Olof Palme

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Olof Palme
(Olof Palme) Felipe Gonzalez ofrece una rueda de prensa junto al primer ministro de Suecia. Pool Moncloa. 28 de septiembre de 1984 (cropped).jpeg
Palme in 1984
Prime Minister of Sweden
In office
14 October 1969 8 October 1976
Monarch Gustaf VI Adolf
Carl XVI Gustaf
Preceded by Tage Erlander
Succeeded by Thorbjörn Fälldin
In office
8 October 1982 28 February 1986
Monarch Carl XVI Gustaf
Deputy Ingvar Carlsson
Preceded by Thorbjörn Fälldin
Succeeded by Ingvar Carlsson
Leader of the
Swedish Social Democratic Party
In office
14 October 1969 28 February 1986
Preceded by Tage Erlander
Succeeded by Ingvar Carlsson
President of the Nordic Council
In office
1979–1979
Preceded by Trygve Bratteli
Succeeded by Matthías Árni Mathiesen
Personal details
Born
Sven Olof Joachim Palme

(1927-01-30)30 January 1927
Stockholm, Sweden
Died28 February 1986(1986-02-28) (aged 59)
Sveavägen, Stockholm, Sweden
Cause of death Assassination
Political party Social Democratic Party
Spouse(s)
Jelena Rennerova
(m. 1948;div. 1952)

Lisbet Palme (m. 1956)
Children Joakim
Mårten
Mattias
Alma mater University of Stockholm,
Kenyon College
Signature Olof Palme Signature.svg
Website Olof Palme International Center
Military service
AllegianceSweden
Branch/service Swedish Army
Years of service1945–1947
Reservist : 1947–1977
Rank SWE-Kapten.svg Kapten
Unit Svea Artillery Regiment

Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( /ˈpɑːlmə/ ; Swedish:  [²uːlɔf ²palːmɛ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); 30 January 1927 – 28 February 1986) was a Swedish politician and statesman. A longtime protégé of Prime Minister Tage Erlander, Palme led the Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1969 until his assassination in 1986, and was a two-term Prime Minister of Sweden, heading a Privy Council Government from 1969 to 1976 and a cabinet government from 1982 until his death. Electoral defeats in 1976 and 1979 marked the end of Social Democratic hegemony in Swedish politics, which had seen 40 years of unbroken rule by the party. While leader of the opposition, he parted[ clarification needed ] domestic and international interests and served as special mediator of the United Nations in the Iran–Iraq War, and was President of the Nordic Council in 1979. He returned as Prime Minister after electoral victories in 1982 and 1985.

Tage Erlander Swedish 20th century prime minister

Tage Fritjof Erlander was a Swedish politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1946 to 1969. He was the leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and led the government for an uninterrupted tenure of 23 years, one of the longest in any democracy. This led to Erlander being known as "Sweden's longest Prime Minister" referring to both his physical stature – 192 cm, or 6 feet and 3.5 inches – and tenure.

Swedish Social Democratic Party political party in Sweden

The Swedish Social Democratic Party, contesting elections as the Arbetarepartiet–Socialdemokraterna and usually referred to just as the Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterna), is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden. The current party leader since 2012 is Stefan Löfven, who has also been Prime Minister of Sweden since 2014.

Assassination of Olof Palme February 1986 murder of Swedish prime minister Olof Palme

On Friday, 28 February 1986, at 23:21 CET, Olof Palme, Prime Minister of Sweden, was fatally wounded by a single gunshot while walking home from a cinema with his wife Lisbet Palme on the central Stockholm street Sveavägen. Lisbet Palme was slightly wounded by a second shot. The couple did not have bodyguards at the time.

Contents

Palme was a pivotal and polarizing figure domestically as well as in international politics from the 1960s. He was steadfast in his non-alignment policy towards the superpowers, accompanied by support for numerous third world liberation movements following decolonization including, most controversially, economic and vocal support for a number of Third World governments. He was the first Western head of government to visit Cuba after its revolution, giving a speech in Santiago praising contemporary Cuban and Cambodian revolutionaries.

Non-Aligned Movement group of states which are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states worldwide.

Decolonization or Decolonisation is the undoing of colonialism, the latter being the process whereby a nation establishes and maintains its domination on overseas territories. The concept particularly applies to the dismantlement, during the second half of the 20th century, of the colonial empires established prior to World War I throughout the world. Scholars focus especially on the movements in the colonies demanding independence, such as Creole nationalism.

Third World A term coined during the Cold War and for a while used to denote developing countries in general

During the Cold War, the term Third World referred to the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, the nations not aligned with either the First World or the Second World. This usage has become relatively rare due to the ending of the Cold War.

Frequently a critic of United States and Soviet foreign policy, he resorted to fierce and often polarizing criticism in pinpointing his resistance towards imperialist ambitions and authoritarian regimes, including those of Francisco Franco of Spain, Leonid Brezhnev of the Soviet Union, António de Oliveira Salazar of Portugal and Gustáv Husák of Czechoslovakia, as well as B. J. Vorster and P. W. Botha of South Africa. His 1972 condemnation of the Hanoi bombings, notably comparing the tactic to the Treblinka extermination camp, resulted in a temporary freeze in Sweden–United States relations.

Foreign relations of the Soviet Union

When Lenin and the Bolsheviks took over Russia in 1918, they faced enormous odds against the German Empire, and then again against multiple enemies in a bitter civil war.. At first, it was treated as an unrecognized Pariah state because of its repudiating the tsarist debts and threats to destroy capitalism at home and around the world. By 1922, Moscow had repudiated the goal of world revolution, and sought diplomatic recognition and friendly trade relations with the world, starting with Britain and Germany. Trade and technical help from Germany and the United States arrived in the late 1920s. Under dictator Joseph Stalin, the country was transformed in the 1930s into an industrial and military power. A totally unexpected treaty with Germany in 1939 allowed the Nazis to launch World War II with attacks first on Poland and in 1940 Western Europe without worrying about a two-front war. Germany in 1941 turned east in a massive invasion that reached the outskirts of Leningrad and Moscow. However, the Soviet Union proved strong enough to defeat Nazi Germany, with help from its key allies. In 1945 the USSR became one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council—along with the United States, Britain, France, and China, giving it the right to veto any of the Security Council's resolutions. By 1947, American and British anger at Soviet control over Eastern Europe led to a Cold War, with Western Europe organized economically with large sums of Marshall Plan money from Washington. Opposition to the danger of Soviet expansion form the basis to the NATO military alliance in 1949. There was no hot war, but the Cold War was fought diplomatically and politically across the world by the Soviet and NATO blocks.

Imperialism Policy or ideology of extending a nations rule over foreign nations

Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending a nation's rule over foreign nations, often by military force or by gaining political and economic control of other areas. Imperialism was both normal and common worldwide throughout recorded history, the earliest examples dating from the mid-third millennium BC, diminishing only in the late 20th century. In recent times, it has been considered morally reprehensible and prohibited by international law. Therefore, the term is used in international propaganda to denounce an opponent's foreign policy.

Francisco Franco Spanish general and dictator

Francisco Franco Bahamonde was a Spanish general and politician who ruled over Spain as Head of State and dictator under the title Caudillo from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975. This period in Spanish history is commonly known as Francoist Spain.

Palme's murder on a Stockholm street on 28 February 1986 was the first assassination of a national leader in Sweden since Gustav III, and had a great impact across Scandinavia. [1] Local convict and addict Christer Pettersson was originally convicted of the murder in district court but was acquitted on appeal to the Svea Court of Appeal.

Scandinavia Region in Northern Europe

Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The majority national languages of these three, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, and are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. In English usage, Scandinavia also sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, which is always known locally as the Nordic countries.

Christer Pettersson Swedish criminal

Carl Gustaf Christer Pettersson was a Swedish criminal who was a suspect in the 1986 assassination of Olof Palme, the Prime Minister of Sweden. In 1988 he was convicted of the murder in district court but acquitted on appeal the following year.

District courts of Sweden

The district courts of Sweden are the court of first instance for the general courts in Sweden. The next instance are the courts of appeal. The district court handle criminal cases, some civil law disputes and a number of non-contentious matters. There are 48 district courts across Sweden, and the catchment area is based on the geographic boundaries of several municipalities. The number of employees vary, from ten to several hundreds.

Early life

Palme was born into an upper class, conservative Lutheran family in the Östermalm district of Stockholm, Sweden. The Palme family is of Dutch ancestry and is related to several other prominent Swedish families such as the von Sydows and the Wallenbergs. His father Gunnar Palme was a businessman, son of Sven Theodore Palme and Baroness Hanna Maria von Born-Sarvilahti. Through her, Olof Palme claimed ancestry from King Frederick I of Denmark and Norway. His mother, Elisabeth von Knieriem, was descended from Baltic German tradesmen; she had arrived in Sweden from Russia as a refugee in 1915. Elisabeth's great-great-great grandfather Johann Melchior von Knieriem (1758–1817) had been ennobled by the Emperor Alexander I of Russia in 1814. Her great-grandfather Alexander von Knieriem (1837–1904) was an attorney general of the Senate of Russian Empire, senator and member of the State Council of Imperial Russia. [2] The von Knieriem do not count as members of the Baltische Ridderschaft. Palme's father died when he was six years old. Despite his background, his political orientation came to be influenced by Social Democratic attitudes. His travels in the Third World, as well as the United States, where he saw deep economic inequality and racial segregation, helped to develop these views.

Östermalm urban district in central Stockholm

Östermalm is a 2.56 km² large district in central Stockholm, Sweden. With 71,802 inhabitants it is one of the most populous districts in Stockholm. It's an extremely expensive area, having the highest housing prices in Sweden.

Stockholm Capital city in Södermanland and Uppland, Sweden

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries; 965,232 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.6 million in the urban area, and 2.4 million in the metropolitan area. The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea. Outside the city to the east, and along the coast, is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is also the county seat of Stockholm County.

The Palme family is a prominent Swedish family. A family with many members who have evolved into successful persons, the family includes one Swedish prime minister. The most notable member of the Palme family is Olof Palme who served two terms as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1969 to 1976 and from 1982 until his assassination in 1986.

A sickly child, Olof Palme received his education from private tutors. Even as a child he gained knowledge of two foreign languages – German and English. He studied at the Sigtuna School of Liberal Arts, one of Sweden's few residential high schools, and passed the university entrance examination with high marks at the age of 17. He was called up into the Army in January 1945 and did his compulsory military service at A 1 between 1945 and 1947, became in 1956 a reserve officer with the rank of Captain in the Artillery. After he was discharged from military service in March 1947, he enrolled at the University of Stockholm. [3]

Conscription Compulsory enlistment into national or military service

Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service. Conscription dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names. The modern system of near-universal national conscription for young men dates to the French Revolution in the 1790s, where it became the basis of a very large and powerful military. Most European nations later copied the system in peacetime, so that men at a certain age would serve 1–8 years on active duty and then transfer to the reserve force.

Svea Artillery Regiment building in Stockholm Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden

The Svea Artillery Regiment, designation A 1, was a Swedish Army artillery regiment that traced its origins back to the 17th century. It was disbanded in 1997. The regiment's soldiers were originally recruited from Svealand, and it was also garrisoned there.

Kapten is a professional and conscripted military rank in Sweden obtained by employed military personnel after one year as löjtnannt and completing a 40-week course ; Finland and Estonia, immediately above Löjtnant in Sweden and Yliluutnantti in Finland and just below Major in the Army ranks. In the Navy, the rank is immediately above Löjtnant and just below Örlogskapten.

On a scholarship, he studied at Kenyon College, a small liberal arts school in central Ohio from 1947 to 1948, graduating with a BA [4] Inspired by radical debate in the student community, he wrote a critical essay on Friedrich Hayek's The Road to Serfdom . Palme wrote his senior honour thesis on the United Auto Workers union, led at the time by Walter Reuther. After graduation he traveled throughout the country and eventually ended up in Detroit, where his hero Reuther agreed to an interview which lasted several hours. In later years, Palme regularly remarked during his many subsequent American visits, that the United States had made him a socialist, a remark that often has caused confusion. Within the context of his American experience, it was not that Palme was repelled by what he found in America, but rather that he was inspired by it. [5]

After hitchhiking through the USA and Mexico, he returned to Sweden to study law at Stockholm University. In 1949 he became a member of the Swedish Social Democratic Party. During his time at university, Palme became involved in student politics, working with the Swedish National Union of Students. In 1951, he became a member of the social democratic student association in Stockholm, although it is asserted he did not attend their political meetings at the time. The following year he was elected President of the Swedish National Union of Students. As a student politician he concentrated on international affairs and travelled across Europe. [3]

Palme attributed his becoming a socialist to three major influences:

Palme was an atheist. [6]

Political career

Palme in 1968 Olof Palme 1968.JPG
Palme in 1968
Palme at Norra Bantorget, May Day 1973 Palme 1973.jpg
Palme at Norra Bantorget, May Day 1973
Palme in Mora, 1 August 1985 PalmeOwpMora010885.JPG
Palme in Mora, 1 August 1985

In 1953, Palme was recruited by the social democratic prime minister Tage Erlander to work in his secretariat. From 1955 he was a board member of the Swedish Social Democratic Youth League and lectured at the Youth League College Bommersvik. He also was a member of the Worker's Educational Association.

In 1957 he was elected as a member of parliament (Swedish: riksdagsledamot) [7] represented Jönköping County in the directly-elected Second Chamber (Andra kammaren) of the Riksdag. In the early 1960s Palme became a member of the Agency for International Assistance (NIB) and was in charge of inquiries into assistance to the developing countries and educational aid. In 1963, he became a member of the Cabinet as Minister without Portfolio in the Cabinet Office, and retained his duties as a close political adviser to Prime Minister Tage Erlander. In 1965, he became Minister of Transport and Communications. One issue of special interest to him was the further development of radio and television, while ensuring their independence from commercial interests. [3] In 1967 he became Minister of Education, and the following year, he was the target of strong criticism from left-wing students protesting against the government's plans for university reform. The protests culminated with the occupation of the Student Union Building in Stockholm; Palme came there and tried to comfort the students, urging them to use democratic methods for the pursuit of their cause. [8] When party leader Tage Erlander stepped down in 1969, Palme was elected as the new leader by the Social Democratic party congress and succeeded Erlander as Prime Minister.

His protégé and political ally, Bernt Carlsson, who was appointed UN Commissioner for Namibia in July 1987, was killed in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland on 21 December 1988 en route to the UN signing ceremony of the New York Accords the following day.

Palme was said to have had a profound impact on people's emotions; he was very popular among the left, but harshly detested by most liberals and conservatives. [9] This was due in part to his international activities, especially those directed against the US foreign policy, and in part to his aggressive and outspoken debating style. [10] [11]

Policies and views

As leader of a new generation of Swedish Social Democrats, Palme was often described as a "revolutionary reformist". [12] [13] Domestically, his democratic socialist views, especially the drive to expand Labour Union influence over business ownership, engendered a great deal of hostility from the organized business community.

During the tenure of Palme, several major reforms in the Swedish constitution were carried out, such as orchestrating a switch from bicameralism to unicameralism in 1971 and in 1975 replacing the 1809 Instrument of Government (at the time the oldest political constitution in the world after that of the United States) with a new one officially establishing parliamentary democracy rather than de jure monarchic autocracy, abolishing the Cabinet meetings chaired by the King and stripping the monarchy of all formal political powers.

His reforms on labour market included establishing a law which increased job security. In the Swedish 1973 general election, the Socialist-Communist and the Liberal-Conservative blocs got 175 places each in the Riksdag. The Palme cabinet continued to govern the country but several times they had to draw lots to decide on some issues, although most important issues were decided through concessional agreement. [14] Tax rates also rose from being fairly low even by European standards to the highest levels in the Western world. [15]

Under Palme's premiership tenure, matters concerned with child care centers, social security, protection of the elderly, accident safety, and housing problems received special attention. Under Palme the public health system in Sweden became efficient, with the infant mortality rate standing at 12 per 1,000 live births. [16] An ambitious redistributive programme was carried out, with special help provided to the disabled, immigrants, the low paid, single-parent families, and the old. [17] The Swedish welfare state was significantly expanded [18] from a position already one of the most far-reaching in the world during his time in office. [19] As noted by Isabela Mares, during the first half of the Seventies "the level of benefits provided by every subsystem of the welfare state improved significantly." Various policy changes increased the basic old-age pension replacement rate from 42% of the average wage in 1969 to 57%, while a health care reform carried out in 1974 integrated all health services and increased the minimum replacement rate from 64% to 90% of earnings. In 1974, supplementary unemployment assistance was established, providing benefits to those workers ineligible for existing benefits. [19] In 1971, eligibility for invalidity pensions was extended with greater opportunities for employees over the age of 60. In 1974, universal dental insurance was introduced, and former maternity benefits were replaced by a parental allowance. In 1974, housing allowances for families with children were raised and these allowances were extended to other low-income groups. [20] Childcare centres were also expanded under Palme, and separate taxation of husband and wife introduced. [21] Access to pensions for older workers in poor health was liberalised in 1970, and a disability pension was introduced for older unemployed workers in 1972. [22]

The Palme cabinet was also active in the field of education, introducing such reforms as a system of loans and benefits for students, regional universities, and preschool for all children. [21] Under a law of 1970, in the upper secondary school system "gymnasium," “fackskola" and vocational "yrkesskola" were integrated to form one school with 3 sectors (arts and social science, technical and natural sciences, economic and commercial). In 1975, a law was passed that established free admission to universities. [20] A number of reforms were also carried out to enhance workers' rights. An employment protection Act of 1974 introduced rules regarding consultation with unions, notice periods, and grounds for dismissal, together with priority rules for dismissals and re-employment in case of redundancies. [23] That same year, work-environment improvement grants were introduced and made available to modernising firms "conditional upon the presence of union-appointed 'safety stewards' to review the introduction of new technology with regard to the health and safety of workers." [24] In 1976, an Act on co-determination at work was introduced that allowed unions to be consulted at various levels within companies before major changes were enforced that would affect employees, while management had to negotiate with labour for joint rights in all matters concerning organisation of work, hiring and firing, and key decisions affecting the workplace. [25]

Palme's last government, elected during a time when Sweden's economy was in difficult shape, sought to pursue a "third way," designed to stimulate investment, production, and employment, having ruled out classical Keynesian policies as a result of the growing burden of foreign debt, together with the big balance of payments and budget deficits. This involved "equality of sacrifice," whereby wage restraint would be accompanied by increases in welfare provision and more progressive taxation. For instance, taxes on wealth, gifts, and inheritance were increased, while tax benefits to shareholders were either reduced or eliminated. In addition, various welfare cuts carried out before Olof's return to office were rescinded. The previous system of indexing pensions and other benefits was restored, the grant-in-aid scheme for municipal child care facilities was re-established, unemployment insurance was restored in full, and the so-called "no benefit days" for those drawing sickness benefits were cancelled. Increases were also made to both food subsidies and child allowances, while the employee investment funds (which represented a radical form of profit-sharing) were introduced. [17]

In 1968, Palme was a driving force behind the release of the documentary Dom kallar oss mods ("They Call Us Misfits"). The controversial film, depicting two social outcasts, was scheduled to be released in an edited form but Palme thought the material was too socially important to be cut. [26]

An outspoken supporter of gender equality, Palme sparked interest for women's rights issues by attending a World Women's Conference in Mexico. He also made a feminist speech called "The Emancipation of Man" at a meeting of the Woman's National Democratic Club on June 8, 1970; this speech was later published in 1972. [27] [28]

As a forerunner in green politics, Palme was a firm believer in nuclear power as a necessary form of energy, at least for a transitional period to curb the influence of fossil fuel. [29] His intervention in Sweden's 1980 referendum on the future of nuclear power is often pinpointed by opponents of nuclear power as saving it. As of 2011, nuclear power remains one of the most important sources of energy in Sweden, much attributed to Palme's actions.

Shortly before his assassination, Palme had been accused of being pro-Soviet and not sufficiently safeguarding Sweden's national interest. Arrangements had therefore been made for him to go to Moscow to discuss a number of contentious bilateral issues, including then ongoing Soviet submarine incursions into Swedish waters (see US Psychological warfare and U 137).

Olof Palme marching against the Vietnam War with the North Vietnam ambassador in Stockholm, 1968 Olof Palme marching against the Vietnam War 1968.jpg
Olof Palme marching against the Vietnam War with the North Vietnam ambassador in Stockholm, 1968

On the international scene, Palme was a widely recognised political figure because of his:

All of this ensured that Palme had many opponents as well as many friends abroad. [30]

On 21 February 1968, Palme (then Minister of Education) participated in a protest in Stockholm against U.S. involvement in the war in Vietnam together with the North Vietnamese Ambassador to the Soviet Union Nguyen Tho Chan. The protest was organized by the Swedish Committee for Vietnam and Palme and Nguyen were both invited as speakers. As a result of this, the U.S. recalled its Ambassador from Sweden and Palme was fiercely criticised by the opposition for his participation in the protest. [31]

On 23 December 1972, Palme (then Prime Minister) made a speech on Swedish national radio where he compared the ongoing U.S. bombings of Hanoi to historical atrocities, namely the bombing of Guernica, the massacres of Oradour-sur-Glane, Babi Yar, Katyn, Lidice and Sharpeville, and the extermination of Jews and other groups at Treblinka. The US government called the comparison a "gross insult" and once again decided to freeze its diplomatic relations with Sweden (this time the freeze lasted for over a year). [31]

Despite such associations and contrary to stated Social Democratic Party policy, Sweden had in fact secretly maintained extensive military co-operation with NATO over a long period, and was even under the protection of a US military security guarantee (see Swedish neutrality during the Cold War).

In response to Palme's remarks in a meeting with the US ambassador to Sweden ahead of the Socialist International Meeting in Helsingør in January 1976, [32] Henry Kissinger, then United States Secretary of State, asked the US ambassador to "convey my personal appreciation to Palme for his frank presentation". [33]

Assassination

Mourners at the assassination site Palme Trauer 1986.jpg
Mourners at the assassination site

Political violence was little-known in Sweden at the time, and Olof Palme often went about without a bodyguard. Close to midnight on 28 February 1986, he was walking home from a cinema with his wife Lisbet Palme in the central Stockholm street Sveavägen when he was shot in the back at close range. A second shot grazed Lisbet's back. He was pronounced dead on arrival at Sabbatsbergs sjukhus hospital at 00:06 CET. Lisbet survived without serious injuries. [34]

Deputy Prime Minister Ingvar Carlsson immediately assumed the duties of Prime Minister, a post he retained until 1991 (and then again in 19941996). He also took over the leadership of the Social Democratic Party, which he held until 1996. [35]

Two years later, Christer Pettersson (d. 2004), a small-time criminal and drug addict, was convicted of Palme's murder, but his conviction was overturned. [36] Another suspect, Victor Gunnarsson, emigrated to the United States, where he was the victim of an unrelated murder in 1993. [37] The assassination remains unsolved. [36]

See also

Palme's grave in Stockholm's Adolf Fredrik cemetery Olof Palmes grav.jpg
Palme's grave in Stockholm's Adolf Fredrik cemetery

Notes

  1. Nordstrom, Byron (2000). Scandinavia Since 1500. University of Minnesota Press, p. 347. "The February 1986 murder of Sweden's Prime Minister Olof Palme near Sergelstorget in the middle of Stockholm's downtown shocked the nation and region. Political assassinations were virtually unheard-of in Scandinavia."
  2. "Книрим Александр Александрович". Great Russian People. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  3. 1 2 3 "Olof Palme". Uno Stamps. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  4. Bill Mayr: Remembering Olof Palme. In: Kenyon College Alumni Bulletin Vol. 34, No. 2, Winter 2012.
  5. Hendrik Hertzberg, "Death of a Patriot", in: Idem: Politics. Observations and Arguments, 1966–2004 (New York: The Penguin Press, 2004) pp. 263–266, there 264
  6. "He was an atheist and saw war as the greatest threat to mankind. The popularity of the Swedish model society probably peaked in the early seventies, but Olof Palme tirelessly continued his development toward a society as he saw it." Jens Moe, My America: The Culture of Giving, page 155.
  7. "Olof Palmes Minnesfond". Palme Fonden. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  8. Olof Palme – En levande vilja: Tal och intervjuer
  9. Einhorn, Eric and John Logue (1989). Modern Welfare States: Politics and Policies in Social Democratic Scandinavia. Praeger Publishers, pg 60. ISBN   0-275-93188-9 "Olof Palme was perhaps the most 'presidential' Scandinavian leader in recent decades, a fact that may have made him vulnerable to political violence."
  10. "Han gödslade jorden så att Palmehatet kunde växa", Dagens Nyheter , 25 February 2006
  11. Olof Palme: the controversy lives on Archived 6 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine , The Local , 27 February 2006
  12. Dagens Nyheter 23 January 2007
  13. "Detta borde vara vårt arv Archived 10 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine " Åsa Linderborg, Aftonbladet 28 February 2006
  14. Kari Sable. "Olof Palme Unsolved Case". Kari Sable website. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  15. "Swedish Prime Ministers in history". Comhem. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  16. Castro Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  17. 1 2 Socialists in the Recession: The Search for Solidarity by Giles Radice and Lisanne Radice
  18. Sprague, Martina (2005). Sweden. ISBN   9780781811149 . Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  19. 1 2 Taxation, Wage Bargaining and Unemployment by Isabela Mares
  20. 1 2 Growth to Limits: The Western European Welfare States Since World War II Volume 4 edited by Peter Flora
  21. 1 2 "Palme's political legacy 'put Sweden on the map'". The Local. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  22. Timo Weishaupt, J. (2011). From the Manpower Revolution to the Activation Paradigm. ISBN   9789089642523 . Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  23. Bonoli, Giuliano (28 March 2013). The Origins of Active Social Policy. ISBN   9780199669769 . Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  24. Google Books
  25. Agius, Christine (30 July 2006). The social construction of Swedish neutrality: Challenges to Swedish ... ISBN   9781847791993 . Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  26. Daniel Ekeroth: Swedish Sensations Films: A Clandestine History of Sex, Thrillers, and Kicker Cinema, (Bazillion Points, 2011) ISBN   978-0-9796163-6-5.
  27. https://www.dorudi.nl/olof-palme-on-the-emancipation-of-man/
  28. Palme, Olof (1972). "The Emancipation of Man". Journal of Social Issues. 28 (2): 237–246. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1972.tb00027.x.
  29. Olof Palme till Shirley Maclaine om vikten av kärnkraft on YouTube
  30. Holst, Karen. "Palme's political legacy 'put Sweden on the map'". The Local. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  31. 1 2 Andersson, Stellan. "Olof Palme och Vietnamfrågan 1965–1983" (in Swedish). OlofPalme.org. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
  32. "Discussion with Prime Minister Palme of Socialist Meeting in Denmark – January 18–19". United States Department of State. 15 January 1976. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  33. "Palme's views on socialist international meeting". WikiLeaks. 16 January 1976. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
  34. The investigation committee report (1999:88), p. 159 Archived 2 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine (PDF) ‹See Tfd› (in Swedish)
  35. "Ingvar Carlsson". Nationalencyklopedin (in Swedish). Retrieved 28 January 2010.
  36. 1 2 Philip Jenkins, "The assassination of Olof Palme: Evidence and ideology." Contemporary Crises 13#1 (1989): 15–33.
  37. Dagens Nyheter , 2 February 1994.

Further reading

In Swedish

  • Antman, Peter; Schori, Pierre (1996), Olof Palme : den gränslöse reformisten, Stockholm: Tiden, ISBN   978-91-518-2948-7
  • Arvidsson, Claes (2007), Olof Palme : med verkligheten som fiende, Stockholm: Timbro, ISBN   978-91-7566-539-9
  • Åsard, Erik (2002), Politikern Olof Palme, Stockholm: Hjalmarson & Högberg, ISBN   978-91-89080-88-1
  • Berggren, Henrik (2010), Underbara dagar framför oss – En biografi över Olof Palme, Stockholm: Norsteds, ISBN   978-91-1-301708-2
  • Björk, Gunnela (2006), Olof Palme och medierna, Umeå: Boréa, ISBN   978-91-89140-45-5
  • Ekengren, Ann-Marie (2005), Olof Palme och utrikespolitiken : Europa och Tredje världen, Umeå: Boréa, ISBN   978-91-89140-41-7
  • Elmbrant, Björn (1996), Palme (2nd ed.), Stockholm: Fischer, ISBN   978-91-7054-797-3
  • Fredriksson, Gunnar (1986), Olof Palme, Stockholm: Norstedt, ISBN   978-91-1-863472-7
  • Gummesson, Jonas (2001), Olof Palmes ungdomsår : bland nazister och spioner, Stockholm: Ekerlid, ISBN   978-91-88595-95-9
  • Haste, Hans; Olsson, Lars Erik; Strandberg, Lars; Adler, Arne (1986), Boken om Olof Palme : hans liv, hans gärning, hans död, Stockholm: Tiden, ISBN   978-91-550-3218-0
  • Hermansson, Håkan; Wenander, Lars (1987), Uppdrag: Olof Palme : hatet, jakten, kampanjerna, Stockholm: Tiden, ISBN   978-91-550-3340-8
  • Isaksson, Christer (1995), Palme privat : i skuggan av Erlander, Stockholm: Ekerlid, ISBN   978-91-88594-36-5
  • Kullenberg, Annette (1996), Palme och kvinnorna, Stockholm: Brevskolan, ISBN   978-91-574-4512-4
  • Larsson, Ulf (2003), Olof Palme och utbildningspolitiken, Stockholm: Hjalmarson & Högberg, ISBN   978-91-89660-24-3
  • Malm-Andersson, Ingrid (2001), Olof Palme : en bibliografi, Hedemora: Arbetarrörelsens arkiv och bibliotek, ISBN   978-91-7844-349-9
  • Östberg, Kjell (2008), I takt med tiden : Olof Palme 1927–1969, Stockholm: Leopard, ISBN   978-91-7343-208-5
  • Östergren, Bertil (1984), Vem är Olof Palme? : ett politiskt porträtt, Stockholm: Timbro, ISBN   978-91-7566-037-0
  • Palme, Claës (1986), Olof Palme, Helsinki: Kirjayhtymä, ISBN   978-951-26-2963-3
  • Palme, Olof (1984), Sveriges utrikespolitik : anföranden, Stockholm: Tiden, ISBN   978-91-550-2948-7
  • Palme, Olof (1986), Politik är att vilja (3rd ed.), Stockholm: Prisma, ISBN   978-91-518-2045-3
  • Palme, Olof (1986), Att vilja gå vidare (2nd ed.), Stockholm: Tiden, ISBN   978-91-550-3224-1
  • Palme, Olof; Richard, Serge; Åkerman, Nordal (1977), Med egna ord : samtal med Serge Richard och Nordal Åkerman, Uppsala: Bromberg, ISBN   978-91-85342-32-7
  • Palme, Olof; Dahlgren, Hans (1987), En levande vilja, Stockholm: Tiden, ISBN   978-91-550-3225-8
  • Palme, Olof; Hansson, Sven Ove; Dahlgren, Hans (1996), Palme själv : texter i urval, Stockholm: Tiden, ISBN   978-91-518-2947-0
  • Palme, Olof (2006), Solidaritet utan gränser : tal och texter i urval, Stockholm: Atlas, ISBN   978-9173892193
  • Peterson, Thage G. (2002), Olof Palme som jag minns honom, Stockholm: Bonnier, ISBN   978-91-0-058042-1
  • Strand, Dieter (1977), Palme mot Fälldin : rapporter från vägen till nederlaget, Stockholm: Rabén & Sjögren, ISBN   978-91-29-50309-8
  • Strand, Dieter (1980), Palme igen? : scener ur en partiledares liv, Stockholm: Norstedt, ISBN   978-91-1-801351-5
  • Strand, Dieter (1986), Med Palme : scener ur en partiledares och statsministers liv, Stockholm: Norstedt, ISBN   978-91-1-861431-6
  • Svedgård, Lars B. (1970), Palme : en presentation, Stockholm: Rabén & Sjögren
  • Zachrisson, Birgitta; Alandh, Tom; Henriksson, Björn (1996), Berättelser om Palme, Stockholm: Norstedt, ISBN   978-91-1-960002-8
Political offices
Preceded by
Gösta Skoglund
Minister for Communications
1965–1967
Succeeded by
Svante Lundkvist
Preceded by
Ragnar Edenman
Minister for Education
1967–1969
Succeeded by
Ingvar Carlsson
Preceded by
Tage Erlander
Prime Minister of Sweden
1969–1976
Succeeded by
Thorbjörn Fälldin
Preceded by
Thorbjörn Fälldin
Prime Minister of Sweden
1982–1986
Succeeded by
Ingvar Carlsson
Party political offices
Preceded by
Tage Erlander
Leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party
1969-1986
Succeeded by
Ingvar Carlsson

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