Olga Fyodorovna Bergholz :Ольга Фёдоровна Берггольц,IPA: [ˈolʲɡə ˈfʲɵdərəvnə bʲɪrˈɡolʲts] (
Olga Berggolts was born in a working suburb of St. Petersburg. Her father Fyodor Christophorovich Berggolts (1885—1948) was a surgeon of half-Russian and half-Latvian descent, although in 1942 he was forcefully sent to the Krasnoyarsk Krai as "an ethnic German and a son of a principal shareholder" (his father was in fact a factory worker).He studied in the Imperial Military Medical Academy under Nikolay Burdenko and served as a military doctor during the World War I; after the October Revolution he was mobilized by the Red Army and continued working at the hospital train.
Olga's mother Maria Timofeevna Berggolts (née Grustilina) (1884—1957) was a native Russian. She also had a younger sister Maria (1912—2003) who would later become an actress of the Leningrad State Theatre of Musical Comedy. With the start of the Russian Civil War in 1918 Fyodor Berggolts sent his family to Uglich where they lived in the former Bogoyavlensky Monastery up until 1921. Upon return Olga entered a Petrograd labor school which she finished in 1926.
Her verses dedicated to Vladimir Lenin were first published in 1924. In 1925 she joined a youth literature group 'The Shift' where she became acquainted with Boris Kornilov. In 1927 Boris and Olga entered the State Institute of Art History, and in 1928 they got married. Same year their daughter Irina was born.Soon the institute was shut down. Some of the students — including Olga, but not Boris — were moved to the Leningrad University.
In 1930 she graduated from the philological faculty and was sent to Kazakhstan to work as a journalist for the Soviet Steppe newspaper. During this period Olga divorced Kornilov and married her fellow student Nikolay Molchanov. She also published her first book for children Winter-Summer-Parrot (1930).
After returning to Leningrad in 1931 she started working as a journalist for the newspaper of the electric power plant (Electric Power). In 1932 she gave birth to her second daughter Maya who died in just a year. Her feelings and thoughts on this period were expressed in such books as The Out-of-the-way Place (1932), Night (1935), Journalists (1934), and Grains (1935). Such works by Berggolts as Poems (1934) and Uglich (1932) were approved of by Maxim Gorky. In 1934 she joined the Union of Soviet Writers.
During the late 1930s Berggolts survived several personal tragedies. Her first daughter Irina died in 1936 aged seven, and in 1937 she lost her third child during the full-term pregnancy following the interrogation on the so-called "Averbakh Case" (she contacted Leopold Averbakh of the Russian Association of Proletarian Writers at the start of 1930). Soon her former husband Boris Kornilov was arrested "for taking part in the anti-Soviet Trotskyist organization" and executed on February 1938.
On December Olga herself was arrested on the same account and imprisoned. She spent seven months in prison, but denied all accusations. All this caused a birth of her fourth stillborn child. During that time period she wrote poems published as a Trial anthology during the 1960s. She was subsequently released and completely exonerated in 1939.
In 1940 she joined the Communist Party. After a long period of silence her novel Dream and a book of stories Vitya Mamanin were published to a great acclaim, although she had to hide her prison poetry.
With the start of the Great Patriotic War on June 1941 Olga Berggolts was sent to work at the Leningrad Radio House. She spent almost every day of the blockade in Leningrad working at the radio, encouraging hungry and depressed citizens of the city by her speeches and poems. Her thoughts and impressions on this period, on problems of heroism, love, faithfulness can be found in February Diary (1942), Leningrad Poem (1942), Your Way (1945), and some others.
On January 1942 she survived another personal tragedy: her second husband Nikolay Molchanov died of hunger. Olga later dedicated a poem 29 January 1942 and her book The Knot (1965) to Nikolay. On March 1942 Olga, who suffered from a critical form of dystrophy, was forcefully sent by her friends to Moscow using the Road of Life, despite her protests. On 20 April she returned to Leningrad and continued her work at the Radio House. On her return she married Georgy Makogonenko, a literary critic, also a radio host during the siege. In 1943 she was awarded the Medal "For the Defence of Leningrad".
Together with her husband she wrote a screenplay turned a play Born in Leningrad and a requiem In Memory of Defenders (1944) on the request of a woman whose brother was killed during the last days of the siege. On January 27, 1945 Berggolts, Makogonenko and their colleagues released a "radio film" entitled 900 days that included various fragments of reports, voices, sounds and music pieces recorded during the siege. She also published a book of memoirs Leningrad Is Talking and a play They Lived in Leningrad based on her war experience.
Berggolts also wrote many times about heroic and glorious events in the history of Russia, such as Pervorossyisk (1950), a poem about the Altay commune organized by the workers of Petrograd; Faithfulness (1954), a tragedy about the defence of Sevastopol in 1941–1942; and The Day Stars (1959), an autobiographical novel that was turned into a movie of the same name by Igor Talankin in 1968.Olga's voice could be also heard in another Talankin's movie Introduction to Life (1963) as she reads her poetry.
On May 9, 1960 Piskaryovskoye Memorial Cemetery was opened dedicated to the victims of the Siege of Leningrad, with the words by Olga Berggolts engraved on the wall behind the Motherland monument. The last line "No one is forgotten, nothing is forgotten" became a catchphrase since, often mentioned in Russia during memorial days.
Olga Berggolts died on 13 November 1975, and was buried at Literatorskie Mostki of the Volkovo Cemetery.
A minor planet 3093 Bergholz discovered by Soviet astronomer Tamara Mikhaylovna Smirnova in 1971 is named after her.A street in the Nevsky District bears her name, as well as a central street in Uglich. A monument in her memory was opened in Saint Petersburg on May 2015. Also on June the complete collection of diaries by Olga Berggolts was published for the first time by the Russian State Archive of Literature and Art. A crater on Venus is named after her.
American playwright Ivan Fuller wrote a play about Berggolts in 2009 called Awake in Me.
The siege of Leningrad was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany against the Soviet city of Leningrad on the Eastern Front in World War II. The Finnish army invaded from the north, co-operating with the Germans until Finland had recaptured territory lost in the recent Winter War, but refused to make further approaches to the city.
Tatyana Nikolayevna Savicheva, commonly referred to as Tanya Savicheva was a Russian child diarist who endured the Siege of Leningrad during World War II. During the siege, Savicheva recorded the successive deaths of each member of her family in her diary, with her final entry indicating her belief to be the sole living family member. Although Savicheva was rescued and transferred to a hospital, she succumbed to intestinal tuberculosis in July 1944 at age 14.
The Road of Life was the ice road winter transport route across the frozen Lake Ladoga, which provided the only access to the besieged city of Leningrad while the perimeter in the siege was actively maintained by the German Army Group North. The siege lasted for 29 months from 8 September 1941, to 27 January 1944. Over one million citizens of Leningrad died from starvation, stress, exposure and bombardments. Each winter, the Lake Ladoga ice route was reconstructed by hand, and built according to precise arithmetic calculations depending on traffic volume. In addition to transporting thousands of tons of munitions and food supplies each year, the Road of Life also served as the primary evacuation route for the millions of Soviets trapped within the starving city. The road today forms part of the World Heritage Site.
Lidiya Yakovlevna Ginzburg was a major Soviet literary critic and historian and a survivor of the siege of Leningrad.
Vera Mikhailovna Inber, born Shpenzer, Russian: Ве́ра Миха́йловна И́нбер was a Russian-Soviet poet and writer.
Felix Samoilovich Lembersky was a Russian/Soviet painter, artist, teacher, theater stage designer and an organizer of artistic groups. A refugee of World War I, he grew up in Berdyczów and studied art in Kiev and Leningrad—at the Jewish Arts and Trades School, known as Kultur-Lige (1928–29), the Kiev Art Institute (1933–34) and the Leningrad Academy of Art (1935–41). He graduated with high honors, completing his thesis during the Siege of Leningrad. He was wounded in the defense of Leningrad during World War II. His parents perished in Holocaust in Ukraine. After evacuation in 1942, Lembersky spent two years working in the Urals, recording industrial war effort. After the war, Lembersky joined the Leningrad Union of Artists. He exhibited widely in national and privately organized art shows in Russia and his work was acquired by museums and private collectors. While living in Leningrad, he also toured and worked in the Urals, Ladoga, Pskov and Baltic Republics. Much of his art is inspired by the Eastern Europe of his childhood—Ukraine and Ukraine. Among his most moving images are the portraits of his fellow citizens and the places where he lived and visited.
Boris Kornilov was a Soviet, Russian poet. He is probably best known for penning the words to The Song of the Meeting which was used to open the morning radio broadcast throughout the Soviet Union, even for years after its author perished during the Great Purge. Kornilov was arrested on 19 March 1937, sentenced to death on 20 February 1938 and shot in Leningrad the same day. Kornilov has been posthumously rehabilitated, and there is a museum and a statue dedicated to him in the town of Semyonov, near his birthplace. He was married to Olga Bergholz.
The Voice, is a 1982 Soviet psychological drama film. Based on the screenplay of the same name by Natalya Ryazantseva and directed by Ilya Averbakh. This is the last film by director Ilya Averbakh.
Nikolay Nikolayevich Punin was a Russian art scholar and writer. He edited several magazines, such as Izobrazitelnoye Iskusstvo among others, and was also co-founder of the Department of Iconography in the State Russian Museum. Punin was a lifelong friend and common-law husband of poet Anna Akhmatova who is famous for writing the poem Requiem.
The 872-day Siege of Leningrad, Russia, resulted from the failure of the German Army Group North to capture Leningrad in the Eastern Front during World War II. The siege lasted from September 8, 1941, to January 27, 1944, and was one of the longest and most destructive sieges in history, devastating the city of Leningrad.
Nina Leonidovna Veselova was a Russian Soviet realist painter and graphic artist, Doctor of art-criticism (1954), who lived and worked in Leningrad. She was a member of the Leningrad Union of Artists and regarded as one of the brightest representatives of the Leningrad school of painting.
Igor Petrovich Veselkin was a Russian Soviet realist painter, graphic artist, scenographer, stage designer, and art teacher, professor of the Repin Institute of Arts, who lived and worked in Saint Petersburg. He was a member of the Saint Petersburg Union of Artists, and regarded as one of the representatives of the Leningrad school of painting.
Olga Dmitryevna Forsh, née Komarova, was a Russian/Soviet novelist, dramatist, memoirist, and scenarist.
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The Medal "In Commemoration of the 300th Anniversary of Saint Petersburg" is a state commemorative medal of the Russian Federation established on February 19, 2003 by Presidential Decree № 210 to denote the 300th anniversary of the foundation of the city of St Petersburg, known as Leningrad during the Soviet Era.
The Medal "For the Defence of Leningrad" was a World War II campaign medal of the Soviet Union established on December 22, 1942 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to recognise the valour and hard work of the Soviet civilian and military defenders of Leningrad during the 872-day siege of the city by the German armed forces between September 8, 1941 and January 27, 1944. The medal's statute was later amended by Resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on March 8, 1945. and again one last time on July 18, 1980 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR № 2523-X.
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