Omurtag Pass

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Location of Bowles Ridge on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands. Bowles-Ridge-location-map.PNG
Location of Bowles Ridge on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands.
Omurtag Pass from Camp Academia area, with Mount Bowles on the left and Worner Gap in the foreground. Omurtag-Livingston.jpg
Omurtag Pass from Camp Academia area, with Mount Bowles on the left and Wörner Gap in the foreground.
The survey route of Tangra 2004/05 including Omurtag Pass. Tangra-2004-5-Survey-Route.png
The survey route of Tangra 2004/05 including Omurtag Pass.
Topographic map of Livingston Island and Smith Island. Livingston-Island-Map-2010-15.png
Topographic map of Livingston Island and Smith Island.

Omurtag Pass (Omurtagov Prohod \o-mur-'ta-gov 'pro-hod\) is a 720 m high pass between Mount Bowles and Ticha Peak in Bowles Ridge, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica and is part of an overland route between the Wörner Gap area and upper Kaliakra Glacier. The pass is named after Khan Omurtag of Bulgaria, 814-831 AD.

Mount Bowles mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Mount Bowles is an ice-covered mountain 822 metres (2,697 ft) high, the summit of Bowles Ridge in the central part of eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is situated south of Vidin Heights and north of Mount Friesland, Tangra Mountains to which it is linked by Wörner Gap.

Ticha Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Ticha Peak is a 790 m peak on the east side of Omurtag Pass in Bowles Ridge, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is overlooking Perunika Glacier and Wörner Gap to the southwest, Huron Glacier to the southeast, and Kaliakra Glacier to the north.

Bowles Ridge

Bowles Ridge is the central ridge of eastern Livingston Island. The ridge extends 6.5 km in the east-west direction and is 1.5 km wide. The summit of the ridge is Mount Bowles which rises to 822m and is located 9.77 km northwest of Great Needle Peak, 6.08 km north by west of Mount Friesland, 8.77 km east-northeast of St. Kliment Ohridski base and 9.25 km south by west of Miziya Peak.

Contents

First crossed by Lyubomir Ivanov and Doychin Vasilev from Camp Academia on 24 December 2004.

Lyubomir Ivanov (explorer) Bulgarian explorer

Lyubomir Ivanov is a Bulgarian scientist, non-governmental activist, and Antarctic explorer. He is a graduate of the St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia with M.S. degree in Mathematics in 1977, earned his PhD from Sofia University in 1980 under the direction of Dimiter Skordev, with a dissertation entitled Iterative Operative Spaces, and was the 1987 winner of Acad. Nikola Obreshkov Prize, the highest Bulgarian award in mathematics.

Doychin Vasilev Bulgarian film director and climber

Doychin Vasilev is a Bulgarian alpinist and cinematographer who has climbed five Himalayan 8,000 m peaks: Dhaulagiri, Mount Everest (1997), Makalu (1998), and Shishapangma and Cho Oyu (1999). President of Alpine Club Vihren, Sofia. Participant in the Bulgarian Antarctic expedition Tangra 2004/05, noted by Discovery Channel as a timeline event in Antarctic exploration.

Camp Academia Antarctic camp

Camp Academia is a geographical locality in eastern Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, named for the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in appreciation of Academy’s contribution to the Antarctic exploration. The site was first occupied in the 2004/05 austral summer, and has been designated since 2004 as the summer post office Tangra 1091, the southernmost branch of the Bulgarian Posts Plc.

Location

The pass is located at 62°37′03″S60°11′27″W / 62.61750°S 60.19083°W / -62.61750; -60.19083 Coordinates: 62°37′03″S60°11′27″W / 62.61750°S 60.19083°W / -62.61750; -60.19083 which is 3.87 km northeast of Orpheus Gate, 3.97 km east of Rezen Saddle, 5.16 km south of Elhovo Gap, 3.25 km west of Pirdop Gate, 4.09 km northwest of Lozen Saddle and 5.86 km northwest of Catalunyan Saddle (Bulgarian topographic survey Tangra 2004/05, and mapping in 2005 and 2009).

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

Orpheus Gate

Orpheus Gate, also Orpheus Pass, is the 548 m high and 380 m wide pass in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded by Pliska Ridge to the southeast and Burdick Ridge to the northwest, Huntress Glacier to the southwest and Perunika Glacier to the northeast.

Rezen Saddle

Rezen Saddle is a geographical feature on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The 600 m long horseshoe-shaped flat saddle of elevation 420 m lies between Rezen Knoll and Burdick Ridge in eastern Livingston Island, affording overland access from Balkan Snowfield to upper Perunika Glacier and Bowles Ridge area.

Maps

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Gurev Gap

Gurev Gap is a flat ice-covered saddle of elevation 450 m extending 3 km in south-north direction between Hemus Peak and Gleaner Heights in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The gap separates the glacial catchments of Kaliakra Glacier to the east, and Saedinenie Snowfield and Perunika Glacier to the west. It is part of the overland route from the St. Kliment Ohridski Base via the Balkan Snowfield, Rezen Saddle and Perunika Glacier to Varna Peninsula. The saddle was first trekked on 24 December 2004 by the Tangra 2004/05 Survey team from Camp Academia, and was named for Vasil Gurev, physicist at St. Kliment Ohridski in 1994/95 and subsequent seasons.

Leslie Gap

Leslie Gap is a 359m high ice-covered saddle extending 2.8 km in south-north direction between Leslie Hill and Radnevo Peak on Varna Peninsula in northeastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The saddle separates the glacial catchments of Kaliakra Glacier to the east and Saedinenie Snowfield to the west. It is part of the overland route from Bowles Ridge to Vidin Heights. The south extremity of the saddle features a minor but conspicuous ice-covered knoll of elevation 404 m just north of Leslie Hill. Leslie Gap takes its name from the adjacent Leslie Hill and was first trekked by the Bulgarian Lyubomir Ivanov from Camp Academia on 25 December 2004.

Lozen Saddle

Lozen Saddle is a 437 m high saddle situated between Lozen Nunatak and Zograf Peak in Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica which provides overland access from the Wörner Gap area to the Shipka Valley. The saddle was first crossed by the Bulgarian Lyubomir Ivanov from Camp Academia on 17 December 2004, and takes its name from the adjacent Lozen Nunatak.

Magura Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Magura Glacier on the southeast side of Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is located to the north of M'Kean Point, northeast of Srebarna Glacier, south of Iskar Glacier and southwest of Dobrudzha Glacier. It is bounded by Great Needle Peak to the west, Vitosha Saddle, Vihren Peak and Helmet Peak to the northwest, Plovdiv Peak and Shishman Peak to the north, and Devin Saddle and Kuber Peak to the northeast. The glacier extends 3.5 km in southwest-northeast direction and 1.9 km in northwest-southeast direction, and flows southeastward into Bransfield Strait.

Nesebar Gap

Nesebar Gap is a 1.3 km wide gap in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded to the west by Pliska Ridge and to the east by the northern slope of Mount Friesland, Tangra Mountains. It is part of the divide between the glacial catchments of Perunika Glacier to the north and Huntress Glacier to the south. The gap is part of an overland route between Orpheus Gate to the west, and Camp Academia locality and Lozen Saddle to the east.

Pirdop Gate

Pirdop Gate is a 300-m wide pass between Maritsa Peak and Atanasoff Nunatak in eastern Bowles Ridge, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It has an elevation of 376 m at its northern entrance from Struma Glacier, and 261 m at the southern entrance from Huron Glacier. It forms part of an overland route between middle Huron Glacier and upper Kaliakra Glacier. The pass was first crossed by the Bulgarians Lyubomir Ivanov and Doychin Vasilev from Camp Academia on 28 December 2004. Named after the town of Pirdop in Central Bulgaria.

Presian Ridge

Presian Ridge is a ridge of elevation 1456 m extending 950 m in east-weat direction in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Situated between the island's summit Mount Friesland to the west and Catalunyan Saddle to the east. Surmounting Wörner Gap, Camp Academia locality and upper Huron Glacier to the north, and Macy Glacier to the south.

Struma Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Struma Glacier is a glacier in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated south of lower Kaliakra Glacier and north of Huron Glacier. Bounded by Melnik Ridge to the north, Yankov Gap to the west and Bowles Ridge to the south, it is 4.8 km long and 1.5 km wide, and flows eastwards into Moon Bay south of Sindel Point and north of Elemag Point.

Willan Saddle

Willan Saddle is a flat, crescent-shaped and ice-covered saddle extending 1 km in the northeast-southwest direction between Burdick South Peak and Willan Nunatak in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The saddle has an elevation of 400 m and is part of the overland route between Balkan Snowfield and Charrúa Gap in the west and Orpheus Gate in the east, thus providing access from the Bulgarian Base and the Spanish Base to the interior of eastern Livingston Island.

Wörner Gap

Wörner Gap is a flat saddle extending 3 km in the south-north direction between Friesland Ridge and Bowles Ridge in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its elevation decreases from 585 m in the south to 541 m in the middle, and 525 m in the north. The gap separates the glacial catchments of Perunika Glacier to the west and Huron Glacier to the east, and is linked to the east to Kuzman Knoll, a conspicuous landmark in the area. The gap is visited by field parties from St. Kliment Ohridski Base and Juan Carlos I Base and is subject to Spanish and Bulgarian glaciological studies.

Yankov Gap

Yankov Gap is an ice-covered saddle linking Melnik Ridge and Bowles Ridge in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The gap is at an elevation of 575 m and extends 1 km in the north-south direction from Samokov Knoll in Melnik Ridge to Asparuh Peak in Bowles Ridge. Yankov Gap is part of the divide between the glacial catchments of the head of Kaliakra Glacier to the west and Struma Glacier to the east.

Willan Nunatak

Willan Nunatak is an ice-free tipped peak rising to 449 m on the glacial divide between Huntress Glacier and Balkan Snowfield on Hurd Peninsula in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is linked to Burdick South Peak to the northeast by Willan Saddle and, via Castillo Nunatak and Charrúa Gap, to Charrúa Ridge to the west.

Napier Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Napier Peak is the partly ice-free peak rising to 380 m on Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is linked to Charrúa Gap to the north by a 1.5 km ice-covered col, and by an ice-covered saddle to Mirador Hill to the south-southwest, and surmounts Johnsons Glacier to the northwest and west, Huntress Glacier to the east, and False Bay to the south.

Johnsons Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Johnsons Glacier is the 1.8 km long and 2.3 km wide glacier on Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded by Charrúa Ridge and Charrúa Gap to the north, Napier Peak to the east, Mirador Hill to the southeast, Hurd Ice Cap to the southwest and Mount Reina Sofía to the west. It is draining northwestwards into Johnsons Dock. The glacier provides overland access from the Spanish base Juan Carlos Primero to the interior of the eastern Livingston Island.

Contell Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Contell Glacier is 1.2 nmi long and 0.4 nautical miles wide glacier on Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded by Atlantic Club Ridge to the northwest, Krum Rock to the north, Balkan Snowfield to the northeast, and Charrúa Ridge and Charrúa Gap to the south. It is crescent-shaped, running northwestwards in its upper course, then between Charrúa Ridge and Krum Rock turning west-southwestwards to flow into South Bay north of Johnsons Dock.

Castillo Nunatak a rocky peak in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Castillo Nunatak is a conspicuous rocky peak rising to 437 m on the glacial divide between Huntress Glacier and Balkan Snowfield on Hurd Peninsula in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is linked to Charrúa Ridge to the west Charrúa Gap and, via Willan Nunatak and Willan Saddle, to Burdick Ridge to the east-northeast. Castillo Nunatak is a prominent landmark in the Charrúa Gap area.

References

Antarctic Place-names Commission

The Antarctic Place-names Commission was established by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute in 1994, and since 2001 has been a body affiliated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.


This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission.