Horní Square with the city hall
|• Total||90.57 km2 (34.97 sq mi)|
|Elevation||257 m (843 ft)|
|• Density||620/km2 (1,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Opava (Czech pronunciation: [ˈopava] ( listen ); German : Troppau, Lower Silesian : Tropp, Polish : Opawa, Latin : Oppavia, Silesian : Ôpawa) is a city in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 56,000 inhabitants. It lies on the river Opava, located to the north-west of Ostrava. Opava is one of the historical centres of Silesia. It was a historical capital of Czech Silesia.
Opava is made up of eight self-governing boroughs in the suburbs, and of central part which is administered directly. The city is further divided into 14 administrative parts (in brackets):
Opava is located on the Opava Hilly Land (Czech : Opavská pahorkatina; a part of the Silesian Lowlands) on the Opava River (left tributary of the Oder River) and Moravice River (right tributary of the Opava River).
Opava was first documented in 1195. The first mention of Magdeburg city rights came from 1224. It was capital of the Silesian, Bohemian and finally Austrian Duchy of Opava.
In 1614 Karl I of Liechtenstein became Duke of Opava. After the majority of Silesia was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia during the War of the Austrian Succession after 1740, the remaining Silesian territory still under the control of the Habsburg Monarchy became known as Austrian Silesia, with its capital in Troppau (1742–1918). The Congress of Troppau took place there in the period 27 October – 17 December 1820.
According to the Austrian census of 1910, the town had 30,762 inhabitants, 29,587 of whom had permanent residence there. The census asked people for their native language, which showed that 27,240 (92%) were German-speaking, 2,039 (6.9%) were Czech-speaking and 274 (0.9%) were Polish-speaking. Jews were not allowed to declare Yiddish, and most of them thus declared German as their native language. The main religious group was Roman Catholics with 28,379 (92.2%), followed by Protestants with 1,155 (3.7%) and Jews with 1,112 (3.6%).
After the defeat of Austria-Hungary in World War I, Troppau became part of Czechoslovakia in 1919 as Opava.
From 1938–45 Opava was part of Nazi Germany according to the Munich agreement. Already a day before Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland in 1938, the town seceded from its okres and became its own Stadtkreis. After the end of World War II, the entire German population of Opava was forcibly expelled in 1945–46 under terms included in the Beneš decrees; the city was resettled with Czechs. Many of the expelled population settled in Bamberg, Germany.
While the Duchy of Opava has ceased to exist, the title of Duke of Troppau continues, with Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein being the current incumbent.
|Source: Historical lexicon of municipalities of the Czech Republic|
Nowadays Opava is an important business and cultural centre of Opavian Silesia.It is the location of several economic and cultural institutions serving the entire region, including the Silesian Museum which is the oldest museum in the Czech Republic, and the Silesian Institute of the Academy of Science. Opava is home to the only public university in the country not situated in a regional capital, the Silesian University (Opava). The city is part of a congested industrial area along with Ostrava and produces mining equipment. Opava also awards its own Cultural Prize.
The Silesian Theatre in Opava was founded in 1805. Plays were performed in German until the end of the World War II.
The white tower, today known as Hláska, adorns the Neo-Renaissance Opava City Hall on Horní Square.
The city's football club SFC Opava currently plays in the Czech National Football League, the second tier of the Czech football league system.
Opava is twinned with:
Upper Silesia is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic.
Ustroń(listen) is a health resort town in Cieszyn Silesia, southern Poland. It is situated in the Silesian Voivodeship, having previously been in Bielsko-Biała Voivodeship (1975–1998). It lies in the Silesian Beskids mountain range.
Cieszyn Silesia, Těšín Silesia or Teschen Silesia is a historical region in south-eastern Silesia, centered on the towns of Cieszyn and Český Těšín and bisected by the Olza River. Since 1920 it has been divided between Poland and Czechoslovakia, and later the Czech Republic. It covers an area of about 2,280 square kilometres (880 sq mi) and has about 810,000 inhabitants, of which 1,002 square kilometres (387 sq mi) (44%) is in Poland, while 1,280 square kilometres (494 sq mi) (56%) is in the Czech Republic.
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Hlučín is a town in Opava District the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It has around 14,000 inhabitants. It is the centre of the Hlučín Region.
Czech Silesia is the name given to the part of the historical region of Silesia located in the present-day Czech Republic. While not today an administrative entity in itself, Czech Silesia is, together with Bohemia and Moravia, one of the three historical Czech lands. In this context, it is often mentioned simply as "Silesia", even though it is only around one tenth of the area of the historic land of Silesia.
The Opava is a river in the north-eastern Czech Republic, a left tributary of the Oder river. It originates at the confluence of Bílá (White), Střední (Middle) and Černá (Black) Opava in Vrbno pod Pradědem and runs over 110 km (69 mi) to the Oder at Ostrava, with some 25 km (16 mi) forming the border with Poland. Its basin area is about 2,090 km2, of which 1,814 km2 in the Czech Republic.
Austrian Silesia, officially the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia, was an autonomous region of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Habsburg Monarchy. It is largely coterminous with the present-day region of Czech Silesia and was, historically, part of the larger Silesia region.
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Třinec is a statutory city in Frýdek-Místek District in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 35,000 inhabitants and is the least populated statutory city in the Czech Republic.
Vrbno pod Pradědem is a town in the Bruntál District in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 5,000 inhabitants. It is located on the Opava River. Vrbno pod Pradědem and Prudnik are headquarters of the Euroregion Praděd.
Opava is a city in the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic.
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The Principality of Opava or Duchy of Troppau was a historic territory split off from the Margraviate of Moravia before 1269 by King Ottokar II of Bohemia to provide for his natural son, Nicholas I. The Opava territory thus had not been part of the original Polish Duchy of Silesia in 1138, and was first ruled by an illegitimate offshoot of the Bohemian Přemyslid dynasty, not by the Silesian Piasts like many of the neighbouring Silesian duchies. Its capital was Opava (Troppau) in the modern day Czech Republic.
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Freistadt District was a political district in Austrian Silesia, Austria-Hungary existing between 1868 and 1920. Its administrative center was the town of Freistadt.
Opavian Silesia is a historical subregion of Silesia currently split between Poland and the Czech Republic.
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