Oneida County, New York

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Oneida County
OneidaCoCourthouse-Beale.jpg
Oneida County Courthouse
Seal of Oneida County, New York.png
Seal
Map of New York highlighting Oneida County.svg
Location within the U.S. state of New York
New York in United States.svg
New York's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 43°14′N75°26′W / 43.24°N 75.44°W / 43.24; -75.44
CountryFlag of the United States.svg United States
StateFlag of New York.svg  New York
Founded1798
Named for Oneida people
Seat Utica
Largest cityUtica
Area
  Total1,258 sq mi (3,260 km2)
  Land1,212 sq mi (3,140 km2)
  Water45 sq mi (120 km2)  3.6%%
Population
 (2010)
  Total234,878
  Density194/sq mi (75/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern)
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district 22nd
Website ocgov.net

Oneida County is a county located in the state of New York, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 234,878. [1] The county seat is Utica. [2] The name is in honor of the Oneida, one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois League or Haudenosaunee , which had long occupied this territory at the time of European encounter and colonization. The federally recognized Oneida Indian Nation has had a reservation in the region since the late 18th century, after the American Revolutionary War.

Contents

Oneida County is part of the UticaRome, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area.

History

When England established colonial counties in the Province of New York in 1683, the territory of present Oneida County was included in a very large, mostly undeveloped Albany County. This county included the northern part of present-day New York State as well as all of the present state of Vermont and, in theory, extended westward to the Pacific Ocean. This county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766 to create Cumberland County, and further on March 16, 1770 by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont.

On March 12, 1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. Tryon County contained the western portion (and thus, since no western boundary was specified, theoretically still extended west to the Pacific). The eastern boundary of Tryon County was approximately five miles west of the present city of Schenectady in the Mohawk River Valley, and the county included the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River. Tryon County was later divided to organize 37 distinct counties of New York State. The county was named for William Tryon, colonial governor of New York.

During and after the Revolution, most of the Loyalists in Tryon County fled to Canada. In 1784, following the peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War, Americans changed the name of Tryon County to Montgomery County to honor the general, Richard Montgomery, who had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec. They replaced the name of the British governor.

In 1789, Montgomery County was reduced by the splitting off of Ontario County from Montgomery. The area taken from Montgomery County contained all of present-day Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, Genesee, Livingston, Monroe, Niagara, Orleans, Steuben, Wyoming, Yates, and part of Schuyler and Wayne counties, as well as Ontario County.

After continued new settlement, in 1791 Herkimer County was one of three counties taken from Montgomery (the other two being Otsego, and Tioga County). It was much larger than the present Herkimer County, however, and was reduced by a number of subsequent splits.

In 1794, Herkimer County was reduced in size by the creation of Onondaga County. This county was larger than the current Onondaga County, including the present Cayuga, Cortland, and part of Oswego counties.

In 1798, Oneida County was created from another part of Herkimer County. This county was larger than the current Oneida County, as it included the present-day Jefferson (which extends along Lake Ontario), Lewis, and part of Oswego counties.

In 1805, Jefferson and Lewis counties were split off from Oneida. In 1816, parts of Oneida and Onondaga counties were taken to form the new Oswego County.

In 1848, John Humphrey Noyes founded a religious and Utopian community, the Oneida Community, near Oneida. Its unconventional views on religion and relations between the sexes generated much controversy. The community lasted until 1881. The Oneida Silver Company was founded here to manufacture sterling silver, silverplate holloware and, later, stainless steel flatware.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,258 square miles (3,260 km2), of which 1,212 square miles (3,140 km2) is land and 45 square miles (120 km2) (3.6%) is water. [3]

Oneida County is in the central portion of New York State, east of Syracuse, and west of Albany. Oneida Lake is on the northwestern corner of the county, and the Adirondack Park is on the northeast. Part of the Tug Hill Plateau is in the northern part of the county. Oneida County's highest point lies neither on the plateau nor in the Adirondack Park, but in the county's southern extremity. The peak's name is Tassel Hill. It is located slightly southeast of Hardscrabble Road (Tassel Hill Road), between the villages of Waterville and Cassville.

The Erie Canal, completed in 1825, runs east-west along the Mohawk River through the county. It stimulated considerable trade and settlement. Oneida Lake and Oneida Creek form part of the western boundary.

In the early 21st century, Oneida is the only county in New York state documented as having Chronic wasting disease among its wild White-tailed deer. [4]

Adjacent counties

National protected area

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1800 22,047
1810 33,79253.3%
1820 50,99750.9%
1830 71,32639.9%
1840 85,31019.6%
1850 99,56616.7%
1860 105,2025.7%
1870 110,0084.6%
1880 115,4755.0%
1890 122,9226.4%
1900 132,8008.0%
1910 154,15716.1%
1920 182,83318.6%
1930 198,7638.7%
1940 203,6362.5%
1950 222,8559.4%
1960 264,40118.6%
1970 273,0373.3%
1980 253,466−7.2%
1990 250,836−1.0%
2000 235,469−6.1%
2010 234,878−0.3%
Est. 2018229,577 [5] −2.3%
U.S. Decennial Census [6]
1790-1960 [7] 1900-1990 [8]
1990-2000 [9] 2010-2013 [1]

As of the census [10] of 2000, there were 235,469 people, 90,496 households, and 59,184 families residing in the county. The population density was 194 people per square mile (75/km²). There were 102,803 housing units at an average density of 85 per square mile (33/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 90.21% White, 5.74% African American, 0.23% Native American, 1.16% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.11% from other races, and 1.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.20% of the population.

21.7% were of Italian, 13.1% Irish, 12.1% German, 9.9% Polish, 8.5% English and 5.6% American ancestry according to self-identification of ethnic background in Census 2000. 90.6% spoke English, 2.7% Spanish, 1.3% Italian, 1.2% Serbo-Croatian and 1.1% Polish as their first language.

There were 90,496 households out of which 30.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.10% were married couples living together, 12.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.60% were non-families. 29.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.02.

In the county, the population was spread out with 23.90% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 28.20% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, and 16.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 98.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.30 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $35,909, and the median income for a family was $45,341. Males had a median income of $32,194 versus $24,295 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,516. About 9.80% of families and 13.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.90% of those under age 18 and 8.50% of those age 65 or over.

Government and politics

Presidential election results
Presidential election results [11]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 56.5%51,43737.1% 33,7436.4% 5,829
2012 51.4%44,53046.7% 40,4682.0% 1,702
2008 52.2%49,25646.1% 43,5061.7% 1,603
2004 54.9%52,39242.8% 40,7922.3% 2,197
2000 49.6%47,60345.8% 43,9334.7% 4,474
1996 40.0% 37,99646.8%44,39913.2% 12,534
1992 40.4%43,80637.8% 40,96621.8% 23,570
1988 53.2%55,03946.1% 47,6650.7% 757
1984 60.4%65,37739.4% 42,6030.3% 289
1980 49.6%51,96842.3% 44,2928.2% 8,539
1976 54.4%57,65545.1% 47,7790.5% 554
1972 69.9%78,54929.9% 33,6420.2% 253
1968 51.0%52,87543.1% 44,6856.0% 6,201
1964 35.1% 39,73764.8%73,3590.1% 114
1960 48.4% 59,51351.5%63,3680.1% 100
1956 69.8%80,17830.2% 34,6490.0% 0
1952 61.0%69,65238.9% 44,4380.1% 134
1948 47.9% 46,75549.5%48,3322.6% 2,526
1944 50.1%48,74949.7% 48,3710.2% 224
1940 51.5%52,36248.3% 49,1090.3% 271
1936 50.8%46,31747.7% 43,4391.5% 1,355
1932 50.8%41,19347.3% 38,4131.9% 1,542
1928 52.8%44,78245.1% 38,2312.1% 1,773
1924 61.8%37,54529.8% 18,1248.3% 5,065
1920 66.3%36,31128.4% 15,5605.3% 2,920
1916 52.5%18,81344.9% 16,0702.6% 922
1912 33.4% 11,24536.2%12,18230.4% 10,249
1908 54.6%19,34642.2% 14,9683.2% 1,123
1904 55.7%19,24340.7% 14,0643.7% 1,264
1900 57.9%19,20438.7% 12,8203.4% 1,128
1896 60.8%18,85535.5% 11,0033.7% 1,149
1892 48.4%14,35945.6% 13,5526.0% 1,783
1888 51.8%16,24145.5% 14,2762.7% 851
1884 48.1% 13,79048.2%13,8233.8% 1,083

Oneida County was governed by a board of supervisors until 1962, when the county charter was changed to create a county executive and a 29-seat county legislature. The county executive is elected by the entire county. On January 1, 2014, the Oneida County Legislature was reduced to 23 seats. All 23 members of the legislature are elected from single member districts. Currently, there are 14 Republicans and 9 Democrats. [12]

Oneida County Executives
NamePartyTerm
Charles T. Lanigan Republican January 1, 1963 – December 31, 1966
Harry S. Daniels Republican January 1, 1967 – December 31, 1967 (interim)
January 1, 1968 – December 31, 1973
William E. Bryant Democratic January 1, 1974 – April 21, 1979
Antoinette Hyer Democratic April 22, 1979 – May 2, 1979 (acting)
Seymour Greene Democratic May 3, 1979 – June, 1979 (interim)
Michael Nasser Democratic June 1979 – December 31, 1979 (interim)
Sherwood L. Boehlert Republican January 1, 1980 – December 31, 1982
John D. Plumley Republican January 1, 1983 – January 13, 1991
Raymond A. Meier Republican January 14, 1991 – December 31, 1991 (interim)
January 1, 1992 – December 31, 1996
Ralph J. Eannace Jr. Republican January 1, 1997 – May, 2003
Joseph A. Griffo Republican May, 2003 – December 31, 2003 (interim)
January 1, 2004 – December 31, 2006
Anthony J. Picente, Jr. Republican January 1, 2007 – present
Oneida County Board of Legislators
DistrictLegislatorTitlePartyResidence
1 Keith SchiebelRepublican Vernon
2 Colin IdziRepublican Oriskany Falls
3 Norman LeachRepublican Camden
4 Michael ClancyDemocratic Verona
5 Michael B. WatermanRepublicanCamden
6 Steven R. BoucherRepublican Remsen
7 Gerald J. FioriniChairmanRepublican Rome
8 Richard A. FlisnikRepublican Marcy
9 Philip M. SaccoMinority LeaderDemocratic Deerfield
10 George E. JosephMajority LeaderRepublican Clinton
11 Robert KoenigRepublican Oriskany
12 Michael D. BrownDemocraticRome
13 William B. GoodmanDemocratic Whitesboro
14 Chad DavisDemocratic Clinton
15 James D'OnofrioRepublican New Hartford
16 Mary Austin PrattRepublicanNew Hartford
17 Brian P. MandryckRepublican Ava
18 Joseph M. FurgolDemocratic Utica
19 Edward P. WelshRepublicanUtica
20 William R. HendricksDemocraticUtica
21 Lori WashburnDemocraticUtica
22 Rose Ann CovertinoDemocraticUtica
23 Emil R. PaparellaRepublicanUtica

Oneida County also leans Republican in major statewide and national elections. In 2008, John McCain won the county by 6,000 votes out of 90,000 cast. He won all municipalities in the county except the city of Utica and the town of Kirkland.

Economy

The main product of Oneida County was once silverware, chiefly manufactured at Oneida Ltd.'s headquarters in Sherrill. In January 2005, the company ceased manufacturing their product, closing its main plant and selling its assets. The factory, under new ownership, continues to produce American-made silverware under the Liberty Tabletop brand.

Currently the largest non-governmental, non-healthcare product of Oneida County is gambling. Turning Stone Casino Resort is an enterprise of the Oneida Indian Nation of New York, and the largest private employer in Oneida County. [13]

Education

Communities

Cities

Towns

Villages

Census-designated places

Hamlets

Notable locations

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
  2. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on May 19, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  4. Chronic Wasting Disease Archived July 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine . Cwd-info.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
  5. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  6. "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  7. "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on August 11, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  8. "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 19, 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  9. "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  10. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  11. Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  12. "Board of Legislators | ocgov.net". ocgov.net. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017. Retrieved June 25, 2017.

Coordinates: 43°14′N75°26′W / 43.24°N 75.44°W / 43.24; -75.44