* On the Sphere and Cylinder* (Greek : Περὶ σφαίρας καὶ κυλίνδρου) is a work that was published by Archimedes in two volumes c. 225 BCE.

The principal formulae derived in *On the Sphere and Cylinder* are those mentioned above: the surface area of the sphere, the volume of the contained ball, and surface area and volume of the cylinder. Let be the radius of the sphere and cylinder, and be the height of the cylinder, with the assumption that the cylinder is a right cylinder—the side is perpendicular to both caps. In his work, Archimedes showed that the surface area of a cylinder is equal to:

and that the volume of the same is:

^{ [3] }

On the sphere, he showed that the surface area is four times the area of its great circle. In modern terms, this means that the surface area is equal to:

The result for the volume of the contained ball stated that it is two-thirds the volume of a circumscribed cylinder, meaning that the volume is

When the inscribing cylinder is tight and has a height , so that the sphere touches the cylinder at the top and bottom, he showed that both the volume and the surface area of the sphere were two-thirds that of the cylinder. This implies the area of the sphere is equal to the area of the cylinder minus its caps. This result would eventually lead to the Lambert cylindrical equal-area projection, a way of mapping the world that accurately represents areas. Archimedes was particularly proud of this latter result, and so he asked for a sketch of a sphere inscribed in a cylinder to be inscribed on his grave. Later, Roman philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero discovered the tomb, which had been overgrown by surrounding vegetation.^{ [4] }

The argument Archimedes used to prove the formula for the volume of a ball was rather involved in its geometry, and many modern textbooks have a simplified version using the concept of a limit, which did not exist in Archimedes' time. Archimedes used an inscribed half-polygon in a semicircle, then rotated both to create a conglomerate of frustums in a sphere, of which he then determined the volume.^{ [5] }

It seems that this is not the original method Archimedes used to derive this result, but the best formal argument available to him in the Greek mathematical tradition. His original method likely involved a clever use of levers.^{ [6] } A palimpsest stolen from the Greek Orthodox Church in the early 20th century, which reappeared at auction in 1998, contained many of Archimedes works, including The Method of Mechanical Theorems, in which he describes a method to determine volumes which involves balances, centers of mass and infinitesimal slices.^{ [7] }

- ↑ Dunham 1990 , p. 78
- ↑ Weisstein, Eric W. "Sphere".
*MathWorld*. Retrieved on 2008-06-22 - ↑ Dunham 1994 , p. 227
- ↑ "Archimedes: His Works",
*Britannica Online*, Encyclopædia Britannica , retrieved 23 June 2008 - ↑ ( Dunham 1994 , p. 226)
- ↑ Károly Simonyi (2012).
*A Cultural History of Physics*. CRC Press. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-56881-329-5 . Retrieved 4 July 2013. - ↑ "Archimedes' Secret (BBC Documentary)". BBC . Retrieved 4 July 2013.

**Area** is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape or planar lamina, in the plane. Surface area is its analog on the two-dimensional surface of a three-dimensional object. Area can be understood as the amount of material with a given thickness that would be necessary to fashion a model of the shape, or the amount of paint necessary to cover the surface with a single coat. It is the two-dimensional analog of the length of a curve or the volume of a solid.

**Archimedes of Syracuse** was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Considered to be the greatest mathematician of ancient history, and one of the greatest of all time, Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying concepts of infinitesimals and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems, including: the area of a circle; the surface area and volume of a sphere; area of an ellipse; the area under a parabola; the volume of a segment of a paraboloid of revolution; the volume of a segment of a hyperboloid of revolution; and the area of a spiral.

In geometry, the **circumference** is the perimeter of a circle or ellipse. That is, the circumference would be the arc length of the circle, as if it were opened up and straightened out to a line segment. More generally, the perimeter is the curve length around any closed figure. Circumference may also refer to the circle itself, that is, the locus corresponding to the edge of a disk.

The number **π** is a mathematical constant. It is defined as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, and it also has various equivalent definitions. It appears in many formulas in all areas of mathematics and physics. It is approximately equal to 3.14159. It has been represented by the Greek letter "π" since the mid-18th century, and is spelled out as "**pi**". It is also referred to as **Archimedes' constant**.

The **surface area** of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies. The mathematical definition of surface area in the presence of curved surfaces is considerably more involved than the definition of arc length of one-dimensional curves, or of the surface area for polyhedra, for which the surface area is the sum of the areas of its faces. Smooth surfaces, such as a sphere, are assigned surface area using their representation as parametric surfaces. This definition of surface area is based on methods of infinitesimal calculus and involves partial derivatives and double integration.

A **sphere** is a geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a ball.

**Volume** is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance or shape occupies or contains. Volume is often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit, the cubic metre. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container; i. e., the amount of fluid that the container could hold, rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces. Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Volumes of some simple shapes, such as regular, straight-edged, and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas. Volumes of complicated shapes can be calculated with integral calculus if a formula exists for the shape's boundary. One-dimensional figures and two-dimensional shapes are assigned zero volume in the three-dimensional space.

In geometry, a **solid angle** is a measure of the amount of the field of view from some particular point that a given object covers. That is, it is a measure of how large the object appears to an observer looking from that point. The point from which the object is viewed is called the *apex* of the solid angle, and the object is said to *subtend* its solid angle from that point.

An **ellipsoid** is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation.

**Liu Hui** was a Chinese mathematician and writer who lived in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period (220–280) of China. In 263, he edited and published a book with solutions to mathematical problems presented in the famous Chinese book of mathematics known as *The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art*, in which he was possibly the first mathematician to discover, understand and use negative numbers. He was a descendant of the Marquis of Zi District (菑鄉侯) of the Eastern Han dynasty, whose marquisate is in present-day Zichuan District, Zibo, Shandong. He completed his commentary to the *Nine Chapters* in the year 263. He probably visited Luoyang, where he measured the sun's shadow.

* The Method of Mechanical Theorems*, also referred to as

A **cylinder** has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes. It is the idealized version of a solid physical tin can having lids on top and bottom.

In geometry, a **spherical cap** or **spherical dome** is a portion of a sphere or of a ball cut off by a plane. It is also a spherical segment of one base, i.e., bounded by a single plane. If the plane passes through the center of the sphere, so that the height of the cap is equal to the radius of the sphere, the spherical cap is called a *hemisphere*.

In geometry, the area enclosed by a circle of radius r is π*r*^{2}. Here the Greek letter π represents the constant ratio of the circumference of any circle to its diameter, approximately equal to 3.14159.

In geometry, a **Steinmetz solid** is the solid body obtained as the intersection of two or three cylinders of equal radius at right angles. Each of the curves of the intersection of two cylinders is an ellipse.

In physics, **Gauss's law for gravity**, also known as **Gauss's flux theorem for gravity**, is a law of physics that is equivalent to Newton's law of universal gravitation. It is named after Carl Friedrich Gauss. Gauss's law for gravity is often more convenient to work from than is Newton's law.

In geometry, the **napkin-ring problem** involves finding the volume of a "band" of specified height around a sphere, i.e. the part that remains after a hole in the shape of a circular cylinder is drilled through the center of the sphere. It is a counterintuitive fact that this volume does not depend on the original sphere's radius but only on the resulting band's height.

In geometry, **Cavalieri's principle**, a modern implementation of the **method of indivisibles**, named after Bonaventura Cavalieri, is as follows:

In mathematics, a **unit sphere** is the set of points of distance 1 from a fixed central point, where a generalized concept of distance may be used; a closed **unit ball** is the set of points of distance less than or equal to 1 from a fixed central point. Usually a specific point has been distinguished as the origin of the space under study and it is understood that a unit sphere or unit ball is centered at that point. Therefore, one speaks of "the" unit ball or "the" unit sphere.

In mathematics, the **Schwarz lantern** is a pathological example of the difficulty of defining the area of a smooth (curved) surface as the limit of the areas of polyhedra. The curved surface in question is a portion of a right circular cylinder. The discrete polyhedral approximation considered has axial "slices". vertices are placed radially along each slice at a circumferential distance of from each other. Importantly, the vertices are placed so they shift in phase by with each slice.

- Dunham, William (1990),
*Journey Through Genius*(1st ed.), John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0-471-50030-5 - Dunham, William (1994),
*The Mathematical Universe*(1st ed.), John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0-471-53656-3 - S. H. Gould, The Method of Archimedes, The American Mathematical Monthly. Vol. 62, No. 7 (Aug. - Sep., 1955), pp. 473–476

- Lucio Lombardo Radice,
*La matematica da Pitagora a Newton*, Roma, Editori Riuniti, 1971. - Attilio Frajese,
*Opere di Archimede*, Torino, U.T.E.T., 1974.

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