|• McCune-Reischauer||Onsŏng kun|
|• Revised Romanization||Onseong-gun|
Map of North Hamgyong showing the location of Onsong
|Province||North Hamgyong Province|
|Administrative divisions||1 ŭp;, 10 workers' districts, 15 ri|
|• Total||430 km2 (170 sq mi)|
|Population (1991 est.)|
Onsŏng County is a county (kun) in North Hamgyong Province, North Korea, located near the border with China. The administrative center is the town (ŭp) of Onsong. Onsong is the alleged site of the former Onsong concentration camp, now closed.
The administrative divisions of North Korea are organized into three hierarchical levels. These divisions were discovered in 2002. Many of the units have equivalents in the system of South Korea. At the highest level are nine provinces, two directly governed cities, and three special administrative divisions. The second-level divisions are cities, counties, wards, and districts. These are further subdivided into third-level entities: towns, neighborhoods, villages, and workers' districts.
North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, with Pyongyang the capital and the largest city in the country. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo which was one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. To the north and northwest, the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers; it is bordered to the south by South Korea, with the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) separating the two. Nevertheless, North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
Onsong was one of the six post/garrisons (Chosŏn'gŭl : 육진; Hancha : 六鎭) established under the order of Sejong the Great of Joseon (1418–1450) to safeguard his people from the hostile Chinese and Manchurian nomads living in Manchuria.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may also be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization.
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation. Hanja-mal or Hanja-eo refers to words that can be written with Hanja, and hanmun refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "Hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because Hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters, though the stroke orders for some characters are slightly different. For example, the characters 教 and 研 are written as 敎 and 硏. Only a small number of Hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding Hanja characters.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Japanese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, Manchuria can either refer to a region that falls entirely within the People's Republic of China or a larger region divided between China and Russia. "Manchuria" is widely used outside China to denote the geographical and historical region. This region is the traditional homeland of the Buyeo, Xianbei, Khitan, and Jurchen peoples, who built several states within the area historically.
Onsong lies along the Tumen River, which forms the border with China. To the north of Onsong is Jilin Province, China. Onsong also contains the northernmost point in Korea, at 43°0'39″ N. Liangshui (Chosŏn'gŭl : 량수진; Hancha : 凉水鎮), in Tumen prefecture, is the closest Chinese town across the river.
The Tumen River, also known as the Tuman River or Duman River, is a 521-kilometre (324 mi) long river that serves as part of the boundary between China, North Korea and Russia, rising on the slopes of Mount Paektu and flowing into Sea of Japan. The river has a drainage basin of 33,800 km2.
Jilin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west.
Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1948, it has been divided between two distinct sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea. Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. Korea is bordered by China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and neighbours Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan.
The land of Onsong is mainly mountainous, although a part is flatland. It has a continental climate, and is the region of Korea with the longest winter, except the Kaema Plateau. The highest peak is Yŏndubong.
The Kaema Plateau is a highland in North Korea. It is surrounded by the Rangrim Mountains, the Macheollyeong Mountains and the Bujeollyeong Mountains. Elevation varies between 700 and 2,000 meters and is approximately 40,000 square kilometers. The Kaema Plateau slopes downward towards the northern border of the People's Republic of China and is the largest tableland in Korea; it is often called "The roof of Korea". In North Korea, the Kaema Plateau is divided into Kaema Plateau, Jagang Plateau, and Baekmu Plateau. Up to approximately one million years ago, the Kaema Plateau was an extension of the Manchurian plains, as such the rivers Hochon and Changjin were tributaries of Songhua River, however basalt from Baekdu Mountain accumulated in Changbai Korean Autonomous County, directing the rivers into Amnok River in modern times, consequently valleys were formed by the tributaries in the ensuing millennia. Some flat terrain still remains in some part in southeastern part of the plateau.
Being mountainous in nature, Onsong is not well suited to agriculture. Ironically, however, it has the highest ratio of rice paddies to dry fields of any district in North Hamgyong Province. Logging is prevalent in the Tumen River basin. Lignite coal is also produced.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat. It is considered the lowest rank of coal due to its relatively low heat content. It has a carbon content around 60–70 percent. It is mined all around the world, is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power generation, and is the coal which is most harmful to health.
Onsong is served by roads and railroads. In winter, it is also possible to cross the frozen Tumen River into China.
Onsŏng County is divided into 1 town ("Ŭp"), 10 worker's districts ("Rodongjagu") and 15 villages ("Ri"):
Sonbong County, formerly called Unggi, is a subdivision of the North Korean city of Rason. It is located at the northeastern extreme of North Korea, bordering Russia and China. It lies on Unggi Bay, an extension of the Sea of Japan. A uranium mine is allegedly located there, as is a 200 megawatt oil-fired power plant. The word Sonbong means "Vanguard" in Korean.
Kilju, sometimes romanized as Kilchu, is a county in North Hamgyong province, North Korea. The county seat is Kilju Town.
Musan County is a county in central North Hamgyong province, North Korea. It borders the People's Republic of China to the north, across the Tumen River. It is divided into one ŭp, six labor districts, and fifteen ri. The county seat is the town of Musan, Musan ŭp. Luguo and Dehua are the closest Chinese cities across the river.
Myŏnggan County, formerly known as Hwasŏng County, is a kun, or county, in North Hamgyong province, North Korea. Unlike many Korean districts that date from the Joseon Dynasty, Hwasong was created after liberation. Yŏngan was established in 1952, separated from Myŏngch'ŏn. In 1967 Yŏngan was renamed to Myŏnggan, in 1981 to Hwasŏng, and in 2004 to Myŏnggan.
Ŏrang County is a kun, or county, in North Hamgyŏng province, North Korea. It is situated on the coast of the Sea of Japan. Originally part of Kyŏngsŏng county, Ŏrang was created in 1952 following the division of Korea.
Yŏnsa County is a kun, or county, in North Hamgyŏng province, North Korea. It was created following the division of Korea, being split off from Musan county in the 1952 reorganization of local government.
Kyŏnghŭng County is a kun, or county, in North Hamgyong province, North Korea. Formerly known as Ŭndŏk County, from 1977 to 2010.
Kyŏngwŏn County is a kun, or county, in North Hamgyong province, North Korea, located at, formerly known as Saebyŏl. It is bordered by the People's Republic of China to the north and east, Kyonghung to the southeast, Hoeryong to the southwest, and Onsong to the west.
Puryŏng County is a kun, or county, in North Hamgyŏng province, North Korea.
Ragwŏn County is a county in South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea. Formerly known as T'oejo (퇴조), it was named in 1982 after Ragwŏn, paradise.
Chŏngp'yŏng County is a county in South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea. It borders South P'yŏngan province to the south, and the East Korea Bay to the east.
Kowŏn County is a county in South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea. It lies at the southern tip of the province.
Yodŏk County is a county in South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea. Originally part of Yŏnghŭng county, it became a separate entity as part of the 1952 reorganization of local government.
Sinhŭng County is a mountainous county in South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea.
Pukch'ŏng County is a county in eastern South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea.
Kimhyŏnggwŏn County is a kun, or county, in southeastern Ryanggang province, North Korea. It borders South Hamgyŏng to the south. Previously known as Pungsan, it was renamed by Kim Il Sung in 1990. He named it after his uncle, Kim Hyŏng-gwŏn. It is known for its striking scenery and for the Pungsan Dog, a large breed of hunting dog.
Taehongdan County is a kun, or county, in Ryanggang province, North Korea. It was originally part of Musan County.
Rangrim County is a kun, or county, on the eastern flank of Chagang province, North Korea. It was created in 1952 from portions of Changgang and Changjin, as part of a general reorganization of local government. Originally part of South Hamgyong, it was transferred to Chagang province in 1954. It borders Hwapyong and Ryanggang's Kimjongsuk and Kimhyongjik counties to the north, South Hamgyong's Pujon county to the east and Changjin to the south, as well as the counties of Changgang, Songgan, and Ryongnim to the west.
Provinces are the first-level division within North Korea. There are 9 provinces in North Korea: Chagang, North Hamgyong, South Hamgyong, North Hwanghae, South Hwanghae, Kangwon, North Pyongan, South Pyongan and Ryanggang.
The Tumen Border Bridge is a bridge over the Tumen River, connecting Tumen City, Jilin Province, China, with Onsong County (Namyang), North Hamgyong Province, North Korea. It was built in 1941 by the Japanese and is 515 metres long, 6 metres high, 6 metres wide. Tumen Border Post is located there. A little upstream from the bridge is Tumen Border Railway Bridge.