Olympiad

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Stadium at ancient Olympia. Antikes Olympia Stadion.JPG
Stadium at ancient Olympia.

An Olympiad (Greek : Ὀλυμπιάς, Olympiás) is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games of the Ancient Greeks. Although the Ancient Olympic Games were established during Archaic Greece, it was not until the Hellenistic period, beginning with Ephorus, that the Olympiad was used as a calendar epoch. Converting to the modern BC/AD dating system the first Olympiad began in the summer of 776 BC and lasted until the summer of 772 BC, when the second Olympiad would begin with the commencement of the next games. By extrapolation to the Julian calendar, the 3rd year of the 699th Olympiad will begin in (Northern-Hemisphere) mid-summer 2019.

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Ancient Olympic Games athletic competitions in Ancient Greece

The ancient Olympic Games were originally a festival, or celebration of and for Zeus; later, events such as a footrace, a javelin contest, and wrestling matches were added. The Olympic Games were a series of athletic competitions among representatives of city-states and one of the Panhellenic Games of ancient Greece. They were held in honor of Zeus, and the Greeks gave them a mythological origin. The first Olympics is traditionally dated to 776 BC. They continued to be celebrated when Greece came under Roman rule, until the emperor Theodosius I suppressed them in AD 393 as part of the campaign to impose Christianity as the State religion of Rome. The games were held every four years, or olympiad, which became a unit of time in historical chronologies.

Ancient Greece Civilization belonging to an early period of Greek history

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. The Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, and later the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire.

Contents

A modern Olympiad refers to a four-year period beginning on the opening of the Olympic Games for the summer sports. The first modern Olympiad began in 1896, the second in 1900, and so on (the 31st began in 2016: see the Olympic Charter).

Olympic Games major international sport event

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart.

The ancient and modern Olympiads would have synchronised had there been a year zero between the Olympiad of 4 BC and the one of 4 AD. But as the Julian calendar goes directly from 1 BC to 1 AD, the ancient Olympic cycle now lags the modern cycle by one year.

Year zero does not exist in the anno Domini system usually used to number years in the Gregorian calendar and in its predecessor, the Julian calendar. In this system, the year 1 BC is followed by AD 1. However, there is a year zero in astronomical year numbering and in ISO 8601:2004 as well as in all Buddhist and Hindu calendars.

Ancient Olympics

An ancient Olympiad was a period of four years grouped together, counting inclusively as the ancients did. Each ancient Olympic year overlapped onto two of our modern reckoning of BC or AD years, from midsummer to midsummer. Example: Olympiad 140, year 1 = 220/219 BC; year 2 = 219/218 BC; year 3 = 218/217 BC; year 4 = 217/216 BC. Therefore, the games would have been held in July/August of 220 BC and held the next time in July/August of 216 BC, after four olympic years had been completed.

220 BC Year

Year 220 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Laevinus/Catulus and Scaevola/Philo. The denomination 220 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

216 BC Year

Year 216 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Varro and Paullus. The denomination 216 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Historians

The sophist Hippias was the first writer to publish a list of victors of the Olympic Games, and by the time of Eratosthenes, it was generally agreed that the first Olympic games had happened during the summer of 776 BC. [1] The combination of victor lists and calculations from 776 BC onwards enabled Greek historians to use the Olympiads as a way of reckoning time that did not depend on the time reckonings of one of the city-states. (See Attic calendar .) The first to do so consistently was Timaeus of Tauromenium in the third century BC. Nevertheless, since for events of the early history of the games the reckoning was used in retrospect, some of the dates given by later historian for events before the 5th century BC are very unreliable. [2] In the 2nd century AD, Phlegon of Tralles summarised the events of each Olympiad in a book called Olympiads, and an extract from this has been preserved by the Byzantine writer Photius. [3] Christian chroniclers continued to use this Greek system of dating as a way of synchronising biblical events with Greek and Roman history. In the 3rd century AD, Sextus Julius Africanus compiled a list of Olympic victors up to 217 BC, and this list has been preserved in the Chronicle of Eusebius. [4]

Hippias of Elis was a Greek sophist, and a contemporary of Socrates. With an assurance characteristic of the later sophists, he claimed to be regarded as an authority on all subjects, and lectured on poetry, grammar, history, politics, mathematics, and much else. Most of our knowledge of him is derived from Plato, who characterizes him as vain and arrogant.

Eratosthenes ancient Greek scientist

Eratosthenes of Cyrene was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist. He was a man of learning, becoming the chief librarian at the Library of Alexandria. He invented the discipline of geography, including the terminology used today.

The Attic calendar or Athenian calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian polis. It is sometimes called the Greek calendar because of Athens's cultural importance, but it is only one of many ancient Greek calendars.

Examples of Ancient Olympiad dates

A relief of the Greek Olympiad. Relief greek ballplayers 500bC.jpg
A relief of the Greek Olympiad.
Thucydides Greek historian and Athenian general

Thucydides was an Athenian historian and general. His History of the Peloponnesian War recounts the fifth-century BC war between Sparta and Athens until the year 411 BC. Thucydides has been dubbed the father of "scientific history" by those who accept his claims to have applied strict standards of impartiality and evidence-gathering and analysis of cause and effect, without reference to intervention by the deities, as outlined in his introduction to his work.

Rhodes (city) Place in Greece

Rhodes is the principal city and a former municipality on the island of Rhodes in the Dodecanese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Rhodes, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. It has a population of approximately 90,000 in its metropolitan area. Rhodes has been famous since antiquity as the site of Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The citadel of Rhodes, built by the Hospitalliers, is one of the best-preserved medieval towns in Europe, which in 1988 was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus Greek historian

Dionysius of Halicarnassus was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus. His literary style was Atticistic — imitating Classical Attic Greek in its prime.

Start of the Olympiad

An Olympiad started with the holding of the games, which occurred on the first or second full moon after the summer solstice, in what we call July or August. The games were therefore essentially a new years festival. In 776 BC this occurred on either July 23 or August 21. (After the introduction of the Metonic cycle about 432 BC, the start of the Olympic year was determined slightly differently).

Anolympiad

Though the games were held without interruption, on more than one occasion they were held by others than the Eleians. The Eleians declared such games Anolympiads (non-Olympics), but it is assumed the winners were nevertheless recorded.

End of the era

During the 3rd century AD, records of the games are so scanty that historians are not certain whether after 261 they were still held every four years. During the early years of the Olympiad, any physical benefit[ clarification needed ] deriving from a sport[ example needed ] was banned. Some winners were recorded though, until the last Olympiad of 393AD. In 394, Roman Emperor Theodosius I outlawed the games at Olympia as pagan. Though it would have been possible to continue the reckoning by just counting four-year periods, by the middle of the 5th century AD reckoning by Olympiads had become disused.

Modern Olympics

OlympiadStart dateEnd dateHost of the Games of the Olympiad
I (1st)6 Apr 189614 May 1900 Athens Flag of Greece (1822-1978).svg Greece
II (2nd)14 May 19001 Jul 1904 Paris Flag of France.svg  France
III (3rd)1 Jul 190413 Jul 1908 St. Louis US flag 45 stars.svg United States
IV (4th)13 Jul 19086 Jul 1912 London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
V (5th)6 Jul 19121 Jul 1916 Stockholm Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
VI (6th)1 Jul 191614 Aug 1920not celebrated  (plan Berlin Flag of the German Empire.svg Germany)
VII (7th)14 Aug 19205 Jul 1924 Antwerp Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
VIII (8th)5 Jul 192428 Jul 1928 Paris Flag of France.svg  France
IX (9th)28 Jul 192830 Jul 1932 Amsterdam Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
X (10th)30 Jul 19321 Aug 1936 Los Angeles US flag 48 stars.svg United States
XI (11th)1 Aug 193620 Jul 1940 Berlin Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Germany
XII (12th)20 Jul 194017 Jun 1944not celebrated  (plan Tokyo
then Helsinki
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan,
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland)
XIII (13th)17 Jun 194429 Jul 1948not celebrated(plan London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom)
XIV (14th)29 Jul 194819 Jul 1952 London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
XV (15th)19 Jul 195222 Nov 1956 Helsinki Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
XVI (16th)22 Nov 195625 Aug 1960 Melbourne Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
XVII (17th)25 Aug 196010 Oct 1964 Rome Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
XVIII (18th)10 Oct 196412 Oct 1968 Tokyo Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
XIX (19th)12 Oct 196826 Aug 1972 City of Mexico Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
XX (20th)26 Aug 197217 Jul 1976 Munich Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
XXI (21st)17 Jul 197619 Jul 1980 Montreal Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
XXII (22nd)19 Jul 198028 Jul 1984 Moscow
            (now
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia)
XXIII (23rd)28 Jul 198417 Sep 1988 Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg  United States
XXIV (24th)17 Sep 198825 Jul 1992 Seoul Flag of Korea (1899).svg Korea
XXV (25th)25 Jul 199219 Jul 1996 Barcelona Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
XXVI (26th)19 Jul 199615 Sep 2000 Atlanta Flag of the United States.svg  United States
XXVII (27th)15 Sep 200013 Aug 2004 Sydney Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
XXVIII (28th)13 Aug 20048 Aug 2008 Athens Flag of Greece.svg  Greece
XXIX (29th)8 Aug 200827 Jul 2012 Beijing Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
XXX (30th)27 Jul 20125 Aug 2016 London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
XXXI (31st)5 Aug 201624 Jul 2020 Rio de Janeiro Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
XXXII (32nd)24 Jul 202026 Jul 2024 Tokyo Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
XXXIII (33rd)26 Jul 202421 Jul 2028 Paris Flag of France.svg  France
XXXIV (34th)21 Jul 2028
2032
Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg  United States

Start and end

The modern Olympiad is a period of four years, beginning at the opening of the Olympic Summer Games and ending at the opening of the next. The Olympiads are numbered consecutively from the first Games of the Olympiad celebrated in Athens in 1896. The XXXI Olympiad (i.e. 31st) began on August 5, 2016 and will end on July 24, 2020. [9]

The Summer Olympics are more correctly referred to as the Games of the Olympiad. The first poster to announce the games using this term was the one for the 1932 Summer Olympics, in Los Angeles, using the phrase: Call to the games of the Xth Olympiad

Note, however, that the official numbering of the Winter Olympics does not count Olympiads—- it counts only the Games themselves. For example:

Some media people have from time to time referred to a particular (e.g., the nth) Winter Olympics as "the Games of the nth Winter Olympiad", perhaps believing it to be the correct formal name for the Winter Games by analogy with that of the Summer Games. Indeed, at least one IOC-published article has applied this nomenclature as well. [11] This analogy is sometimes extended further by media references to "Summer Olympiads". However, the IOC does not seem to make an official distinction between Olympiads for the summer and winter games, and such usage particularly for the Winter Olympics is not consistent with the numbering discussed above.

Quadrennium

Some Olympic Committees often use the term quadrennium, which it claims refers to the same four-year period. However, it indicates these quadrennia in calendar years, starting with the first year after the Summer Olympics and ending with the year the next Olympics are held. This would suggest a more precise period of four years, but, for example, the 2001–2004 Quadrennium would then not be exactly the same period as the XXVIIth Olympiad. [12]

Cultural Olympiad

A Cultural Olympiad is a concept protected by the International Olympic Committee and may be used only within the limits defined by an Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games. From one Games to the next, the scale of the Cultural Olympiad varies considerably, sometimes involving activity over the entire Olympiad and other times emphasizing specific periods within it. Baron Pierre de Coubertin established the principle of Olympic Art Competitions at a special congress in Paris in 1906, and the first official programme was presented during the 1912 Games in Stockholm. These competitions were also named the ‘Pentathlon of the Muses’, as their purpose was to bring artists to present their work and compete for ‘art’ medals across five categories: architecture, music, literature, sculpture and painting.

Nowadays, while there are no competitions as such, cultural and artistic practice is displayed via the Cultural Olympiad. The 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver presented the Cultural Olympiad Digital Edition. The 2012 Olympics included an extensive Cultural Olympiad with the London 2012 Festival in the host city, and events elsewhere including the World Shakespeare Festival produced by the RSC. [13] The 2016 games' Cultural Olympiad was scaled back due to Brazil's recession; there was no published programme, with director Carla Camurati promising "secret" and "spontaneous" events such as flash mobs. [14]

Other uses

The English term is still often used popularly to indicate the games themselves, a usage that is uncommon in ancient Greek (as an Olympiad is most often the time period between and including sets of games). [15] It is also used to indicate international competitions other than physical sports. This includes international science olympiads, such as the International Geography Olympiad, International Mathematical Olympiad and the International Linguistics Olympiad and their associated national qualifying tests (e.g., the United States of America Mathematical Olympiad or the North American Computational Linguistics Olympiad), and also events in mind-sports, such as the Science Olympiad, Mindsport Olympiad, Chess Olympiad, International History Olympiad and Computer Olympiad. In these cases Olympiad is used to indicate a regular event of international competition for top achieving participants; it does not necessarily indicate a four-year period.

In some languages, like Czech and Slovak, Olympiad (Czech : olympiáda) is the correct term for the games.

The Olympiad ( L'Olimpiade ) is also the name of some 60 operas set in Ancient Greece.

Notes

  1. Bickerman 1980, p. 75.
  2. Bickerman 1980, p. 88.
  3. Photius, Bibliotheca, Terlullian, p. 97.
  4. Eusebius, Chronicle, Attalus, p. 193.
  5. Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, Tufts.
  6. of Halicarnassus, Dionysius, Roman Antiquities, University of Chicago, 1.75.
  7. Siculus, Diodorus, Historical Library, University of Chicago, 11.1.2.
  8. Jerome, Chronological Tables, Attalus, year 2015.
  9. Olympic Charter - Bye-law to Rule 6
  10. Team USA: Olympic Games Chronology Archived 2016-08-09 at the Wayback Machine .
  11. Kendall, Nigel (2011-04-08). "Community Spirit". International Olympic Committee . Retrieved 2011-06-22. The XXI Winter Olympiad was to be the first 'social media Games'.
  12. USOC Quadrennial Congressional Report, June 2009 Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine .
  13. "World Shakespeare Festival tickets go on public sale". BBC Online . 10 October 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  14. Lang, Kirsty (29 July 2016). "Rio 2016: The 'secret' Cultural Olympiad". BBC Online . Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  15. Liddell, Scott, and Jones, A Greek-English Lexicon, s.v. Ὀλυμπιάς, A. II. 1

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References