Olympiad

Last updated
Stadium at ancient Olympia. Antikes Olympia Stadion.JPG
Stadium at ancient Olympia.

An Olympiad (Greek : Ὀλυμπιάς, Olympiás) is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games of the Ancient Greeks. Although the Ancient Olympic Games were established during Archaic Greece, it was not until the Hellenistic period, beginning with Ephorus, that the Olympiad was used as a calendar epoch. Converting to the modern BC/AD dating system the first Olympiad began in the summer of 776 BC and lasted until the summer of 772 BC, when the second Olympiad would begin with the commencement of the next games. By extrapolation to the Julian calendar, the 4th year of the 699th Olympiad began in (Northern-Hemisphere) mid-summer 2020.

Contents

A modern Olympiad refers to a four-year period beginning January 1 of the year the Olympic Summer Games are normally held. The first modern Olympiad began January 1, 1896, the second January 1, 1900, and so on (the 32nd began January 1, 2020: see the Olympic Charter).

The ancient and modern Olympiads would have synchronised had there been a year zero between the Olympiad of 4 BC and the one of 4 AD. But as the Julian calendar goes directly from 1 BC to 1 AD, the ancient Olympic cycle now lags the modern cycle by one year.

Ancient Olympics

An ancient Olympiad was a period of four years grouped together, counting inclusively as the ancients did. Each ancient Olympic year overlapped onto two of our modern reckoning of BC or AD years, from midsummer to midsummer. Example: Olympiad 140, year 1 = 220/219 BC; year 2 = 219/218 BC; year 3 = 218/217 BC; year 4 = 217/216 BC. Therefore, the games would have been held in July/August of 220 BC and held the next time in July/August of 216 BC, after four olympic years had been completed.

Historians

The sophist Hippias was the first writer to publish a list of victors of the Olympic Games, and by the time of Eratosthenes, it was generally agreed that the first Olympic games had happened during the summer of 776 BC. [1] The combination of victor lists and calculations from 776 BC onwards enabled Greek historians to use the Olympiads as a way of reckoning time that did not depend on the time reckonings of one of the city-states. (See Attic calendar .) The first to do so consistently was Timaeus of Tauromenium in the third century BC. Nevertheless, since for events of the early history of the games the reckoning was used in retrospect, some of the dates given by later historian for events before the 5th century BC are very unreliable. [2] In the 2nd century AD, Phlegon of Tralles summarised the events of each Olympiad in a book called Olympiads, and an extract from this has been preserved by the Byzantine writer Photius. [3] Christian chroniclers continued to use this Greek system of dating as a way of synchronising biblical events with Greek and Roman history. In the 3rd century AD, Sextus Julius Africanus compiled a list of Olympic victors up to 217 BC, and this list has been preserved in the Chronicle of Eusebius. [4]

Examples of Ancient Olympiad dates

A relief of the Greek Olympiad. Relief greek ballplayers 500bC.jpg
A relief of the Greek Olympiad.

Start of the Olympiad

An Olympiad started with the holding of the games, which occurred on the first or second full moon after the summer solstice, in what we call July or August. The games were therefore essentially a new years festival. In 776 BC this occurred on either July 23 or August 21. (After the introduction of the Metonic cycle about 432 BC, the start of the Olympic year was determined slightly differently).

Anolympiad

Though the games were held without interruption, on more than one occasion they were held by others than the Eleians. The Eleians declared such games Anolympiads (non-Olympics), but it is assumed the winners were nevertheless recorded.

End of the era

During the 3rd century AD, records of the games are so scanty that historians are not certain whether after 261 they were still held every four years. During the early years of the Olympiad, any physical benefit[ clarification needed ] deriving from a sport[ example needed ] was banned. Some winners were recorded though, until the last Olympiad of 393AD. In 394, Roman Emperor Theodosius I outlawed the games at Olympia as pagan. Though it would have been possible to continue the reckoning by just counting four-year periods, by the middle of the 5th century AD reckoning by Olympiads had become disused.

Modern Olympics

OlympiadStart dateEnd dateHost of the Games of the Olympiad
I (1st)6 Apr 189614 May 1900 Athens Flag of Greece (1822-1978).svg Greece
II (2nd)14 May 19001 Jul 1904 Paris Flag of France.svg  France
III (3rd)1 Jul 190413 Jul 1908 St. Louis US flag 45 stars.svg United States
IV (4th)13 Jul 19086 Jul 1912 London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
V (5th)6 Jul 19121 Jul 1916 Stockholm Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
VI (6th)1 Jul 191614 Aug 1916not celebrated  (plan Berlin Flag of the German Empire.svg Germany)
VII (7th)14 Aug 19205 Jul 1924 Antwerp Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
VIII (8th)5 Jul 192428 Jul 1928 Paris Flag of France.svg  France
IX (9th)28 Jul 192830 Jul 1932 Amsterdam Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
X (10th)30 Jul 19321 Aug 1936 Los Angeles US flag 48 stars.svg United States
XI (11th)1 Aug 193620 Jul 1940 Berlin Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Germany
XII (12th)20 Jul 194017 Jun 1944not celebrated  (plan Tokyo
then Helsinki
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan,
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland)
XIII (13th)17 Jun 194429 Jul 1948not celebrated(plan London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom)
XIV (14th)29 Jul 194819 Jul 1952 London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
XV (15th)19 Jul 195222 Nov 1956 Helsinki Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
XVI (16th)22 Nov 195625 Aug 1960 Melbourne Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
XVII (17th)25 Aug 196010 Oct 1964 Rome Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
XVIII (18th)10 Oct 196412 Oct 1968 Tokyo Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
XIX (19th)12 Oct 196826 Aug 1972 City of Mexico Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
XX (20th)26 Aug 197217 Jul 1976 Munich
            (now
Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany)
XXI (21st)17 Jul 197619 Jul 1980 Montreal Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
XXII (22nd)19 Jul 198028 Jul 1984 Moscow
            (now
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia)
XXIII (23rd)28 Jul 198417 Sep 1988 Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg  United States
XXIV (24th)17 Sep 198825 Jul 1992 Seoul Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea
XXV (25th)25 Jul 199219 Jul 1996 Barcelona Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
XXVI (26th)19 Jul 199615 Sep 2000 Atlanta Flag of the United States.svg  United States
XXVII (27th)15 Sep 200013 Aug 2004 Sydney Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
XXVIII (28th)13 Aug 20048 Aug 2008 Athens Flag of Greece.svg  Greece
XXIX (29th)8 Aug 200827 Jul 2012 Beijing Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
XXX (30th)27 Jul 20125 Aug 2016 London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
XXXI (31st)5 Aug 201624 Jul 2020 Rio de Janeiro Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
XXXII (32nd)24 Jul 202026 Jul 2024 Tokyo Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
XXXIII (33rd)26 Jul 202421 Jul 2028 Paris Flag of France.svg  France
XXXIV (34th)21 Jul 2028
2032
Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg  United States

Start and end

The Summer Olympics are more correctly referred to as the Games of the Olympiad. The first poster to announce the games using this term was the one for the 1932 Summer Olympics, in Los Angeles, using the phrase: Call to the games of the Xth Olympiad

The modern Olympiad is a period of four years. The first Olympiad started on 1 January 1896, consecutive Olympiads started (or will start) on 1 January of the years evenly divisible by four. [9] This means that the count of the Olympiads continues even if Olympic Games are cancelled: For instance, the regular intervals would have meant (summer) Olympic Games should have occurred in 1940 and 1944; both were cancelled on account of WWII. Nonetheless, the count of the Olympiads continued: The 1936 Games were those of the XI Olympiad; the next summer games were those of 1948, which were the games of the XIV Olympiad. The current Olympiad is the XXXII of the modern era, which began on 1 January 2020.

Note, however, that the official numbering of the Winter Olympics does not count Olympiads—- it counts only the Games themselves. For example:

Some media people have from time to time referred to a particular (e.g., the nth) Winter Olympics as "the Games of the nth Winter Olympiad", perhaps believing it to be the correct formal name for the Winter Games by analogy with that of the Summer Games. Indeed, at least one IOC-published article has applied this nomenclature as well. [11] This analogy is sometimes extended further by media references to "Summer Olympiads". However, the IOC does not seem to make an official distinction between Olympiads for the summer and winter games, and such usage particularly for the Winter Olympics is not consistent with the numbering discussed above.

Quadrennium

Some Olympic Committees often use the term quadrennium, which it claims refers to the same four-year period. However, it indicates these quadrennia in calendar years, starting with the first year after the Summer Olympics and ending with the year the next Olympics are held. This would suggest a more precise period of four years, but, for example, the 2001–2004 Quadrennium would then not be exactly the same period as the XXVIIth Olympiad. [12]

Cultural Olympiad

A Cultural Olympiad is a concept protected by the International Olympic Committee and may be used only within the limits defined by an Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games. From one Games to the next, the scale of the Cultural Olympiad varies considerably, sometimes involving activity over the entire Olympiad and other times emphasizing specific periods within it. Baron Pierre de Coubertin established the principle of Olympic Art Competitions at a special congress in Paris in 1906, and the first official programme was presented during the 1912 Games in Stockholm. These competitions were also named the ‘Pentathlon of the Muses’, as their purpose was to bring artists to present their work and compete for ‘art’ medals across five categories: architecture, music, literature, sculpture and painting.

Nowadays, while there are no competitions as such, cultural and artistic practice is displayed via the Cultural Olympiad. The 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver presented the Cultural Olympiad Digital Edition. The 2012 Olympics included an extensive Cultural Olympiad with the London 2012 Festival in the host city, and events elsewhere including the World Shakespeare Festival produced by the RSC. [13] The 2016 games' Cultural Olympiad was scaled back due to Brazil's recession; there was no published programme, with director Carla Camurati promising "secret" and "spontaneous" events such as flash mobs. [14] Cultural events in time for Tokyo 2020 are being planned. [15]

Other uses

The English term is still often used popularly to indicate the games themselves, a usage that is uncommon in ancient Greek (as an Olympiad is most often the time period between and including sets of games). [16] It is also used to indicate international competitions other than physical sports. This includes international science olympiads, such as the International Geography Olympiad, International Mathematical Olympiad and the International Linguistics Olympiad and their associated national qualifying tests (e.g., the United States of America Mathematical Olympiad or the United Kingdom Linguistics Olympiad), and also events in mind-sports, such as the Science Olympiad, Mindsport Olympiad, Chess Olympiad, International History Olympiad and Computer Olympiad. In these cases Olympiad is used to indicate a regular event of international competition for top achieving participants; it does not necessarily indicate a four-year period.

In some languages, like Czech and Slovak, Olympiad (Czech : olympiáda) is the correct term for the games.

The Olympiad ( L'Olimpiade ) is also the name of some 60 operas set in Ancient Greece.

Notes

  1. Bickerman 1980, p. 75.
  2. Bickerman 1980, p. 88.
  3. Photius, Bibliotheca, Terlullian, p. 97.
  4. Eusebius, Chronicle, Attalus, p. 193.
  5. Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, Tufts.
  6. of Halicarnassus, Dionysius, Roman Antiquities, University of Chicago, 1.75.
  7. Siculus, Diodorus, Historical Library, University of Chicago, 11.1.2.
  8. Jerome, Chronological Tables, Attalus, year 2015.
  9. Olympic Charter, Bye-law to Rule 6. Available at https://stillmed.olympic.org/Documents/Reports/EN/en_report_122.pdf.
  10. Team USA: Olympic Games Chronology Archived 2016-08-09 at the Wayback Machine .
  11. Kendall, Nigel (2011-04-08). "Community Spirit". International Olympic Committee . Retrieved 2011-06-22. The XXI Winter Olympiad was to be the first 'social media Games'.
  12. USOC Quadrennial Congressional Report, June 2009 Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine .
  13. "World Shakespeare Festival tickets go on public sale". BBC Online . 10 October 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  14. Lang, Kirsty (29 July 2016). "Rio 2016: The 'secret' Cultural Olympiad". BBC Online . Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  15. Culture360.asef.org
  16. Liddell, Scott, and Jones, A Greek-English Lexicon, s.v. Ὀλυμπιάς, A. II. 1

Related Research Articles

648 BC -648

The year 648 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. In the Roman Empire, it was known as year 106 Ab urbe condita. The denomination 648 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

An epoch, for the purposes of chronology and periodization, is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular calendar era. The "epoch" serves as a reference point from which time is measured.

A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports among organized teams of athletes from (mostly) nation-states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance was the Olympic Games, first held in modern times in 1896 in Athens, Greece and inspired by the Ancient Olympic Games, one of a number of such events held in antiquity. Most modern multi-sports events have the same basic structure. Games are held over the course of several days in and around a "host city", which changes for each competition. Countries send national teams to each competition, consisting of individual athletes and teams that compete in a wide variety of sports. Athletes or teams are awarded gold, silver or bronze medals for first, second and third place respectively. Each games are generally held every four years, though some are annual competitions.

At the 1896 Summer Olympics, two tennis events were contested, both for men. They began on 8 April and continued on 9 April, 10 April, and 11 April. 13 or 15 competitors from six nations, including seven Greeks, took part in the tennis competition. Many of the doubles teams were of mixed nationality, including all three medalist pairs. None of the leading players of the time such as Wimbledon champion Harold Mahony, U.S champion Robert Wrenn, William Larned or Wilfred Baddeley participated. To strengthen the field, the organization added sportsmen from other Olympic events, including weightlifter Momčilo Tapavica, hammer thrower George S. Robertson and 800-metres runners Edwin Flack and Friedrich Traun.

Dating creation

Dating creation is the attempt to provide an estimate of the age of Earth or the age of the universe as understood through the origin myths of various religious traditions. Various traditional beliefs held that Planet Earth, or the entire Universe, was brought into being in a grand creation event by one or more gods. Once these cultures developed calendars, many began to ponder the question of precisely how long ago this event happened.

"Panhellenic Games" is the collective term for four separate sports festivals held in ancient Greece. The four Games were:

Nemean Games

The Nemean Games were one of the four Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece, and were held at Nemea every two years.

Olympia, Greece Place in Greece

Olympia is a small town in Elis on the Peloponnese peninsula in Greece, famous for the nearby archaeological site of the same name, which was a major Panhellenic religious sanctuary of ancient Greece, where the ancient Olympic Games were held. The site was primarily dedicated to Zeus and drew visitors from all over the Greek world as one of a group of such "Panhellenic" centres which helped to build the identity of the ancient Greeks as a nation. Despite the name, it is nowhere near Mount Olympus in northern Greece, where the Twelve Olympians, the major deities of Ancient Greek religion, were believed to live.

A calendar era is the period of time elapsed since one epoch of a calendar and, if it exists, before the next one. For example, the Gregorian calendar numbers its years in the Western Christian era.

The Attic calendar or Athenian calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian polis. It is sometimes called the Greek calendar because of Athens's cultural importance, but it is only one of many ancient Greek calendars.

Intercalated Games former international multi-sport competition related to the Olympic Games, but not recognized by the Internation Olympic Commitee

The Intercalated Olympic Games were to be a series of International Olympic Games halfway between what is now known as the Games of the Olympiad. This proposed series of games, intercalated in the Olympic Games cycle, was to always be held in Athens, and were to have equal status with the international games. However, the only such games were held in 1906.

688 BC -688

The year 688 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. In the Roman Empire, it was known as year 66 Ab urbe condita. The denomination 688 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

The Seleucid era or Anno Graecorum, sometimes denoted "AG", was a system of numbering years in use by the Seleucid Empire and other countries among the ancient Hellenistic civilizations. It is sometimes referred to as "the dominion of the Seleucidæ," or the Year of Alexander. The era dates from Seleucus I Nicator's re-conquest of Babylon in 312/11 BC after his exile in Ptolemaic Egypt, considered by Seleucus and his court to mark the founding of the Seleucid Empire. According to Jewish tradition, it was during the sixth year of Alexander the Great's reign that they began to make use of this counting. The introduction of the new era is mentioned in one of the Babylonian Chronicles, the Chronicle of the Diadochi.

Pisa was a town, or perhaps an independent district, in Peloponnesus. It included Olympia, the site of the Ancient Olympic Games, and Dyspontium. This area subsequently formed part of the territory of ancient Elis.

Leonidas of Rhodes Ancient Olympic competitor

Leonidas of Rhodes was one of the most famous ancient Olympic runners. For four consecutive Olympiads, he was champion of three foot races. He was hailed with the title "Triastes" (tripler). Leonidas is acclaimed by some to be the greatest sprinter of all time.

Ancient Olympic Games Athletic competitions in Ancient Greece

The ancient Olympic Games were originally a festival, or celebration, of and for Zeus; events such as a footrace, a javelin contest, and wrestling matches were added later. The Olympic Games were a series of athletic competitions among representatives of city-states and one of the Panhellenic Games of ancient Greece. They were held in honor of Zeus, and the Greeks gave them a mythological origin. The first Olympics is traditionally dated to 776 BC. They continued to be celebrated when Greece came under Roman rule, until the emperor Theodosius I suppressed them in AD 393 as part of the campaign to impose Christianity as the State religion of Rome. The games were held every four years, or olympiad, which became a unit of time in historical chronologies.

Olympic Games ceremony

Olympic Games ceremonies of the Ancient Olympic Games were an integral part of these Games; the modern Olympic games have opening, closing, and medal ceremonies. Some of the elements of the modern ceremonies harken back to the Ancient Games from which the Modern Olympics draw their ancestry. An example of this is the prominence of Greece in both the opening and closing ceremonies. During the 2004 Games, the medal winners received a crown of olive branches, which was a direct reference to the Ancient Games, in which the victor's prize was an olive wreath. The various elements of the ceremonies are mandated by the Olympic Charter, and cannot be changed by the host nation. This requirement of seeking the approval of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) includes the artistic portion of opening and closing ceremonies.

Olympic winners of the Archaic period Wikimedia list article

Just how far back in history organized athletic contests were held remains a matter of debate, but it is reasonably certain that they occurred in Greece almost 3,000 years ago. However ancient in origin, by the end of the 6th century BC at least four Greek sporting festivals, sometimes called "classical games," had achieved major importance: the Olympic Games, held at Olympia; the Pythian Games at Delphi; the Nemean Games at Nemea; and the Isthmian Games, held near Corinth. The Olympic Games was perhaps the greatest of all sporting event held every four years and all Olympian winners, were highly appreciated among the Greeks.

References