|The Municipality of Olinda|
Top:Church of Our Lady of Grace Seminary (Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Graça Foi), 2nd left:Church of Our Lady of the Snows (Igreja de Nossa Senhora das Neves Seminário de Olinda) in Convent of San Francisco (Convento de São Francisco), 2nd right:Church and Monastery of St. Benedict, 3rd left:Panoramic view of the Alto da Sé, from the Panoramic lift of Olinda, 3rd right:Church of Carme, 4th left:Olinda Lighthouse, 4th right:Panoramic lift of Olinda, Bottom View of Atlantic Ocean and downtown area
|Founded||March 12, 1535|
|Incorporated (as village)||1537|
|Incorporated (as city)||1676|
|• Mayor||Lupércio Carlos do Nascimento|
|• Municipality||43.55 km2 (27.1 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,768 km2 (1,068.7 ;) sq mi)|
|Elevation||16 m (52 ft)|
|• Density||5.660/km2 (14.659/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC-3 (UTC-3)|
Olinda (Portuguese pronunciation: [oˈlĩdɐ] ), is a historic city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, located on the country's northeastern Atlantic Ocean coast, in Greater Recife (capital of Pernambuco State). It has a population of 389,494 people, covers 41.681 square kilometres (16.093 sq mi), and has a population of 9 inhabitants per square kilometer. It is noted as one of the best-preserved colonial cities in Brazil.
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.
The Federative Republic of Brazil is a union of 27 federated units : 26 states and one federal district. The states are generally based on historical, conventional borders which have developed over time. The Federal District cannot be divided into municipalities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, the Federal District assumes the same constitutional and legal powers, attributions and obligations of the states and municipalities, instead, it is divided by administrative regions.
Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. The state of Pernambuco also includes the archipelago Fernando de Noronha. With an estimated population of 9.2 million people in 2013, it is the seventh most populous state of Brazil, and is the sixth most densely populated and the 19th most extensive among the states and territories of the country. Its capital and largest city, Recife, is one of the most important economic and urban hubs in the country. As of 2013 estimates, Recife's metropolitan area is the fifth most populous in the country, and the largest urban agglomeration in Northeast Brazil.
Olinda features a number of major tourist attractions, such as a historic downtown area (World Heritage Site), churches, and the Carnival of Olinda, a popular street party, very similar to traditional Portuguese carnivals, with the addition of African influenced dances. Unlike in Rio de Janeiro and Salvador, in Olinda, admission to Carnival is free. All the festivities are celebrated on the streets, and there are no bleachers or roping. There are hundreds of small musical groups (sometimes featuring a single performer) in many genres.
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity.
Carnival is a Western Christian festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent. The main events typically occur during February or early March, during the period historically known as Shrovetide. Carnival typically involves public celebrations, including events such as parades, public street parties and other entertainments, combining some elements of a circus. Elaborate costumes and masks allow people to set aside their everyday individuality and experience a heightened sense of social unity. Participants often indulge in excessive consumption of alcohol, meat, and other foods that will be forgone during upcoming Lent. Traditionally, butter, milk, and other animal products were not consumed "excessively", rather, their stock was fully consumed as to reduce waste. Pancakes, donuts, and other desserts were prepared and eaten for a final time. During Lent, animal products are no longer eaten, and individuals have the ability to give up a certain object or activity of desire.
Rio de Janeiro, or simply Rio, is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape.
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
View of Olinda
|Criteria||Cultural: ii, iv|
|Inscription||1982 (6th Session)|
|Buffer zone||920 ha|
Several indigenous tribes occupied the coast of Northeastern Brazil for several thousand years, and the hills of the present day municipality of Olinda had settlements of Caetés and Tupinambá tribes, which were frequently at war. French mercenaries are thought to be the first Europeans to get to the region, but the Portuguese exploited intertribal rivalries and managed to build a stronghold on the former Caeté village in the higher hill. Recent studies by the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco [Federal University of Pernambuco] have uncovered new evidence of the pre-colonial population of the area. The settlement of Olinda was founded in 1535 by Duarte Coelho Pereira; it was elevated to a town on March 12, 1537.It was made the seat of the Territorial Prelature of Pernambuco in 1614, becoming the Diocese of Olinda in 1676. The economy of the region was dominated by the production of sugarcane. The importation of slaves from Africa to support the economy made Olinda a colonial stronghold. By 1600 its economy was based on sugar, and imported African slave labor had made it a colonial stronghold. Slavery existed in Olinda until the Lei Áurea, or Golden Law, abolished slavery in Brazil in 1888.
The Caetés (Kaeté) were an indigenous people of Brazil, linguistically belonging to the Tupi people.
The Tupinambá were one of the various Tupi ethnic groups that inhabited present-day Brazil before the conquest of the region by Portuguese colonial settlers. The Tupinambás lived in São Luis, Maranhão. Their language survives today in the form of Nheengatu.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, or simply cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South, Southeast Asia, and New Guinea, and used for sugar production. It has stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in the sugar sucrose, which accumulates in the stalk internodes. The plant is two to six metres tall. All sugar cane species can interbreed and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids. Sugarcane belongs to the grass family Poaceae, an economically important seed plant family that includes maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum, and many forage crops.
Olinda was the capital of the hereditary captaincy of Pernambuco, but was burned by Dutch invaders. The Portuguese built their town on the hill, for practical purposes (sewers) and to make it easier to defend. In the 17th century the Kingdom of Portugal was united with Spain (the 1580-1640 Iberian Union period). Taking advantage of this period of Portuguese weakness, the area around Olinda and Recife was occupied by the Dutch who gained access to the Portuguese sugarcane plantations.John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen was appointed as the governor of the Dutch possessions in Brazil in 1637 by the Dutch West India Company on recommendation of Frederick Henry. He landed at Recife, the port of Pernambuco and the chief stronghold of the Dutch, in January 1637. By a series of successful expeditions, he gradually extended the Dutch possessions from Sergipe on the south to São Luís de Maranhão in the north. He likewise conquered the Portuguese possessions of Saint George del Mina, Saint Thomas, and Luanda, Angola, on the west coast of Africa. After the dissolution of the Iberian Union in 1640, Portugal would reestablish its authority over the lost territories of the Portuguese Empire.
A Captaincy is a historical administrative division of the former Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires. It was instituted as a method of organization, directly associated with the home-rule administrations of medieval feudal governments in which the monarch delimited territories for colonization that were administered by men of confidence.
Dutch people or the Dutch are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands. They share a common culture and speak the Dutch language. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Aruba, Suriname, Guyana, Curaçao, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and the United States. The Low Countries were situated around the border of France and the Holy Roman Empire, forming a part of their respective peripheries, and the various territories of which they consisted had become virtually autonomous by the 13th century. Under the Habsburgs, the Netherlands were organised into a single administrative unit, and in the 16th and 17th centuries the Northern Netherlands gained independence from Spain as the Dutch Republic. The high degree of urbanization characteristic of Dutch society was attained at a relatively early date. During the Republic the first series of large-scale Dutch migrations outside of Europe took place.
The Kingdom of Portugal was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal. It was in existence from 1139 until 1910. After 1415, it was also known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. The name is also often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realm's extensive overseas colonies.
Olinda declined in importance after the Dutch invasion. Recife became the capital of Pernambuco in 1827. The city now serves as a suburb to the greater Recife metropolitan area. Due to the historic position of the city, its Cathedral, a World Heritage Site, São Salvador do Mundo, remains the primary seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Olinda e Recife,with a co-cathedral in Recife, while Olinda also has a Minor Basilica, again World Heritage Site (Minor): Basílica Abacial do Mosteiro de São Bento de Olinda.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Olinda and Recife is a Latin Metropolitan archdiocese in southeast Brazil's Pernambuco state.
A co-cathedral is a cathedral church which shares the function of being a bishop's seat, or cathedra, with another cathedral, often in another city. Instances of this occurred in England before the Protestant Reformation in the dioceses of 'Bath and Wells,' and of 'Coventry and Lichfield.' These two dioceses were each named for both cities that served as bishop's seats.
Besides its natural beauty, Olinda is also one of Brazil's main cultural centers. Declared in 1982 a Historical and Cultural Patrimony of Humanity by the UNESCO, Olinda relives the magnificence of the past every year during the Rio-style Carnival, on the rhythms of frevo , maracatu and others rhythms.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration in education, sciences, and culture in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.
Frevo is a dance and musical style originating from Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, traditionally associated with Brazilian Carnival. The word frevo is said to come from frever, a variant of the Portuguese word ferver. It is said that the sound of the frevo will make listeners and dancers feel as if they are boiling on the ground. The word frevo is used for both the frevo music and the frevo dance.
The term maracatu denotes any of several performance genres found in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. Main types of maracatu include Maracatu Nação and Maracatu Rural.
The main economic activities in Olinda are based in tourism, commerce, transportation industry and artcraft. The tourist sector has a boom every Carnival when thousands of people are in the old historic town center.
|Population||GDP x(1000 R$).||GDP pc (R$)||PE||RMR|
Economy by Sector
|Primary sector||Secondary sector||Service sector|
Recife is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil with 4,031,485 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America. The population of the city proper was 1,625,583 in 2016. The first slave port in the Americas, Recife was founded in 1537, during the early Portuguese colonization of Brazil, as the main harbor of the Captaincy of Pernambuco, known for its large scale production of sugar cane. It was the former capital Mauritsstad of the 17th century colony of New Holland of Dutch Brazil, established by the Dutch West India Company. The city is located at the confluence of the Beberibe and Capibaribe rivers before they flow into the South Atlantic Ocean. It is a major port on the Atlantic. Its name is an allusion to the stone reefs that are present by the city's shores. The many rivers, small islands and over 50 bridges found in Recife city centre characterise its geography and led to the city being called the "Brazilian Venice". As of 2010, it is the capital city with the highest HDI in Northeast Brazil and second highest HDI in the entire North and Northeast Brazil.
Colonial Brazil comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. During the early 300 years of Brazilian colonial history, the economic exploitation of the territory was based first on brazilwood extraction, which gave the territory its name; sugar production ; and finally on gold and diamond mining. Slaves, especially those brought from Africa, provided most of the work force of the Brazilian export economy after a brief period of Indian slavery to cut brazilwood.
The Philippine Dynasty, also known as the House of Habsburg in Portugal, was the third royal house of Portugal. It was named after the three Spanish kings who ruled Portugal between 1581 and 1640 in a dynastic union of the two crowns. The three kings, all named Philip, were from the House of Habsburg.
Igarassu is a city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. It is the second oldest city of the country and is situated on the north coast of the metropolitan region of Recife, approximately 32 kilometres (20 mi). It stands as one of the earliest European settlements in Brazil and is the site of the oldest church in the country, the Church of Saints Cosme and Damião, built in 1535. Igarassu is home to numerous colonial-period historic structures. The historic center of the city was designated a national monument by the National Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage (IPHAN) in 1972.
Dutch Brazil, also known as New Holland, was the northern portion of the Portuguese colony of Brazil, ruled by the Dutch during the Dutch colonization of the Americas between 1630 and 1654. The main cities of the Dutch colony of New Holland were the capital Mauritsstad, Frederikstadt, Nieuw Amsterdam (Natal), Saint Louis, São Cristóvão, Fortaleza, Sirinhaém and Olinda.
Jaboatão dos Guararapes is a city in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. It is a part of the Recife metro area. The population was 697,636 according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in 2018, making it the second most-populous city in the state of Pernambuco and the 27th in Brazil, ahead of major Brazilian state capitals such as Cuiabá and Aracaju. The city is a very important industrial center, hosting companies like Unilever and Coca-Cola. It is bordered by Recife in the North, Cabo de Santo Agostinho on the south, and Mangue forests to the west in Moreno.
Abreu e Lima is a Brazilian municipality in the state of Pernambuco. It is located in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, also known as Greater Recife. Abreu e Lima covers 126.193 km2 (48.723 sq mi), and has a population of 98,201 with a population density of 780 inhabitants per square kilometer. 75% of the area of the municipality is rural, but only 8% of the population lives outside of the urban center.
Caetés is a Brazilian municipality located within the state of Pernambuco, in northeastern Brazil. The city belongs to the mesoregion of Agreste Pernambucano and microregion of Garanhuns. It is the birthplace of former president of Brazil Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. The name originates from the indigenous Caetés people who lived in Pernambuco in the 16th century.
Matias de Albuquerque, the first and only Count of Alegrete, was a Portuguese colonial administrator and soldier. He was nicknamed "Hero of Two Continents" for his performance, beginning in 1624, against the Dutch invaders of colonial Brazil and for his role, beginning in 1641, as a general in Portugal, fighting for João IV during the Portuguese Restoration War, where he won the battle of Montijo over the Spaniards (1644). For this victory he was rewarded by the King with the title of Count of Alegrete.
Pedro de Araújo Lima, Marquis of Olinda was a politician and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil. His long political career expanded through the reigns of João VI, Pedro I and Pedro II. He was also one of the founders of the Brazilian Conservative Party.
The Mascate War, also known as the War of the Peddlers, was a conflict fought between two rival mercantile groups in colonial Brazil from Oct. 1710 to Aug. 1711. On one side were landowners and sugar mill owners concentrated in Olinda. On the other were Portuguese traders in Recife, pejoratively called peddlers. It ended with a stalemated siege of Recife by planter militas. The installation of a new governor by the crown favoring the peddlers resulted in razing and confiscation of planter property in Olinda.
The history of Pernambuco begins since before discovery by the Portuguese, with Indigenous populations of the Caeté and Tabajara indigenous peoples. The name has represented different entities at different times: a captaincy, a province, an independent Republic (briefly) and a state.
Duarte Coelho Pereira was a nobleman, military leader, and colonial administrator in the Portuguese colony of Brazil. He was the first grantee of the captaincy of Pernambuco and founder of Olinda.
The Captaincy of Pernambuco or New Lusitania was a hereditary land grant and administrative subdivision of northern Portuguese Brazil during the colonial period from the early sixteenth century until Brazilian independence. At the time of the Independence of Brazil, it became a province of United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Captaincies were originally horizontal tracts of land 50 leagues wide extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the Torsedillas meridian.
The Capture of Recife also known as James Lancaster's 1595 Expedition or Lancaster's Pernambucan expedition was an English military expedition during the Anglo–Spanish War in which the primary objective was the capture of the town and port of Recife in Pernambuco on the Portuguese colony of Brazil in April 1595. An English expedition of ships led by James Lancaster sailed via the Atlantic capturing numerous prizes before he captured Recife. He held the place for nearly a month and then proceeded to defeat a number of Portuguese counterattacks before leaving. The booty captured was substantial, Lancaster chartered Dutch and French ships that were also present there thus making the expedition a military and financial success.
The Church of Saints Cosme and Damião, officially called the Igreja Matriz de São Cosme e São Damião, is a Catholic church located in the city of Igarassu, Pernambuco. The church dates to 1535, early in the settlement of Pernambuco, and survived the Dutch invasion of the 17th century. It is the oldest functioning church in Brazil, according to the Brazilian National Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage. The church is part of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Olinda and Recife and sits adjacent to the Church and Convent of Saint Antony, now a museum.
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