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Operation Morvarid (Persian : عملیات مروارید, meaning "Pearl") was an operation launched by the Iranian Navy and Air Force against the Iraqi Air Defence sites on 28 November 1980 in response to Iraq positioning radar and monitoring equipment on the Al-Bakr and Khor-al-Amaya oil rigs to counter Iranian air operations. The operation resulted in a victory for Iran, which managed to destroy both oil rigs as well as much of the Iraqi Navy and inflicted significant damage to Iraqi ports and airfields.
On 28 November 1980, after Iranian technicians prepared as many aircraft and helicopters as possible, Iranian F-4 Phantoms and F-5 Tiger IIs attacked Iraqi airfields around Basra. They managed to destroy one Iraqi MiG-21 Fishbed on the ground.
During the night of 29 November, six ships of the Islamic Republic of Iran Navy's Task Force 421 deployed Iranian marines on the Iraqi oil terminals at Mina al Bakr and Khor-al-Amaya. The marines, supported by Army Aviation's AH-1J Cobras, Bell 214s and CH-47C Chinooks, eliminated most Iraqi defenders during a short firefight, then deployed a large number of bombs and mines. They were then evacuated by helicopter and left the Iraqi oil installations and early warning bases in flames.
At the same time, two Iranian Kaman-class (La Combattante IIa missile boats) (Paykan and Joshan) blockaded the ports of Al Faw and Umm Qasr, blocking 60 foreign ships and shelling both facilities.
In response, the Iraqi Navy deployed P-6 torpedo boats and Osa II-class fast attack craft for a counter attack. The boats engaged the two Iranian missile boats which managed to sink two Osas with Harpoon missiles. The remaining three Osa-class missile boats continued to attack the missile boat Paykan. The crew of the Paykan called IRIAF for assistance which sent two F-4s (each armed with six AGM-65 Maverick missiles). By the time they arrived, however, Paykan had been sunk after being hit by two Iraqi P-15 Termit missiles. In response, the F-4s targeted the remaining Iraqi ships and sunk three Osa IIs and four P-6s.
Soon another four Iranian F-4s arrived from Shiraz Air Base, bombed the port of Al Faw, and, together with F-5s, destroyed the surrounding Iraqi SAM sites. One Iranian F-4 was hit and damaged by an Iraqi SA-7 surface-to-air missile but managed to return to base.
At this time, the Iranian F-14 Tomcat formations joined the battle[ citation needed ] and, together with several F-4s, covered the withdrawal of Task Force 421 and bombed the Iraqi oil rigs, destroying an Iraqi Aérospatiale Super Frelon helicopter. Next, they attacked the Mina al Bakr terminal. The Iraqis scrambled seven MiG-23 Floggers to defend the terminal causing the Iranian F-4s to engage the Iraqi planes and down three MiG-23MS. One Iranian F-4 was also downed during the battle. Four Iraqi MiG-23BNs attacked Joshan, which managed to shoot two down with SA-7 missiles. Shortly after, an Iranian F-14 downed one of the two surviving MiGs, forcing the last MiG-23 to flee.
The destruction of Iraqi SAM sites and radar and monitoring equipment made it possible for the IRIAF to attack via southern Iraq again.
The Iranian missile boat Joshan which took part in this operation was later sunk during Operation Praying Mantis by U.S. Navy warships.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force is the aviation branch of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army. The present Air Force came into being in the early 1980s when the former Imperial Iranian Air Force was renamed.
The al-Faw Peninsula is a peninsula in the Persian Gulf, located in the extreme southeast of Iraq. The marshy peninsula is 20 km (12 mi) southeast of Iraq's second largest city, Basra, and is part of a delta for the Shatt al-Arab river, formed by the confluence of the major Euphrates and Tigris rivers. The al-Faw Peninsula borders Iran to the northeast, with the cities of Abadan and Khorramshahr on the opposite side of the Shatt al-Arab, and Kuwait to the southwest, opposite from Bubiyan Island and Warbah Island, near the Iraqi city of Umm Qasr.
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1991:
Operation Earnest Will was the American military protection of Kuwaiti-owned tankers from Iranian attacks in 1987 and 1988, three years into the Tanker War phase of the Iran–Iraq War. It was the largest naval convoy operation since World War II.
Operation Praying Mantis was an attack on 18 April 1988, by U.S. forces within Iranian territorial waters in retaliation for the Iranian mining of the Persian Gulf during the Iran–Iraq War and the subsequent damage to an American warship.
A missile boat or missile cutter is a small, fast warship armed with anti-ship missiles. Being smaller than other warships such as destroyers and frigates, missile boats are popular with nations interested in forming a navy at lower cost. They are similar in concept to the torpedo boats of World War II; in fact, the first missile boats were modified torpedo boats with the torpedo tubes replaced by missile tubes.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Navy acronymed NEDAJA, is the naval warfare service branch of Iran's regular military, the Islamic Republic of Iran Army (Artesh).
The history of the Iranian Air Force can be divided into two phases—before the Islamic Revolution, and after it.
The Iranian Navy, traditionally located in the shallow waters of the Persian Gulf, has always been the smallest of the country's military forces. An Iranian navy in one form or another has existed since Achaemenid times in 500 BC. The Phoenician navy played an important role in the military efforts of the Persians in late antiquity in protecting and expanding trade routes along the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. With the Pahlavi dynasty in the 20th century that Iran began to consider building a strong navy to project its strength into the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. In more recent years, the country has engaged in domestic ship building industries in response to the western-backed Iraqi invasion of Iran, which left it without suppliers during an invasion.
The Grumman F-14 Tomcat has served with the United States Navy and the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF) It operated aboard U.S. aircraft carriers from 1974 to 2006 and remains in service with Iran. In-depth knowledge of its service with Iran is relatively limited.
Abbas Doran was an acclaimed fighter pilot and is regarded as a national hero of Iran.
The La Combattante IIa fast attack craft is a class of fast attack craft originally built for the German Navy as Type 148 Tiger-class fast attack craft. They were later transferred to the Hellenic Navy and the class was renamed Combattante IIa, as with similar French made ships. All the ships were under mid-life updates in 1980s. Two vessels in the class, P-74 and P-75, were fitted with RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles and a new ESM was fitted after transfer.
Joshan, hull number P224 is an Iranian fast attack/patrol missile boat claimed by the Iranian government as one of the best PT boats in the world. It was named for a vessel that was sunk by missiles fired from the US warships USS Wainwright and USS Simpson during Operation Praying Mantis in the Persian Gulf on 18 April 1988.
The First Battle of al-Faw was a battle of the Iran–Iraq War, fought on the al-Faw Peninsula between 10 February and 10 March 1986. The Iranian operation is considered to be one of Iran's greatest achievements in the Iran–Iraq War. The Iranians were able to capture the al-Faw Peninsula, cutting off Iraqi access to the Persian Gulf in the process; this in turn hardened Iraqi attitudes to prosecute the war. The Faw Peninsula was later recaptured by Iraqi forces near the end of the war by the massive and illegal use of chemical weapons.
For the Automobile see Paykan.
For the Iranian football club based in Tehran, see Paykan Tehran F.C.
Two ships of the Iranian Navy have borne the name Joshan
Two ships of the Iranian Navy have borne the name Paykan
Hossein Khalatbari Mokarram was an Iranian fighter pilot who served in the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force during Iran–Iraq War. He had flown both D- and E-models of McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II.