[[Fellow of the Royal Society]]{{Cite journal  author = Anon doi = 10.1098/rspa.1926.0036  title = Obituary Notices of Fellows Deceased:Rudolph Messel,Frederick Thomas Trouton,John Venn,John Young Buchanan,Oliver Heaviside,Andrew Gray journal = Proceedings of the Royal Society A:Mathematical,Physical and Engineering Sciences  volume = 110  issue = 756  pages = i–v  year = 1926 bibcode = 1926RSPSA.110D...1.  doiaccess = free}}"},"religion":{"wt":""}},"i":0}}]}" id="mwCw">.mwparseroutput .infoboxsubbox{padding:0;border:none;margin:3px;width:auto;minwidth:100%;fontsize:100%;clear:none;float:none;backgroundcolor:transparent}.mwparseroutput .infobox3colschild{margin:auto}.mwparseroutput .infobox .navbar{fontsize:100%}body.skinminerva .mwparseroutput .infoboxheader,body.skinminerva .mwparseroutput .infoboxsubheader,body.skinminerva .mwparseroutput .infoboxabove,body.skinminerva .mwparseroutput .infoboxtitle,body.skinminerva .mwparseroutput .infoboximage,body.skinminerva .mwparseroutput .infoboxfulldata,body.skinminerva .mwparseroutput .infoboxbelow{textalign:center}html.skinthemeclientprefnight .mwparseroutput .infoboxfulldata div{background:#1f1f23!important;color:#f8f9fa}@media(preferscolorscheme:dark){html.skinthemeclientprefos .mwparseroutput .infoboxfulldata div{background:#1f1f23!important;color:#f8f9fa}}
Oliver Heaviside  

Born  Camden Town, Middlesex, England  18 May 1850
Died  3 February 1925 74) Mount Stuart Nursing Home Torquay, Devon  (aged
Resting place  Paignton cemetery, Devon 
Nationality  British 
Known for 

Awards  Faraday Medal (1922) Fellow of the Royal Society ^{ [1] } 
Scientific career  
Fields  Electrical engineering, mathematics and physics 
Institutions  Great Northern Telegraph Company 
Oliver Heaviside FRS ^{ [1] } ( /ˈhɛvisaɪd/ ; 18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English selftaught mathematician and physicist who invented a new technique for solving differential equations (equivalent to the Laplace transform), independently developed vector calculus, and rewrote Maxwell's equations in the form commonly used today. He significantly shaped the way Maxwell's equations are understood and applied in the decades following Maxwell's death. His formulation of the telegrapher's equations became commercially important during his own lifetime, after their significance went unremarked for a long while, as few others were versed at the time in his novel methodology.^{ [2] } Although at odds with the scientific establishment for most of his life, Heaviside changed the face of telecommunications, mathematics, and science.^{ [2] }
Heaviside was born in Camden Town, London, at 55 Kings Street^{ [3] }^{: 13 } (now Plender Street), the youngest of three children of Thomas, a draughtsman and wood engraver, and Rachel Elizabeth (née West). He was a short and redheaded child, and suffered from scarlet fever when young, which left him with a hearing impairment. A small legacy enabled the family to move to a better part of Camden when he was thirteen and he was sent to Camden House Grammar School. He was a good student, placing fifth out of five hundred students in 1865, but his parents could not keep him at school after he was 16, so he continued studying for a year by himself and had no further formal education.^{ [4] }^{: 51 }
Heaviside's uncle by marriage was Sir Charles Wheatstone (1802–1875), an internationally celebrated expert in telegraphy and electromagnetism, and the original coinventor of the first commercially successful telegraph in the mid1830s. Wheatstone took a strong interest in his nephew's education^{ [5] } and in 1867 sent him north to work with his older brother Arthur Wheatstone, who was managing one of Charles' telegraph companies in NewcastleuponTyne.^{ [4] }^{: 53 }
Two years later he took a job as a telegraph operator with the Danish Great Northern Telegraph Company laying a cable from Newcastle to Denmark using British contractors. He soon became an electrician. Heaviside continued to study while working, and by the age of 22 he published an article in the prestigious Philosophical Magazine on 'The Best Arrangement of Wheatstone's Bridge for measuring a Given Resistance with a Given Galvanometer and Battery'^{ [6] } which received positive comments from physicists who had unsuccessfully tried to solve this algebraic problem, including Sir William Thomson, to whom he gave a copy of the paper, and James Clerk Maxwell. When he published an article on the duplex method of using a telegraph cable,^{ [7] } he poked fun at R. S. Culley, the engineer in chief of the Post Office telegraph system, who had been dismissing duplex as impractical. Later in 1873 his application to join the Society of Telegraph Engineers was turned down with the comment that "they didn't want telegraph clerks". This riled Heaviside, who asked Thomson to sponsor him, and along with support of the society's president he was admitted "despite the P.O. snobs".^{ [4] }^{: 60 }
In 1873 Heaviside had encountered Maxwell's newly published, and later famous, twovolume Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism . In his old age Heaviside recalled:
I remember my first look at the great treatise of Maxwell's when I was a young man... I saw that it was great, greater and greatest, with prodigious possibilities in its power... I was determined to master the book and set to work. I was very ignorant. I had no knowledge of mathematical analysis (having learned only school algebra and trigonometry which I had largely forgotten) and thus my work was laid out for me. It took me several years before I could understand as much as I possibly could. Then I set Maxwell aside and followed my own course. And I progressed much more quickly... It will be understood that I preach the gospel according to my interpretation of Maxwell.^{ [8] }
Undertaking research from home, he helped develop transmission line theory (also known as the " telegrapher's equations "). Heaviside showed mathematically that uniformly distributed inductance in a telegraph line would diminish both attenuation and distortion, and that, if the inductance were great enough and the insulation resistance not too high, the circuit would be distortionless in that currents of all frequencies would have equal speeds of propagation.^{ [9] } Heaviside's equations helped further the implementation of the telegraph.
From 1882 to 1902, except for three years, he contributed regular articles to the trade paper The Electrician , which wished to improve its standing, for which he was paid £40 per year. This was hardly enough to live on, but his demands were very small and he was doing what he most wanted to. Between 1883 and 1887 these averaged 2–3 articles per month and these articles later formed the bulk of his Electromagnetic Theory and Electrical Papers.^{ [4] }^{: 71 }
In 1880, Heaviside researched the skin effect in telegraph transmission lines. That same year he patented, in England, the coaxial cable. In 1884 he recast Maxwell's mathematical analysis from its original cumbersome form (they had already been recast as quaternions) to its modern vector terminology, thereby reducing twelve of the original twenty equations in twenty unknowns down to the four differential equations in two unknowns we now know as Maxwell's equations. The four reformulated Maxwell's equations describe the nature of electric charges (both static and moving), magnetic fields, and the relationship between the two, namely electromagnetic fields.
Between 1880 and 1887, Heaviside developed the operational calculus using for the differential operator, (which Boole had previously denoted by ^{ [10] }), giving a method of solving differential equations by direct solution as algebraic equations. This later caused a great deal of controversy, owing to its lack of rigour. He famously said, "Mathematics is an experimental science, and definitions do not come first, but later on. They make themselves, when the nature of the subject has developed itself."^{ [11] } On another occasion he asked, "Shall I refuse my dinner because I do not fully understand the process of digestion?"^{ [12] }
In 1887, Heaviside worked with his brother Arthur on a paper entitled "The Bridge System of Telephony". However the paper was blocked by Arthur's superior, William Henry Preece of the Post Office, because part of the proposal was that loading coils (inductors) should be added to telephone and telegraph lines to increase their selfinduction and correct the distortion which they suffered. Preece had recently declared selfinductance to be the great enemy of clear transmission. Heaviside was also convinced that Preece was behind the sacking of the editor of The Electrician which brought his longrunning series of articles to a halt (until 1891).^{ [13] } There was a long history of animosity between Preece and Heaviside. Heaviside considered Preece to be mathematically incompetent, an assessment supported by the biographer Paul J. Nahin: "Preece was a powerful government official, enormously ambitious, and in some remarkable ways, an utter blockhead." Preece's motivations in suppressing Heaviside's work were more to do with protecting Preece's own reputation and avoiding having to admit error than any perceived faults in Heaviside's work.^{ [3] }^{: xi–xvii, 162–183 }
The importance of Heaviside's work remained undiscovered for some time after publication in The Electrician. In 1897, AT&T employed one of its own scientists, George A. Campbell, and an external investigator Michael I. Pupin to find some respect in which Heaviside's work was incomplete or incorrect. Campbell and Pupin extended Heaviside's work, and AT&T filed for patents covering not only their research, but also the technical method of constructing the coils previously invented by Heaviside. AT&T later offered Heaviside money in exchange for his rights; it is possible that the Bell engineers' respect for Heaviside influenced this offer. However, Heaviside refused the offer, declining to accept any money unless the company were to give him full recognition. Heaviside was chronically poor, making his refusal of the offer even more striking. In 1959, Norbert Wiener published his fiction The Tempter and accused AT&T (named Williams Controls Company) and Michael I. Pupin (named Diego Dominguez) of having usurped Heaviside's inventions.^{ [14] }^{ [15] }^{ [16] }
But this setback had the effect of turning Heaviside's attention towards electromagnetic radiation,^{ [17] } and in two papers of 1888 and 1889, he calculated the deformations of electric and magnetic fields surrounding a moving charge, as well as the effects of it entering a denser medium. This included a prediction of what is now known as Cherenkov radiation, and inspired his friend George FitzGerald to suggest what now is known as the Lorentz–FitzGerald contraction.
In 1889, Heaviside first published a correct derivation of the magnetic force on a moving charged particle,^{ [18] } which is the magnetic component of what is now called the Lorentz force.
In the late 1880s and early 1890s, Heaviside worked on the concept of electromagnetic mass. Heaviside treated this as material mass, capable of producing the same effects. Wilhelm Wien later verified Heaviside's expression (for low velocities).
In 1891 the British Royal Society recognized Heaviside's contributions to the mathematical description of electromagnetic phenomena by naming him a Fellow of the Royal Society, and the following year devoting more than fifty pages of the Philosophical Transactions of the Society to his vector methods and electromagnetic theory. In 1905 Heaviside was given an honorary doctorate by the University of Göttingen.
In 1896, FitzGerald and John Perry obtained a civil list pension of £120 per year for Heaviside, who was now living in Devon, and persuaded him to accept it, after he had rejected other charitable offers from the Royal Society.^{ [17] }
In 1902, Heaviside proposed the existence of what is now known as the Kennelly–Heaviside layer of the ionosphere. Heaviside's proposal included means by which radio signals are transmitted around the Earth's curvature. The existence of the ionosphere was confirmed in 1923. The predictions by Heaviside, combined with Planck's radiation theory, probably discouraged further attempts to detect radio waves from the Sun and other astronomical objects. For whatever reason, there seem to have been no attempts for 30 years, until Jansky's development of radio astronomy in 1932.
Heaviside was an opponent of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity.^{ [19] } Mathematician Howard Eves has commented that Heaviside "was the only firstrate physicist at the time to impugn Einstein, and his invectives against relativity theory often bordered on the absurd".^{ [19] }
In later years his behavior became quite eccentric. According to associate B.A. Behrend, he became a recluse who was so averse to meeting people that he delivered the manuscripts of his Electrician papers to a grocery store, where the editors picked them up.^{ [20] } Though he had been an active cyclist in his youth, his health seriously declined in his sixth decade. During this time Heaviside would sign letters with the initials "W.O.R.M." after his name. Heaviside also reportedly started painting his fingernails pink and had granite blocks moved into his house for furniture.^{ [3] }^{: xx } In 1922, he became the first recipient of the Faraday Medal, which was established that year.
On Heaviside's religious views, he was a Unitarian, but not religious. He was even said to have made fun of people who put their faith in a supreme being.^{ [21] }
Heaviside died on 3 February 1925, at Torquay in Devon after falling from a ladder,^{ [22] } and is buried near the eastern corner of Paignton cemetery. He is buried with his father, Thomas Heaviside (1813–1896), and his mother, Rachel Elizabeth Heaviside. The gravestone was cleaned thanks to an anonymous donor sometime in 2005.^{ [23] } He was always held in high regard by most electrical engineers, particularly after his correction to Kelvin's transmission line analysis was vindicated, but most of his wider recognition was gained posthumously.
In July 2014, academics at Newcastle University, UK and the Newcastle Electromagnetics Interest Group founded the Heaviside Memorial Project^{ [24] } in a bid to fully restore the monument through public subscription.^{ [25] }^{ [26] } The restored memorial was ceremonially unveiled on 30 August 2014 by Alan Heather, a distant relative of Heaviside. The unveiling was attended by the Mayor of Torbay, the Member of Parliament (MP) for Torbay, an excurator of the Science Museum (representing the Institution of Engineering and Technology), the Chairman of the Torbay Civic Society, and delegates from Newcastle University.^{ [27] }
A collection of Heaviside's papers is held at the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) Archive Centre.^{ [28] } The collection consists of notebooks containing mathematical equations and calculations, annotated pamphlets mainly relating to telegraphy, manuscript notes, drafts of papers, correspondence, drafts of articles for ‘Electromagnetic Theory’. An audio tribute from 1950 to Oliver Heaviside by Oliver E Buckley, President of Bell Telephone Labs, has been digitised and accessible on the IET Archives biography of Oliver Heaviside.^{ [29] }
In 1908 Oliver Heaviside was made an Honorary Member of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). His entry reads as: “1908 Oliver Heaviside FRS” in the IEE Roll of Honorary Members and Faraday Medallists 18711921 ^{ [30] }^{ [31] } In 1922, he became the first recipient of the Faraday Medal, which was established that year. Later on, in 1950 the Institution of Electrical Engineers Council established the Heaviside Premium Award “The Committee have considered the establishment of some form of permanent memorial to Oliver Heaviside and as a result recommend that a Heaviside Premium to the value of £10 be awarded each year for the best mathematical paper accepted.” ^{ [32] }
Articles about 
Electromagnetism 

Heaviside did much to develop and advocate vector methods and vector calculus.^{ [33] } Maxwell's formulation of electromagnetism consisted of 20 equations in 20 variables. Heaviside employed the curl and divergence operators of the vector calculus to reformulate 12 of these 20 equations into four equations in four variables (), the form by which they have been known ever since (see Maxwell's equations). Less well known is that Heaviside's equations and Maxwell's are not exactly the same, and in fact it is easier to modify the former to make them compatible with quantum physics.^{ [34] } The possibility of gravitational waves was also discussed by Heaviside using the analogy between the inversesquare law in gravitation and electricity.^{ [35] } With quaternion multiplication, the square of a vector is a negative quantity, much to Heaviside's displeasure. As he advocated abolishing this negativity, he has been credited by C. J. Joly ^{ [36] } with developing hyperbolic quaternions, though in fact that mathematical structure was largely the work of Alexander Macfarlane.
He invented the Heaviside step function, using it to calculate the current when an electric circuit is switched on. He was the first to use the unit impulse function now usually known as the Dirac delta function.^{ [37] } He invented his operational calculus method for solving linear differential equations. This resembles the currently used Laplace transform method based on the "Bromwich integral" named after Bromwich who devised a rigorous mathematical justification for Heaviside's operator method using contour integration.^{ [38] } Heaviside was familiar with the Laplace transform method but considered his own method more direct.^{ [39] }^{ [40] }
Heaviside developed the transmission line theory (also known as the "telegrapher's equations"), which had the effect of increasing the transmission rate over transatlantic cables by a factor of ten. It originally took ten minutes to transmit each character, and this immediately improved to one character per minute. Closely related to this was his discovery that telephone transmission could be greatly improved by placing electrical inductance in series with the cable.^{ [41] } Heaviside also independently discovered the Poynting vector.^{ [3] }^{: 116–118 }
Heaviside advanced the idea that the Earth's uppermost atmosphere contained an ionized layer known as the ionosphere; in this regard, he predicted the existence of what later was dubbed the Kennelly–Heaviside layer. In 1947 Edward Victor Appleton received the Nobel Prize in Physics for proving that this layer really existed.
Heaviside coined the following terms of art in electromagnetic theory:
Heaviside is sometimes incorrectly credited with coining susceptance (the imaginary part of admittance) and reactance (the imaginary part of impedance). The former was coined by Charles Proteus Steinmetz (1894).^{ [43] } The latter was coined by M. Hospitalier (1893).^{ [44] }
Maxwell's equations, or Maxwell–Heaviside equations, are a set of coupled partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, electric and magnetic circuits. The equations provide a mathematical model for electric, optical, and radio technologies, such as power generation, electric motors, wireless communication, lenses, radar, etc. They describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated by charges, currents, and changes of the fields. The equations are named after the physicist and mathematician James Clerk Maxwell, who, in 1861 and 1862, published an early form of the equations that included the Lorentz force law. Maxwell first used the equations to propose that light is an electromagnetic phenomenon. The modern form of the equations in their most common formulation is credited to Oliver Heaviside.
Josiah Willard Gibbs was an American scientist who made significant theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics. His work on the applications of thermodynamics was instrumental in transforming physical chemistry into a rigorous deductive science. Together with James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann, he created statistical mechanics, explaining the laws of thermodynamics as consequences of the statistical properties of ensembles of the possible states of a physical system composed of many particles. Gibbs also worked on the application of Maxwell's equations to problems in physical optics. As a mathematician, he created modern vector calculus and described the Gibbs phenomenon in the theory of Fourier analysis.
A loading coil or load coil is an inductor that is inserted into an electronic circuit to increase its inductance. The term originated in the 19th century for inductors used to prevent signal distortion in longdistance telegraph transmission cables. The term is also used for inductors in radio antennas, or between the antenna and its feedline, to make an electrically short antenna resonant at its operating frequency.
Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics. The Journal of Mathematical Physics defines the field as "the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories". An alternative definition would also include those mathematics that are inspired by physics, known as physical mathematics.
John Hopkinson, FRS, was a British physicist, electrical engineer, Fellow of the Royal Society and President of the IEE twice in 1890 and 1896. He invented the threewire (threephase) system for the distribution of electrical power, for which he was granted a patent in 1882. He also worked in many areas of electromagnetism and electrostatics, and in 1890 was appointed professor of electrical engineering at King's College London, where he was also director of the Siemens Laboratory.
A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism is a twovolume treatise on electromagnetism written by James Clerk Maxwell in 1873. Maxwell was revising the Treatise for a second edition when he died in 1879. The revision was completed by William Davidson Niven for publication in 1881. A third edition was prepared by J. J. Thomson for publication in 1892.
"A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" is a paper by James Clerk Maxwell on electromagnetism, published in 1865. In the paper, Maxwell derives an electromagnetic wave equation with a velocity for light in close agreement with measurements made by experiment, and deduces that light is an electromagnetic wave.
Sir William Henry Preece was a Welsh electrical engineer and inventor. Preece relied on experiments and physical reasoning in his life's work. Upon his retirement from the Post Office in 1899, Preece was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) in the 1899 Birthday Honours. That same year, he was elected an International Member of the American Philosophical Society.
Electrical elastance is the reciprocal of capacitance. The SI unit of elastance is the inverse farad (F^{−1}). The concept is not widely used by electrical and electronic engineers. The value of capacitors is invariably specified in units of capacitance rather than inverse capacitance. However, it is used in theoretical work in network analysis and has some niche applications at microwave frequencies.
Energy current is a flow of energy defined by the Poynting vector, as opposed to normal current. It was originally postulated by Oliver Heaviside. It is also an informal name for Energy flux.
The invention of radio communication was preceded by many decades of establishing theoretical underpinnings, discovery and experimental investigation of radio waves, and engineering and technical developments related to their transmission and detection. These developments allowed Guglielmo Marconi to turn radio waves into a wireless communication system.
Heaviside–Lorentz units constitute a system of units and quantities that extends the CGS with a particular set of equations that defines electromagnetic quantities, named for Oliver Heaviside and Hendrik Antoon Lorentz. They share with the CGSGaussian system that the electric constant ε_{0} and magnetic constant µ_{0} do not appear in the defining equations for electromagnetism, having been incorporated implicitly into the electromagnetic quantities. Heaviside–Lorentz units may be thought of as normalizing ε_{0} = 1 and µ_{0} = 1, while at the same time revising Maxwell's equations to use the speed of light c instead.
Operational calculus, also known as operational analysis, is a technique by which problems in analysis, in particular differential equations, are transformed into algebraic problems, usually the problem of solving a polynomial equation.
The Electrician, published in London from 1861–1863 and 1878–1952, was one of the earliest and foremost electrical engineering periodicals and scientific journals. It was published in two series: The original Electrician was published for three years from 1861–1863. After a fifteen year gap, a new series of the Electrician was in print for 72 years from 1878–1952. The Electrician is currently remembered as the publisher of Oliver Heaviside's works, in particular the first publication of the telegrapher's equations, still in wide use for radio engineering.
A treatise is a formal and systematic written discourse on some subject concerned with investigating or exposing the principles of the subject and its conclusions. A monograph is a treatise on a specialized topic.
George Ashley Campbell was an American engineer. He was a pioneer in developing and applying quantitative mathematical methods to the problems of longdistance telegraphy and telephony. His most important contributions were to the theory and implementation of the use of loading coils and the first wave filters designed to what was to become known as the image method. Both these areas of work resulted in important economic advantages for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).
In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a scalar, vector, or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time. For example, on a weather map, the surface temperature is described by assigning a number to each point on the map; the temperature can be considered at a certain point in time or over some interval of time, to study the dynamics of temperature change. A surface wind map, assigning an arrow to each point on a map that describes the wind speed and direction at that point, is an example of a vector field, i.e. a 1dimensional (rank1) tensor field. Field theories, mathematical descriptions of how field values change in space and time, are ubiquitous in physics. For instance, the electric field is another rank1 tensor field, while electrodynamics can be formulated in terms of two interacting vector fields at each point in spacetime, or as a singlerank 2tensor field.
James Clerk Maxwell was a Scottish physicist with broad interests who was responsible for the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation, which was the first theory to describe electricity, magnetism and light as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics" where the first one had been realised by Isaac Newton.
"On Physical Lines of Force" is a fourpart paper written by James Clerk Maxwell, published in 1861. In it, Maxwell derived the equations of electromagnetism in conjunction with a "sea" of "molecular vortices" which he used to model Faraday's lines of force. Maxwell had studied and commented on the field of electricity and magnetism as early as 1855/56 when "On Faraday's Lines of Force" was read to the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Maxwell made an analogy between the density of this medium and the magnetic permeability, as well as an analogy between the transverse elasticity and the dielectric constant, and using the results of a prior experiment by Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch performed in 1856, he established a connection between the speed of light and the speed of propagation of waves in this medium.
In the beginning of the 19th century, many experimental and theoretical works had been accomplished in the understanding of electromagnetics. In the 1780s, CharlesAugustin de Coulomb established his law of electrostatics. In 1825, AndréMarie Ampère published his Ampère's force law. Michael Faraday discovered the electromagnetic induction through his experiments and conceptually, he emphasized the lines of forces in this electromagnetic induction. In 1834, Emil Lenz solved the problem of the direction of the induction, and Franz Ernst Neumann wrote down the equation to calculate the induced force by change of magnetic flux. However, these experimental results and rules were not well organized and sometimes confusing to scientists. A comprehensive summary of the electrodynamic principles was in urgent need at that time.
Religion: A Unitarian, but not religious. Poked fun at those who put their faith in a Supreme Being.