Aerial view of central Orange
|Intercommunality||Pays Réuni d'Orange|
|• Mayor (2020–2026)||Jacques Bompard (LS)|
|74.2 km2 (28.6 sq mi)|
|• Density||390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Elevation||24–127 m (79–417 ft) |
(avg. 50 m or 160 ft)
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Includes||Roman Theatre of Orange and Triumphal Arch of Orange|
|Criteria||Cultural: iii, vi|
|Inscription||1981 (5th Session)|
Orange (French pronunciation: [ɔʁɑ̃ʒ] ; Provençal: Aurenja(classical norm) or Aurenjo(Mistralian norm)) is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in Southeastern France, about 21 km (13 mi) north of Avignon. With a population of 28,922 as of 2018, it is the second most populated city of Vaucluse after Avignon.
The settlement is attested as Arausio and Arausion in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, then as civitas Arausione in the 4th century, civitas Arausicae in 517 (via a Germanized form *Arausinga), Aurengia civitatis in 1136, and as Orenga in 1205.
The name Arausio can be explained as the Gaulish ar-aus(i)o- ('temple, cheek'), itself derived from an earlier Proto-Celtic *far-aws(y)o-, which literally means 'in front of the ear' (cf. Old Irish ara, arae; Ancient Greek pareiaí, parauai < *par-ausiā).It is cognate with the name of other ancient settlements, including Arausa, Arausia, Arausona (Dalmatia) and Oraison (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence).
Roman Orange was founded in 35 BC by veterans of the second legion as Arausio (after the local Celtic water god), or Colonia Julia Firma Secundanorum Arausio in full, "the Julian colony of Arausio established by the soldiers of the second legion." The name was originally unrelated to that of the orange fruit, but was later conflated with it.
A previous Celtic settlement with that name existed in the same place, and a major battle, which is generally known as the Battle of Arausio, had been fought in 105 BC between two Roman armies and the Cimbri and Teutones tribes.
Arausio covered an area of some 70 ha (170 acres) and was well-endowed with civic monuments; in addition to the theatre and arch, it had a monumental temple complex and a forum.
It was the capital of a wide area of northern Provence, which was parcelled up into lots for the Roman colonists. "Orange of two thousand years ago was a miniature Rome, complete with many of the public buildings that would have been familiar to a citizen of the Roman Empire, except that the scale of the buildings had been reduced – a smaller theater to accommodate a smaller population, for example."It is found in both the Tabula Peutingeriana and Le cadastre d'Orange maps.
The town prospered, but was sacked by the Visigoths in 412. It had, by then, become largely Christianised, and from the end of the third century constituted the Ancient Diocese of Orange. No longer a residential bishopric, Arausio, as it is called in Latin, is today listed by the Roman Catholic Church as a titular see.It hosted two important synods, in 441 and 529. The Second Council of Orange was of importance in condemning what later came to be called Semipelagianism.
The sovereign Carolingian counts of Orange had their origin in the eighth century; they passed into the family of the lords of Baux. From the 12th century, Orange was raised to a minor principality, the Principality of Orange, as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. During this period, the town and the principality of Orange belonged to the administration and province of Dauphiné.
When William the Silent, count of Nassau, with estates in the Netherlands, inherited the title Prince of Orange in 1544, the principality was incorporated into the holdings of what became the House of Orange-Nassau. This pitched it into the Protestant side in the Wars of Religion, during which the town was badly damaged. In 1568, the Eighty Years' War began with William as stadtholder leading the bid for independence from Spain. William the Silent was assassinated in Delft in 1584. His son, Maurice of Nassau (Prince of Orange after his elder brother died in 1618), with the help of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, solidified the independence of the Dutch republic. The United Provinces survived to become the Netherlands, which is still ruled by the House of Orange-Nassau. William, Prince of Orange, ruled England as William III of England. Orange gave its name to other Dutch-influenced parts of the world, such as the Oranges (West Orange, South Orange, East Orange, Orange) in New Jersey and the Orange Free State in South Africa.
The city remained part of scattered Nassau holdings until it was repeatedly captured by the forces of Louis XIV during his wars of the late 17th century. The city was occupied by France in 1673, 1679, 1690, 1697 and 1702–1713 before it was finally ceded to France in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht.Following the French Revolution in 1789, Orange was absorbed into the French département of Drôme, then Bouches-du-Rhône, then finally Vaucluse. However, the title remained with the Dutch princes of Orange.
Orange attracted international attention in 1995, when it elected a member of National Front (FN), Jacques Bompard, as its mayor. Bompard left the FN in 2005 and became a member of the conservative Movement for France until 2010, when he founded the League of the South.
Orange was also home to the French Foreign Legion's armored First Foreign Cavalry Regiment until 10 July, when the regiment officially moved to the Camp de Carpiagne in the 9th arrondissement of Marseille (Massif des Calanques).
With 28,922 residents (as of 2018), Orange is the second-largest commune of Vaucluse by population after Avignon and just before Carpentras.
|Source: EHESS and INSEE (1968-2017)|
The town is renowned for its Roman architecture, and its Roman theatre, the Théâtre antique d'Orange, is described as the most impressive still existing in Europe. There is some debate about when the arch was built, but current research that accepts the inscription as evidence favours a date during the reign of emperor Augustus. The arch also contains an inscription dedicated to emperor Tiberius in AD 27, when it was reconstructed by emperor Tiberius to celebrate the victories of Germanicus over the German tribes in Rhineland. The arch, theatre, and surroundings were listed in 1981 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
The Musée (Museum) displays the biggest (7.56 x 5.90 m) cadastral Roman maps ever recovered, etched on marble. They cover the area between Orange, Nîmes, and Montélimar.
In 1869, the Roman theatre was restored and has been the site of a music festival. The festival, given the name Chorégies d'Orange in 1902, has been held annually ever since, and is now famous as an international opera festival.
In 1971, the "New Chorégies" were started and became an overnight, international success.[ citation needed ] Many top international opera singers have performed in the theatre, such as Barbara Hendricks, Plácido Domingo, Montserrat Caballé, Roberto Alagna, René Pape and Inva Mula. Operas such as Tosca , Aida , Faust , and Carmen have been staged here, many with a sumptuous staging and also receiving outstanding acclaim.
The Roman theatre is one of three heritage sites at which the Roman wall remains.
The SNCF offers rail service north to Lyon and Paris, as well as south to Avignon and Marseille.[ citation needed ]
Orange is twinned with:
Orange forms the Union of Orange Cities together with Breda, Diest and Dillenburg.
Orange features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), with just too much rainfall in summer to have a 'Mediterranean' (Csa) classification. Summers are hot and relatively dry. Most rainfall occurs in spring and autumn, though with gentle temperatures. Winters are mild, but harsh frost and snow are not unheard of. °C.On June 28, 2019, the temperature hit 41.0
|Climate data for Orange, France (altitude 53m, 1981–2010 averages, extremes 1952–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||20.5|
|Average high °C (°F)||9.9|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||5.8|
|Average low °C (°F)||1.6|
|Record low °C (°F)||−13.4|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||51.0|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||5.7||4.9||4.9||7.2||6.3||4.7||3.0||3.5||5.5||7.2||6.6||6.4||66.0|
|Average relative humidity (%)||77||74||69||66||66||64||71||78||78||79||71||77||72.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||132.0||137.1||192.5||230.4||264.6||298.9||345.3||310.7||237.6||187.1||135.2||123.8||2,595.2|
|Source 1: Météo France|
|Source 2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity 1961–1990)|
Avignon is the prefecture of the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of Southeastern France. Located on the left bank of the river Rhône, the commune had a population of 93,671 as of the census results of 2017, with about 16,000 living in the ancient town centre enclosed by its medieval walls.
Provence is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône to the west to the Italian border to the east; it is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It largely corresponds with the modern administrative region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur and includes the departments of Var, Bouches-du-Rhône, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, as well as parts of Alpes-Maritimes and Vaucluse. The largest city of the region is Marseille.
Vaucluse is a department in the southeastern French region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. It had a population of 559,016 as of 2016. The department's prefecture is Avignon.
Diest is a city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant. Situated in the northeast of the Hageland region, Diest neighbours the provinces of Antwerp to its North, and Limburg to the East and is situated around 60 km from Brussels. The municipality comprises the city of Diest proper and the towns of Deurne, Kaggevinne, Molenstede, Schaffen and Webbekom. As of January 1, 2006, Diest had a total population of 22,845. The total area is 58.20 km² which gives a population density of 393 inhabitants per km².
Prince of Orange is a title originally associated with the sovereign Principality of Orange, in what is now southern France.
Carpentras is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
The Pont Saint-Bénézet, also known as the Pont d'Avignon, is a famous medieval bridge in the town of Avignon, in southern France.
Châteauneuf-du-Pape is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in Southeastern France. The village lies about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) to the east of the Rhône and 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) north of the town of Avignon. In the 2012 census the commune had a population of 2,179.
The Principality of Orange was, from 1163 to 1713, a feudal state in Provence, in the south of modern-day France, on the east bank of the river Rhone, north of the city of Avignon, and surrounded by the independent papal state of Comtat Venaissin.
Arcueil is a commune in the Val-de-Marne department in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 5.3 km (3.3 mi) from the center of Paris.
Castellane is a commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in southeastern France. With about 1,600 inhabitants, Castellane has the distinction of being the least-populated sub-prefecture of France.
The arrondissement of Carpentras is an arrondissement of France in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. It has 77 communes. Its population is 215,881 (2016), and its area is 1,807.0 km2 (697.7 sq mi).
The Cavari or Cavares were a Gallic people dwelling in the western part of modern Vaucluse, around the present-day cities of Avignon, Orange and Cavaillon, during the Roman period. They were at the head of a confederation of tribes that included the Tricastini, Segovellauni and Memini, and whose territory stretched further north along the Rhône Valley up to the Isère river.
Air Base 115 Orange-Caritat is a French Air and Space Force base in Vaucluse, France. It is equipped with one runway and was named after Maurice de Seynes, a French-Soviet aircraft pilot. It is located 5 kilometres (3 mi) east of Orange, a commune in the Vaucluse department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in France.
The ancient residential diocese of Orange in the Comtat Venaissin in Provence, a fief belonging to the Papacy, was suppressed by the French government during the French Revolution. It was revived in 2009 as a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.
The architecture of Provence includes a rich collection of monuments from the Roman era, Cistercian monasteries from the Romanesque period, medieval castles and fortifications, as well as numerous hilltop villages and fine churches. Provence was a very poor region after the 18th century, but in the 20th century it had an economic revival and became the site of one of the most influential buildings of the 20th century, the Unité d'Habitation of the architect Le Corbusier in Marseille.
Montmeyan is a commune (municipality), located in the department of Var, in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, southeastern France.
The Cadaster of Orange also known as the cadastre d'Orange is an ancient Roman era map found at the French city of Orange. The plan is carved in stone and shows the land allocation for the area between Orange and Nice during the 2nd century.
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Avignon in southern France.
The Roman Theatre of Orange is a Roman theatre in Orange, Vaucluse, France. It was built early in the 1st century AD. The structure is owned by the municipality of Orange and is the home of the summer opera festival, the Chorégies d'Orange.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Orange (Vaucluse) .|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Orange (France) .|