Orange, New South Wales

Last updated

Orange
New South Wales
Summer Street from east.jpg
The main street of Orange, Summer Street, as viewed from the vicinity of McNamara Street looking west in May 2008
Australia New South Wales location map blank.svg
Red pog.svg
Orange
Coordinates 33°17′0″S149°06′0″E / 33.28333°S 149.10000°E / -33.28333; 149.10000 Coordinates: 33°17′0″S149°06′0″E / 33.28333°S 149.10000°E / -33.28333; 149.10000
Population39,755 (30 June 2016) [1]  (10th in NSW)
Established1846
Postcode(s) 2800
Elevation863.2 m (2,832 ft) [2]
Location
LGA(s) City of Orange
Region Central West (New South Wales)
County Wellington, Bathurst
State electorate(s) Orange
Federal Division(s) Calare
Mean max tempMean min tempAnnual rainfall
17.6 °C
64 °F
6.2 °C
43 °F
895.1 mm
35.2 in

Orange is a city in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. It is 254 kilometres (158 mi) west of the state capital, Sydney [206 kilometres (128 mi) on a great circle], [3] at an altitude of 862 metres (2,828 ft). Orange had an estimated urban population of 39,755 [4] as of June 2016 making the city a significant regional centre. A significant nearby landmark is Mount Canobolas with a peak elevation of 1,395 metres (4,577 ft) AHD and commanding views of the district.

Contents

Orange is the birthplace of poets Banjo Paterson and Kenneth Slessor, although Paterson lived in Orange for only a short time as an infant. Walter W. Stone, book publisher (Wentworth Books) and passionate supporter of Australian literature, was also born in Orange. The first Australian Touring Car Championship, known today as V8 Supercar Championship Series, was held at the Gnoo Blas Motor Racing Circuit in 1960. [5]

History

Summer Street in 1929 Orange, 1929 (8208833593).jpg
Summer Street in 1929

In 1822 Captain Percy Simpson marched into the Wellington District and established a convict settlement which was called "Blackman's Swamp" after James Blackman; Simpson had employed James Blackman as a guide because he had already accompanied an earlier explorer, John Oxley into that region. [6]

In the late 1820s, the surveyor J. B. Richards worked on a survey of the Macquarie River below Bathurst and also of the road to Wellington. On a plan dated 1829, he indicated a village reserve, in the parish of Orange. Sir Thomas Mitchell named the parish Orange, as he had been an associate of the Prince of Orange in the Peninsular War, when both were aides-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, whose title was bestowed on the valley to the west by Oxley. [7]

Initial occupation by British graziers began in late 1829, and tiny settlements eventually turned into larger towns as properties came into connection with the road. In 1844, the surveyor Davidson was sent to check on encroachments onto the land reserved for a village, and to advise on the location for a township. His choices were Frederick's Valley, Pretty Plains, or Blackman's Swamp.

Blackman's Swamp was chosen, and it was proclaimed a village and named Orange by Major Thomas Mitchell in 1846 in honor of Prince William of Orange. At nearby Ophir, a significant gold find in Australia was made in 1851, resulting in a sporadic population movement which is known as the Australian gold rush. Additional gold finds in nearby areas led to the establishment of Orange as a central trading centre for the gold.

The growth of Orange continued as the conditions were well suited for agriculture, and in 1860 it was proclaimed a municipality. The railway from Sydney reached Orange in 1877. In 1946, 100 years after it was first being established as a village, Orange was proclaimed as a minor city.

Population

According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 37,182 people in the Orange urban centre.

Geography and climate

Owing to its altitude, Orange has a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb), with warm summers (though with cool mornings) and cool winters with frequent morning frosts and light to moderate, sometimes heavy snowfalls. The city is relatively wet for an inland location owing to orographic effects from Mount Canobolas, especially during the cooler months when snow falls; Orange is amongst the few cities in Australia to receive regular snowfall, and is likewise the snowiest city in Australia (not counting smaller towns such as Oberon). Compared with most population centres in Australia it has colder winters, especially in terms of its daytime maximum temperatures, owing chiefly to its South-Westerly exposure. In summer, the average (and absolute) maximum temperatures are also lower than in most inland centres, on account of its elevation. [8] Owing to its inland location, the humidity is low in the summer months with the dewpoint typically around 10 °C. Having 99.8 clear days annually, [9] it is still cloudier than the coastal areas of Sydney and Wollongong (104 and 107 clear days, respectively), with a marked lack of sunshine in Winter compared to Summer [10] [11] The climate has enabled the area to be a major apple and pear producer, and more recently a centre for cool-weather wine production. [12]

Climate data for Orange Airport
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)37.4
(99.3)
40.1
(104.2)
33.0
(91.4)
29.8
(85.6)
22.0
(71.6)
18.5
(65.3)
17.8
(64.0)
20.4
(68.7)
25.6
(78.1)
30.7
(87.3)
35.6
(96.1)
35.0
(95.0)
40.1
(104.2)
Average high °C (°F)26.0
(78.8)
25.2
(77.4)
22.4
(72.3)
18.3
(64.9)
13.9
(57.0)
10.4
(50.7)
9.3
(48.7)
10.7
(51.3)
13.7
(56.7)
17.3
(63.1)
20.5
(68.9)
23.9
(75.0)
17.6
(63.7)
Average low °C (°F)12.2
(54.0)
12.3
(54.1)
9.6
(49.3)
6.2
(43.2)
3.6
(38.5)
1.5
(34.7)
0.7
(33.3)
1.4
(34.5)
3.3
(37.9)
5.8
(42.4)
7.9
(46.2)
10.1
(50.2)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F)1.7
(35.1)
2.4
(36.3)
−0.5
(31.1)
−3.5
(25.7)
−6.6
(20.1)
−6.5
(20.3)
−7.1
(19.2)
−5.8
(21.6)
−6.0
(21.2)
−3.0
(26.6)
−1.0
(30.2)
−1.0
(30.2)
−7.1
(19.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)84.0
(3.31)
82.4
(3.24)
53.7
(2.11)
52.6
(2.07)
62.5
(2.46)
66.2
(2.61)
88.2
(3.47)
93.6
(3.69)
79.0
(3.11)
78.2
(3.08)
76.0
(2.99)
78.8
(3.10)
895.1
(35.24)
Average rainy days8.78.27.27.210.112.413.713.511.610.810.39.0122.7
Average afternoon relative humidity (%)44495155637070656156534557
Source: [9]
Climate data for Orange Agricultural Institute
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)37.2
(99.0)
39.2
(102.6)
33.3
(91.9)
29.4
(84.9)
21.6
(70.9)
18.0
(64.4)
16.5
(61.7)
21.8
(71.2)
25.7
(78.3)
31.3
(88.3)
36.0
(96.8)
34.8
(94.6)
39.2
(102.6)
Average high °C (°F)26.5
(79.7)
25.9
(78.6)
22.7
(72.9)
18.5
(65.3)
14.2
(57.6)
10.6
(51.1)
9.5
(49.1)
11.1
(52.0)
14.1
(57.4)
17.8
(64.0)
21.3
(70.3)
24.6
(76.3)
18.1
(64.6)
Average low °C (°F)13.3
(55.9)
13.2
(55.8)
10.7
(51.3)
7.2
(45.0)
4.6
(40.3)
2.6
(36.7)
1.5
(34.7)
2.1
(35.8)
4.2
(39.6)
6.6
(43.9)
9.2
(48.6)
11.2
(52.2)
7.2
(45.0)
Record low °C (°F)1.0
(33.8)
2.8
(37.0)
1.0
(33.8)
−1.6
(29.1)
−4.0
(24.8)
−5.0
(23.0)
−5.6
(21.9)
−4.2
(24.4)
−5.4
(22.3)
−2.0
(28.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
0.5
(32.9)
−5.6
(21.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)87.1
(3.43)
75.1
(2.96)
64.7
(2.55)
53.0
(2.09)
67.6
(2.66)
74.3
(2.93)
90.3
(3.56)
95.0
(3.74)
80.1
(3.15)
79.9
(3.15)
76.2
(3.00)
80.6
(3.17)
923.9
(36.39)
Source #1: [13]
Source #2: [14]

Industries

Orange is a well-known fruit growing district, and produces apples, pears, and many stone fruits such as cherries, peaches, apricots, and plums; oranges are not grown in the area, since its climate is too cool. In recent years, a large number of vineyards have been planted in the area for rapidly expanding wine production. The growth of this wine industry, coupled with the further development of Orange as a gourmet food capital, has ensured Orange's status as a prominent tourism destination.

Other large industries include:

Orange is also the location of the headquarters of the New South Wales Department of Industry (Department of Industry, Skills and Regional Development, the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries).

Education

Primary and Public schools

The following Primary Schools are not within the city limits of Orange but are located within the rural fringe of Orange:

Secondary schools

Orange Public School, Kite Street Orange NSW Public School.jpg
Orange Public School, Kite Street

Tertiary education

Orange Regional Conservatorium

Churches

Holy Trinity Anglican Church Orange NSW Holy Trinity Church.jpg
Holy Trinity Anglican Church
St John's Uniting Church, Kite Street Orange NSW St Johns.jpg
St John's Uniting Church, Kite Street

Suburbs

The following are listed as the suburbs within Orange City Council, according to the New South Wales Division of Local Government: [15]

Mining

Cadia-Ridgeway Mine is a large open cut gold and copper mine located about 20 kilometres south of Orange, the mine has been developed throughout the 1990s employing several thousand employees with an expected lifespan of several decades. Cadia is the second largest open cut mine in Australia after the Super Pit at Kalgoorlie. Large mineral deposits are also being uncovered from the more recently developed Ridgeway underground mine which is adjacent to the Cadia Mine.

The mine is operated by Newcrest Mining. Cadia-Ridgeway is one of two gold mines Newcrest currently operates in Australia, the other being Telfer in Western Australia. The company also owns and operates the Gosowong Mine in Indonesia and the Lihir mine in Papua New Guinea (both gold mines) amongst others . [18]

Winemaking

The Orange wine region is defined as the area above 600m in the local government areas of Orange, Cabonne and Blayney and can be usefully described as a circle around Orange. The Orange region is good for grapegrowing and winemaking due to a combination of geology, soils, climate and temperature. Together these factors combine to produce grapes and wine of distinct flavours and colour. The climate perhaps plays the biggest part in giving Orange some distinct natural advantages – the cool temperatures during most of the growing season coupled with dry autumn conditions are ideal for grape growing. [19]

Wineries

Wineries that use Orange region grapes in their wines include Brokenwood Wines (Hunter Valley based), Logan (Mudgee), Tamburlaine (Hunter Valley), Gartelmann (Hunter Valley), Windowrie (Central Ranges), Eloquesta Wines (Mudgee) and Lowe Wines (Mudgee). In 2007, South Australian based Penfolds winery released the 2007 Penfolds Bin 311 Orange Region Chardonnay. [20]

Media

Orange is served by several radio stations, including 105.1 2GZFM, 105.9 Star FM, FM107.5 Orange Community Radio, 103.5 Rhema FM, HIT Country 88 FM and 2EL 1089AM – a commercial station that gets most of its programming from 2SM in Sydney. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) also broadcasts from four radio stations in Orange including ABC Local Radio (2CR) on 549AM and three national networks – ABC Classic FM on 102.7 FM, ABC Radio National on 104.3 FM, and Triple J on 101.9 FM.

The city receives five network television stations – Prime7 (a Seven Network affiliate), WIN TV (a Ten Network affiliate), Southern Cross Nine (a Nine Network affiliate), ABC TV and SBS One.

Of the three commercial networks, Prime7, WIN and Nine produce local news bulletins on weeknights at 6pm, all produced locally and broadcast from studios outside the region (Canberra, Wollongong respectively). Nine is the newest of the three local news stations, launched on February 20, 2017 in conjunction with its affiliate partner, the Nine Network, broadcasts a dedicated Nine News Central West bulletin to Orange, Dubbo, Bathurst and the entire Central West region of NSW. WIN also produces a statewide late night news bulletin for southern New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. All local news stations provide short local news updates throughout the day.

Subscription television service Foxtel is available in Orange and the surrounding region via satellite.

The local newspapers are the Central Western Daily , the Midstate Observer and Orange City Life.

Clubs and entertainment

Orange has several music clubs which meet regularly. The Orange Blues Club [21] meets at the Victoria Hotel. The Orange Blues Club also hold an annual Blues Music Festival – Black Stump Blues Festival [22] The Orange Jazz Club [23] meets 1st Sunday monthly at the Royal Hotel.

Water resources

Orange has several water sources used for domestic consumption, both currently in use and formerly used. Currently Suma Park Dam and Spring Creek Reservoir are used for domestic water consumption. Two other dams, Lake Canobolas and Gosling Creek Reservoir, were previously used for domestic water consumption however are now used for recreational purposes. The city is currently on Level 2 water restrictions. Orange City Council is undertaking a number of strategies to supplement its supply, including stormwater harvesting.

The first batch of harvested stormwater was released into Suma Park Dam on 21 April 2009. The harvested stormwater was tested by Analytical Laboratory Services, an independent laboratory based in Sydney. ALS tested for 90 potential pollutants. The tests revealed that the water quality met all targets. The first batch contained 14 megalitres. It is believed to be an Australian first for harvesting stormwater for potable use. The hardware is in place, operating rules have been developed and environmental factors and impacts on downstream users have been considered. A three-month trial will ensure all these elements are working together to ensure high water quality and environmental standards are met. There are several phases involved in the commissioning period. The hardware, which includes three separate pumping stations, creek flow monitoring points and advanced electronics including fibre optic cables, will undergo further operating tests. The other elements of the scheme include a weir on Blackmans Swamp Creek, which creates a 3 megalitre pool and the site for the first pump station, a 200 megalitre dam and two 17 megalitre batching ponds.The pumps on the creek transfer stormwater to the 200 megalitre dam at a rate of up to 450 litres per second and are designed to rapidly extract peak storm flows from the creek. The operating rules require that a base flow immediately downstream in the creek must be maintained. The creek flow monitoring points ensure these standards are met. The monitoring station also measures when harvesting can commence. The trigger is flows passing the monitor in Blackmans Swamp Creek exceeding 1000 litres per second.

The local mine, Cadia-Ridgeway Mine, uses the city's treated effluent to supplement its water supply.

Orange is currently planning to implement a pipeline from the Macquarie river to boost the town water supply. This is hotly debated, and researchers believe that it will endanger threatened wetland areas. [24]

Transport

Roads

Orange is situated on the Mitchell Highway, linking the city to Molong, Wellington, Dubbo and Bourke to the north west, and to Bathurst to the east and from there to Sydney via the Great Western Highway (260 km or 160 mi). Due west are Parkes (100 km or 62 mi) and Forbes (125 km or 78 mi), which is midway along the Newell Highway, running from Brisbane, Queensland to Melbourne, Victoria. In 2007 a bypass road, known as the northern distributor road, was opened for use after decades of planning.

Public transport

Orange Buslines operate a number of routes within the city and a service to the neighbouring city of Bathurst.

Newman's Bus Service operates route 2 on weekdays to Blayney.

NSW TrainLink operate several coach services with connecting train services from Lithgow to Sydney, as well as a less frequent Coach service to Cootamundra for connection to Melbourne. Daily coach service to Sydney railway station is available.

Air

Orange is also serviced by a regional-class airport, Orange Airport, located approximately 15 km to the south of the city, in an area known as Huntley.

Railways

XPT at Orange station XPT at Orange station.jpg
XPT at Orange station

Orange has two railway stations. The main station, on the Main Western Line to Bourke, was opened in 1877 [25] and is served by the daily NSW TrainLink Central West XPT service between Sydney and Dubbo and the weekly Outback Xplorer service between Sydney and Broken Hill. A smaller station, opened in 1970, [26] known as Orange East Fork, lies on the branch line to Broken Hill and is served by the weekly Indian Pacific service to Perth.

Sister cities

Orange is a sister city to: [27]

Notable residents

Business

Film and Television

Food and Hospitality

Medicine

Music + Creative Arts

Poetry

Police

Politics

Sports

Attractions

Orange has many attractions. There are bush walking trails in Orange including; Spring Glade Walking Track, Cook Park Heritage Walk, Summits Walking Tracks, Nangar National Park and Mullion Range State Conservation Area. [45] Borenore Caves is a series of limestone caves. Duntryleague Golf Club and Clubhouse, Mount Canobolas and Federal Falls in the Mount Canobolas State Conservation Area, Lake Canobolas, Gnoo Blas Motor Racing Circuit, the historic centre of Orange and the Orange Botanic Gardens are also near the town.

Clubs

Heritage listings

Orange has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:

Historic buildings

  • Anson House
  • Australia Cinema
  • Bowen Terrace
  • Centrepoint Arcade Building
  • Cook Park Greenhouses and caretakers houses
  • Dalton Bros Buildings (Myer Building)
  • Hotel Canobolas (a fine example of Art-Deco style, erected 1939)
  • Hotel Orange
  • Holy Trinity Anglican Church
  • Memorial Hall
  • Metropolitan Hotel
  • Orange Court House
  • Orange Fire Station
  • Orange Post Office
  • Orange Public School
  • Orange Town Hall
  • Royal Hotel
  • Saint Joseph's Church
  • Scout Hall
  • The former Strand Theatre
  • Wyoming Court

Historic houses

  • Strathroy Manor
  • Duntryleague House
  • Kangaroobie Mansion
  • Croagh Patrick
  • Woloroi House
  • Galbally
  • Killenny
  • Mena
  • Ammerdown House
  • Glenroi House (no longer standing, demolished for McDonald's)

See also

References

  1. "Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2016". Australian Bureau of Statistics . Australian Government . Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  2. "Climate statistics for Orange Post Office". Australian Bureau of Meteorology . Australian Government . Retrieved 21 February 2009.
  3. "Great Circle Distance between ORANGE and SYDNEY". Geosciences Australia website. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  4. "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2016: Population Estimates by Significant Urban Area, 2006 to 2016". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2017. Estimated resident population, 30 June 2016.
  5. Graham Howard & Stewart Wilson (1986). "1960: Let the race begin". Australian Touring Car Championship, 25 Fabulous Years. Gordon, NSW: R&T Publishing. pp. 14–26. ISBN   0-9590378-2-9.
  6. Greaves, Bernard. "Blackman, James (1792–1868)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  7. "PLACE NAMES". The Australian Women's Weekly . National Library of Australia. 13 May 1964. p. 61. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  8. "Orange Region Terroir". Wines of Orange. 2010.
  9. 1 2 "Climate statistics for Orange Airport". Bureau of Meteorology. Commonwealth of Australia. 2 June 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  10. "Bureau of Meteorology – Summary statistics WOLLONGONG UNIVERSITY". Australian Bureau of Meteorology . Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  11. "Climate statistics for Australian locations". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  12. "Orange Wine Region". WineCompanion.com.au. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  13. "Monthly mean temperatures: Orange Agricultural Institute". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  14. "Monthly rainfall: Orange Agricultural Institute". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  15. "Suburb Search: Orange City Council". Local Council Boundaries. Division of Local Government. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  16. "Event information". Australian National Field Days. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  17. "Lucknow". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales . Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  18. http://www.centralwesterndaily.com.au/news/local/news/general/stink-over-effluent/1557992.aspx
  19. http://www.winesoforange.com.au/
  20. "Bin 311 Orange Chardonnay 2007" (PDF). Penfolds . Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  21. "Orange Blues Club" . Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  22. "Black Stump Blues Festival" . Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  23. "Orange Jazz Club" . Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  24. Cubby, Ben, Pipeline plan puts protected wetlands in peril, say researchers
  25. "Orange railway station". www.nswrail.net. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
  26. "Orange East Fork Platform". www.nswrail.net. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
  27. Rutledge, Martha. "Dalton, James (1834–1919)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  28. Byrnes, Holly (8 August 2011). "Kate Bracks of Orange in NSW wins MasterChef in 2011". The Daily Telegraph. Australia. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  29. McDonald, Tim (26 March 2015). "Physiotherapist and academic Janet Carr transformed rehabilitation practice". The Sydney Morning Herald . Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  30. Hume, Anika (16 November 2011). "The Wiggles come to Mudgee". Mudgee Guardian. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  31. Stephens, Tony (19 July 2004). "Would-be Queen Susan dies uncrowned". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  32. Semmler, Clement. "Paterson, Andrew Barton (Banjo) (1864–1941)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  33. Haskell, Dennis. "Slessor, Kenneth Adolf (1901–1971)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  34. Swanton, Bruce. "Hanson, Frederick John (1914–1980)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  35. "Former deputy premier Cutler dead". The Sydney Morning Herald. 24 September 2006. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
  36. Wainwright, Robert (1 December 2007). "Don't let this fresh face fool you". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  37. Hill, A. J. "Howse, Sir Neville Reginald (1863–1930)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  38. "Jason Belmonte: player profile". Professional Bowlers Association. 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  39. "Australia: Players & Officials: David Lyons". ESPN Scrum. 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
  40. "James Maloney profile". Television New Zealand. 7 August 2009. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  41. Ritchie, Dean (6 August 2009). "Eels send Daniel Mortimer back to family vineyard in Orange to re-charge". The Daily Telegraph. Australia. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
  42. "About us". Mortimers of Orange. 2010. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
  43. "Lucas John Kendall Parsons - Golf Champion". Orange City Council. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
  44. "Orange Tourism". 16 May 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  45. "Goldseekers Orienteering Club".
  46. http://www.wentworthgolfclub.com.au
  47. "Uniting Church & Kindergarten Hall". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00419. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  48. "Bowen Terrace". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00013. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  49. "Union Bank of Australia (former)". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00230. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  50. "Bloomfield Hospital". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H01745. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  51. "Orange Railway Station and yard group". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H01218. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  52. "Berrilea". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00361. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  53. "Orange Post Office". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H01416. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  54. "Duntryleague with Lodge, Park, Gates, Stables". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00318. Retrieved 18 May 2018.