This article needs additional citations for verification . (November 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Ono no Imoko(小野 妹子) was a Japanese politician and diplomat in the late 6th and early 7th century, during the Asuka period.
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.
The Asuka period was a period in the history of Japan lasting from 538 to 710, although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period. The Yamato polity evolved greatly during the Asuka period, which is named after the Asuka region, about 25 km south of the modern city of Nara.
Ono was appointed by Empress Suiko as an official envoy (Kenzuishi) to the Sui court in 607 (Imperial embassies to China), and he delivered the famous letter from Japan's Prince Shōtoku which began "The Son of Heaven where the sun rises [Japan], to the Son of Heaven where the sun sets [China], may good health be with you." Emperor Yang was angered at being addressed in this way, although it is not clear whether he was angered more by the insult of Sui being referred to as the land of the setting sun, or by the use of Son of Heaven to refer both to himself and the emperor of Japan, hinting that they were equals, when China considered the Yamato state of Japan to be nothing more than an insignificant barbarian state. Nevertheless, Emperor Yang was probably more interested in obtaining Japan's support in his campaigns against Goguryeo than in matters of decorum, and despite the insult, he sent his own envoy, Pei Shiqing (裴世清), back to Japan with Ono.
Empress Suiko was the 33rd monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
Japanese missions to Sui China represent a lens for examining and evaluating the relationships between China and Japan in the 7th, 8th and 9th centuries. The nature of these bilateral contacts evolved gradually from political and ceremonial acknowledgment to cultural exchanges; and the process accompanied the growing commercial ties which developed over time.
Prince Shōtoku, also known as Prince Umayado or Prince Kamitsumiya, was a semi-legendary regent and a politician of the Asuka period in Japan who served under Empress Suiko. He was the son of Emperor Yōmei and his consort, Princess Anahobe no Hashihito, who was also Yōmei's younger half-sister and his much older sister. His parents were relatives of the ruling Soga clan and also he was involved in the defeat of the rival Mononobe clan. The primary source of the life and accomplishments of Prince Shōtoku comes from the Nihon Shoki.
Ono was then appointed envoy to Sui for a second time in the fall of 608 and accompanied Pei Shiqing on his return trip to China. Ono returned to Japan from his second mission in 609 and then largely disappeared from the historical record. Ono no Imoko is often cited as an example of an official who achieved promotion under the new meritorious Twelve Level Cap and Rank System implemented by Prince Shōtoku in 603. When Ono first appeared in the historical record and was appointed envoy to Sui, his rank was listed as Greater Propriety (5th rank), but he was later promoted to the top rank of Greater Virtue, largely due to his successful missions to the Sui court.
The Twelve Level Cap and Rank System, established in 603, was the first of what would be several similar cap and rank systems established during the Asuka period of Japanese history. It was adapted from similar systems that were already in place in Sui dynasty China, Paekche and Koguryŏ. The officials wore silk caps that were decorated with gold and silver, and a feather that indicated the official's rank. The ranks in the twelve level cap and rank system consisted of the greater and the lesser of each of the six Confucian virtues: virtue, benevolence, propriety, sincerity, justice and knowledge.
Ono no Imoko's family was notable for linguistics and scholarship, and the descendants of the family include Ono no Komachi, beautiful female poet; Ono no Takamura, poet and scholar; and Ono no Michikaze, calligrapher.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language. It involves analysing language form, language meaning, and language in context. The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th-century-BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī.
A scholarship is an award of financial aid for a student to further their education. Scholarships are awarded based upon various criteria, which usually reflect the values and purposes of the donor or founder of the award. Scholarship money is not required to be repaid.
Ono no Komachi was a Japanese waka poet, one of the Rokkasen — the six best waka poets of the early Heian period. She was renowned for her unusual beauty, and Komachi is today a synonym for feminine beauty in Japan. She also counts among the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals.
Emperor Bidatsu was the 30th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
Year 607 (DCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 607 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
Year 905 (CMV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
The Japanese missions to Imperial China were diplomatic embassies which were intermittently sent to the Chinese court. Any distinction amongst diplomatic envoys sent from the Imperial Japanese court or from any of the Japanese shogunates was lost or rendered moot when the ambassador was received in the Chinese capital.
Ōei (応永) was a Japanese era name after Meitoku and before Shōchō. This period spanned the years from July 1394 through April 1428. Reigning emperors were Go-Komatsu-tennō (後小松天皇,) and Shōkō-tennō (称光天皇).
The Taika Reforms were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 645. They were written shortly after the death of Prince Shōtoku, and the defeat of the Soga clan, uniting Japan. The reforms also artistically marked the end of the Asuka period and the beginning of the Hakuhō period. Crown Prince Naka no Ōe, Nakatomi no Kamatari, and Emperor Kōtoku jointly embarked on the details of the Reforms. Emperor Kōtoku then took the name "Taika" (大化), or "Great Reform".
Abe no Nakamaro, whose Chinese name was Chao Heng, was a Japanese scholar and waka poet of the Nara period. He moved to Tang dynasty China and served as the Tang jiedushi (governor) of Annam.
Wa is the oldest recorded name of Japan. The Chinese as well as Korean and Japanese scribes regularly wrote it in reference to Yamato with the Chinese character 倭 "dwarf", until the 8th century, when the Japanese replaced it with 和 "harmony, peace, balance".
Emperor Yang of Sui, personal name Yang Guang (楊廣), alternative name Ying (英), nickname Amo (阿摩), also known as Emperor Ming (明帝) during the brief reign of his grandson Yang Tong), was the second son of Emperor Wen of Sui, and the second emperor of China's Sui dynasty.
Takamuko no Kuromaro was a Japanese scholar and diplomat of the Asuka period. The Takamuko clan are descended from Cao Pi.
Yuwen Huaji was a general of the Chinese Sui Dynasty who, in 618, led a coup against Emperor Yang of Sui, killing him. He subsequently declared Emperor Yang's nephew Yang Hao emperor and led Emperor Yang's elite Xiaoguo Army (驍果) north, but was then repeatedly defeated by Li Mi, Li Shentong (李神通), and finally Dou Jiande. Believing that his defeat was near and wanting to be emperor before his ultimate defeat, he poisoned Yang Hao and declared himself the emperor of a Xu state. Dou captured him in 619 and killed him.
Liu Wenjing (568–619), courtesy name Zhaoren, formally the Duke of Lu, was a statesman and one-time Chancellor of the Tang dynasty. He initially served as an official of the Sui dynasty and was one of the driving forces in persuading the general Li Yuan to rebel against Emperor Yang of Sui. He assisted Li Yuan in establishing the Tang dynasty and becoming its first ruler. After Li Yuan became the emperor, he did not award the same honours to Liu Wenjing as he did to Pei Ji, thus Liu became very resentful. He engaged sorcerers to help him seek divine favours, but was executed after Li Yuan found out about it.
The 600s decade ran from January 1, 600, to December 31, 609.
Fujiwara no Toyonari was a Japanese statesman, courtier and politician during the Nara period.
Pei Shiqing was a Sui dynasty Chinese diplomat. He is the first envoy sent by China to Japan thus witnessed the beginning of Sino-Japanese relations.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing. It is a member of the Association of American University Presses. After the retirement of William P. Sisler in 2017, the university appointed as Director George Andreou.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.