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|Part of Second Sino-Japanese War|
Chinese soldiers, pictured by the Great Wall of China in Laiyuan in 1937
|Commanders and leaders|
| Kiyoshi Katsuki |
| Tang Enbo |
|Casualties and losses|
Operation Chahar (Japanese : チャハル作戦, romanized: Chaharu Sakusen), known in Chinese as the Nankou Campaign (Chinese :南口戰役; pinyin :Nankou Zhanyi), occurred in August 1937, following the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin at the beginning of Second Sino-Japanese War.
This was the second attack by the Kwantung Army and the Inner Mongolian Army of Prince Teh Wang on Inner Mongolia after the failure of the Suiyuan Campaign (1936). The Chahar Expeditionary Force was under the direct command of General Hideki Tōjō, the chief of staff of the Kwantung Army. A second force from the Peiping Railway Garrison Force, later the 1st Army under General Kiyoshi Katsuki, was also involved.
The Chinese forces opposing this invasion of Suiyuan were the Suiyuan Pacification Headquarters under the command of General Yan Xishan. Fu Zuoyi, the governor of Suiyuan, was made commander of the 7th Army Group, and Liu Ju-ming, governor of Chahar, was made its deputy commander, defending Chahar with the 143rd Division and two Brigades. General Tang Enbo was sent by Chiang Kai-shek with the 13th and 17th Corps from the Central Army and made Frontline Commander in Chief. The 1st Cavalry Corps was sent to Chahar under the command of Chiao Cheng-shou, facing the Mongolian forces of Teh Wang.
Following the loss of Peiking, Tang Enbo's 13th Corps (4th and 89th Divisions) took up positions in depth along the Peiking – Suiyuan Railway at Nankou, and further to the rear at Juyongguan (Juyong Pass). Gao's 17th Corps stationed its 84th Division at Chihcheng, Yanqing, and Lungkuan, covering the flank of the 13th Corps from Japanese forces in Chahar. The 21st Division was deployed in Huailai, on the railroad to the rear of Tang's forces. Zhao Cheng-shou's 1st Cavalry Corps, Liu Ru-ming's 143rd Division, and two Peace Preservation Brigades began an attack on the Mongol forces in northern Chahar.
On August 8, the Japanese 11th Independent Mixed Brigade, commanded by Gen. Shigiyasu Suzuki, began their attack on the left flank of the 13th Corps position at Nankou, but were thwarted after three days by the difficult terrain and the stubborn resistance of the Chinese. A new attack on August 11, supported by tanks and aircraft, took Nankou Station, after which Gen. Suzuki's brigade advanced on Juyong Pass.
That same day, Chiang Kai-shek ordered the activation of the 14th Army Group (10th, 83rd, and 85th Divisions) under Gen. Wei Li-huang. Coming by rail from Yingchia-chuang to Yi Hsien, elements of the 14th Army Group were sent on a ten-day march through the plains west of Beiping in a flanking movement in support of Tang Enbo's forces. The Chinese 1st Army made attacks on the Japanese forces in Liangxiang and Chaili to distract them, and sent a detachment to Heilung Pass to cover the advance of 14th Army Group. From the dates on a Japanese map of the battle, these forces did not reach the area until September, when it was too late, and clashed with Japanese forces from September 9–17 without achieving its objective.
On August 12, Tang Enbo's army counterattacked, surrounding the Japanese and cutting them off from their supplies and communications. On Aug 14th, Seishirō Itagaki's 5th Division was sent to the relief of the 11th Independent Mixed Brigade at Juyongguan.
On August 16, Itagaki arrived at Nankou and began an enveloping attack on the right flank of 13th Corps, making a five pronged attack at Huanglaoyuan. The 7th Brigade of 4th Division under Shi Jue was moved to block this maneuver, and reinforcements of Li Xian-zhou's 21st Division and Zhu Huai-bing's 94th Division were brought up, engaging in days of heavy fighting. On August 17 General Yan Xishan, Director of the Taiyuan Pacification Headquarters, directed the 7th Army, under Fu Zuoyi, to move its 72nd Division and three brigades by rail from Tatung to Huailai to reinforce Gen. Tang Enbo's forces.
Meanwhile, in northern Chahar the Chinese 1st Cavalry Corps captured Shangtu, Nanhaochan, Shangyi and Huateh from the puppet Mongolian Army of Prince Teh. Elements of the 143rd Division took Zhongli, while its main force reached Changpei. During this Chinese advance the Japanese Chahar Expeditionary Force under Lt. General Hideki Tōjō, composed of the mechanized 1st Independent Mixed Brigade and the 2nd and 15th Mixed Brigades, gathered for a counteroffensive from Changpei to Kalgan.
From August 18–19 the Chahar Expeditionary Force counterattacked from Changpei, and took Shenweitaiko on the Great Wall and the Hanno Dam. The scattered and poorly equipped Chinese forces were unable to stop the Japanese, who now threatened the Peiking – Suiyuan Railway at Kalgan. On August 20 Gen. Fu Zuoyi's 7th Army diverted its 200th and 211th Brigades, which had been moving south by rail to join Gen. Tang Enbo's forces, back to defend Kalgan. Fu's remaining 72nd Division arrived to reinforce Chenpien, and his 7th Separate Brigade was sent to defend the railhead at Huailai.
On August 21, the Japanese forces broke through at the villages of Henglingcheng and Chenbiancheng. Gen. Tang Enbo's forces awaiting reinforcement; but, having suffered over 50% casualties, still defended Huailai, Chuyung Pass, and Yenqing. Liu Ju-ming's 143rd Division fell back to defend Kalgan from the advancing Japanese.
On August 23, as Seishirō Itagaki's 5th Division pushed toward Huailai from Chenpien against Ma Yen-shou's 7th Separate Brigade, advance elements of the 14th Army Group arrived on the Japanese flank at Chingpaikou, driving off the Japanese outpost there and contacting the Japanese forces advancing to Chenpien and the front beyond. However, they were delayed in crossing the Yungting River, and their attack was delayed until it was too late to stop the Japanese advance. Due to poor communications they also failed to link up with Gen. Tang En-po's forces during the battle. After 8 days and 8 nights fighting, Itagaki, on August 24, linked up with the Kwantung army's 2nd Independent Mixed Brigade at Xiahuayuan.
On August 26, Gen. Tang Enbo's forces were ordered to break out toward the Sangchien River while Liu Ju-ming's forces were ordered to withdraw to the far side of the Hsiang-yang River.
On August 29 the Japanese unit, called the Oui Column by the Chinese and the Ohizumi Detachment (大泉支隊) by the Japanese, attacked. According to Hsu Long-hsuen this unit moved south from Tushihkou, and on August 30 attacked Yenching via Chihcheng, but was repulsed by the Chinese 17th Corps. A Japanese map of the campaign shows that the unit moved to Guyuan (沽源) on August 25 and to Xuanhua (宣化) by September 7, cutting the railroad in the rear of Tang's forces and east of Chinese forces along the Great Wall.
According to the Chinese account, after repulsing the Oui Column's attack the Chinese 17th Corps withdrew to join the rest of Tang Enbo's force on the far side of the Sangchien River. Kalgan fell to the Japanese on August 27. After Gen. Fu Zuoyi's 200th and 211th Brigades failed in a counterattack to recapture Kalgan, Fu's forces fell back to the west to defend the railway to Suiyuan at Chaikoupao. This brought an end to Operation Chahar.
According to Time magazine, on September 4 the Japanese-aligned South Chahar Government was set up at Kalgan. After the fall of Kalgan, Chahar's "complete independence" from China was declared by "100 influential persons", headed by Prince Teh, a pro-Japanese Mongolian who had long been the head of the "Inner Mongolia for Inner Mongolians" movement. It was Prince Teh, with his Mongolian levies, who helped the Japanese to take Kalgan. Prince Teh was rewarded for his collaboration with the highest position in this new Japanese puppet state, the Mongol United Autonomous Government.
Mengjiang (Mengkiang), also known in English as Mongol Border Land or the Mengjiang United Autonomous Government, was an autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, formed in 1939 as a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, then from 1940 being under the nominal sovereignty of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China. It consisted of the previously Chinese provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan, corresponding to the central part of modern Inner Mongolia. It has also been called Mongukuo or Mengguguo. The capital was Kalgan, from where it was ruled by the Mongol nobleman Prince Demchugdongrub. The territory returned to Chinese control after the defeat of the Japanese Empire in 1945.
Demchugdongrub, also known as Prince De, courtesy name Xixian (希賢), was a Qing dynasty Mongol prince descended from the Borjigin imperial clan who lived during the 20th century and became the leader of an independence movement in Inner Mongolia. He was most notable for being the chairman of the pro-Japanese Mongol Military Government (1938–39) and later of the puppet state of Mengjiang (1939–45), during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In modern day, some see Demchugdongrub as a Mongol nationalist promoting Pan-Mongolism while others view him as a traitor and as the pawn of the Japanese during World War II.
Fu Zuoyi was a Chinese military leader. He began his military career in the service of Yan Xishan, and he was widely praised for his defense of Suiyuan from the Japanese. During the final stages of the Chinese Civil War, Fu surrendered the large and strategic garrison around Beiping to Communist forces. He later served in the government of the People's Republic of China as Minister of the Hydraulic Ministry.
The Defence of the Great Wall was a campaign between the armies of Republic of China and Empire of Japan, which took place before the Second Sino-Japanese War officially commenced in 1937. It is known in Japanese as Operation Nekka and in many English sources as the First Battle of Hopei.
The Battle of Xinkou was a decisive engagement of the Taiyuan Campaign, the second of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Pingjin campaign, also known as the Battle of Pingjin, was part of the three major campaigns launched by the People's Liberation Army during the late stage of the Chinese Civil War against the Nationalist government. It began on 29 November 1948 and ended on 31 January 1949, lasting a total of 64 days. This campaign marked the end of Nationalist dominance in the North China Plain. The term Pingjin refers to the cities Beiping and Tianjin.
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The order of battle for Operation Chahar, in the history of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), was:
Order of battle Peiking – Suiyuan Railway Operation refers to the troops involved in the 1937 Peiking – Suiyuan Railway Operation.
Zhengtai Campaign was a series of battles fought between the nationalists and the communists during Chinese Civil War in the post World War II era, and resulted in the communist victory.
The Inner Mongolian campaign in the period from 1933 to 1936 were part of the ongoing invasion of northern China by the Empire of Japan prior to the official start of hostilities in the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1931, the invasion of Manchuria secured the creation of the puppet state of Manchukuo and in 1933, Operation Nekka detached the province of Jehol from the Republic of China. Blocked from further advance south by the Tanggu Truce, the Imperial Japanese Army turned its attention west, towards the Inner Mongolian provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan, with the goal of establishing a northern China buffer state. In order to avoid overt violation of the Truce, the Japanese government used proxy armies in these campaigns while Chinese resistance was at first only provided by Anti-Japanese resistance movement forces in Chahar. The former included in the Inner Mongolian Army, the Manchukuo Imperial Army, and the Grand Han Righteous Army. Chinese government forces were overtly hostile to the anti-Japanese resistance and resisted Japanese aggression only in Suiyuan in 1936.
Order of battle for the Battle of Taiyuan in the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Xuzhou was fought in May 1938 as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The order of battle Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Allied Army in the Inner Mongolia campaign of 1933.
Wang Ying was a Chinese bandit and minor Japanese puppet warlord from western Suiyuan. He was involved in the Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Army in 1933, commanding a formation called the 1st Route. Following the suppression of the Anti-Japan Allied Army, Wang Ying went over to the Japanese Kwantung Army and persuaded them to let him recruit unemployed Chinese soldiers in Chahar Province. He returned to Japanese-occupied Northern Chahar with enough men to form two Divisions that were trained by Japanese advisors. By 1936 Wang was commander of this Grand Han Righteous Army attached to the Inner Mongolian Army of Teh Wang.
Wang Jingguo was a KMT general from Shanxi. He was the son-in-law of the warlord who controlled Shanxi from 1911–1949, Yan Xishan. Wang served throughout his career in Yan's army, fighting in numerous campaigns.
The Grand Han Righteous Army (大漢義軍) was a collaborationist Chinese army cooperating with the Empire of Japan in campaigns in northern China and Inner Mongolia immediately prior to the official start of hostilities of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Japanese attempt to increase the size of their puppet state of Inner Mongolia in the Suiyuan campaign.