Tyahnybok: Nationalist, fearful of Russia, favors NATO, Kyiv Post (29 October 2008)
  15. Interview published in the Ukrainian newspaper Silski Visti on 13 August 2004, source: Ukrainian MP denies inciting racial hatred., accessmylibrary.com (17 August 2004)
  16. Ukrainian party picks xenophobic candidate Archived 2012-06-09 at the Wayback Machine , Jewish Telegraphic Agency (25 May 2009)
  17. http://www.ncsj.org/AuxPages/042005Ukr_letter.shtml%5B%5D Ukraine Notables Sign Anti-Semitic Letter, Anti-Semitism in Ukraine, NCSJ, 04.20.2005
  18. Liang, Yan (May 29, 2008). "Ukraine's Kiev mayor wins re-election". www.chinaview.cn. Xinhua. Archived from the original on February 18, 2009. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
  19. ‹See Tfd› (in Ukrainian) ЦВК оприлюднила офіційні результати 1-го туру виборів, Gazeta.ua (25 January 2010)
  20. ‹See Tfd› (in Ukrainian) Election results and map by region, Ukrainska Pravda (4 February 2010)
  21. Tymoshenko’s Looming Defeat: How Did She Make It Inevitable? Archived 2013-11-11 at the Wayback Machine , Serhiy Kudelia (29 January 2010)
  22. Local government elections in Ukraine: last stage in the Party of Regions’ takeover of power, Centre for Eastern Studies (4 October 2010)
  23. Q&A:Ukrainian parliamentary election, BBC News (23 October 2012)
  24. Ukraine election:President Yanukovych party claims win, BBC News (29 October 2012)
  25. Parties spend over Hr 600 million on elections, according to report, Kyiv Post (16 November 2012)
  26. Five factions, including Communist Party, registered in parliament, Kyiv Post (12 December 2012)
  27. [Ukrainian Far Right Nationalists Barred From U.S. for Anti-Semitic Hatred http://forward.com/articles/179415/ukrainian-far-right-nationalists-barred-from-us-fo/#ixzz3TzHrdPDj]
  28. http://en.interfax.com.ua/news/general/195991.html
  29. "Poroshenko wins presidential election with 54.7% of vote - CEC". Radio Ukraine International. 29 May 2014. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014.
    ‹See Tfd› (in Russian) Results election of Ukrainian president, Телеграф (29 May 2014)
  30. Poroshenko Bloc to have greatest number of seats in parliament Archived 2014-11-10 at the Wayback Machine , Ukrainian Television and Radio (8 November 2014)
    People's Front 0.33% ahead of Poroshenko Bloc with all ballots counted in Ukraine elections - CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (8 November 2014)
    Poroshenko Bloc to get 132 seats in parliament - CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (8 November 2014)
  31. ‹See Tfd› (in Ukrainian) Party list All-Ukrainian Union "Freedom", Ukrayinska Pravda (3 October 2014)
  32. ‹See Tfd› (in Ukrainian) "Svoboda" will nominate to the presidency not Tyahnybok, Ukrayinska Pravda (14 October 2018)
  33. https://m.glavcom.ua/country/politics/yarosh-tyagnibok-bileckiy-taki-sformuvali-jediniy-spisok-na-vibori-600508.html
  34. Tyahnybok: Crimean autonomy should be cancelled [ permanent dead link ], Inter~Media (August 12, 2008)
  35. Nationalist presidential candidate in Ukraine calls for downgrading Crimea status, Kyiv Post (7 January 2010)
  36. 1 2 Tiahnybok’s virulent brand of nationalism shows no strength, Kyiv Post (14 January 2010)
  37. The Media War Behind the Ukraine Crisis, The Moscow Times (11 March 2014)
  38. 1,500 activists of over 10 parties protest arrival of nationalist leader in Sevastopol, Kyiv Post (6 January 2010)
  39. "43 место Олег Тягнибок". Korrespondent (in Russian). Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. Retrieved May 20, 2013.

Media