Order of the Dannebrog

Last updated
Order of the Dannebrog
Dannebrogordenen
Order of the Dannebrog Grand Cross Star 1850.jpg
Order of the Dannebrog, Breast Star with Grand Cross, unofficial model
Awarded by
Royal coat of arms of Denmark.svg
Sovereign of Denmark [1]
Type Chivalric order with six classes, one class augmentation, and one decoration
Established12 October 1671 [2]
CountryFlag of Denmark (state).svg  Kingdom of Denmark
Ribbon DNK Order of Danebrog Grand Cross BAR.png
Grand Commander

Order of the Dannebrog S.K.svg
Grand Cross with Diamonds
Order of the Dannebrog S.K.svg
Grand Cross
Order of the Dannebrog K1.svg
Commander 1st Class
Order of the Dannebrog K.svg
Commander
Order of the Dannebrog R1.svg
Knight 1st Class
Order of the Dannebrog R.svg
Knight

Contents

Order of the Dannebrog R1.svg
Cross of Honour
MottoGud og Kongen (God and the King)
CriteriaMeritorious civil or military service, for a particular contribution to the arts, sciences or business life or for those working for Danish interests
StatusCurrently constituted
Founder Christian V
Grand Master Queen Margrethe II
Classes
Grand Commander
Grand Cross with Diamonds
Grand Cross
Commander 1st Class
Commander
Knight 1st Class
Knight
Post-nominals
(S.Kmd)
(S.K.i diam.)
(S.K.)
(K1)
(K)
(R1)
(R)
Precedence
Next (higher) Order of the Elephant
Next (lower) Medal of Merit
Related Decoration of the Cross of Honour of the Dannebrog
Marshall of the Queen with Grand Cross Presentacion de Cartas Credenciales en Dinamarca (10837327896).jpg
Marshall of the Queen with Grand Cross

The Order of the Dannebrog (Danish : Dannebrogordenen) [3] is a Danish order of chivalry instituted in 1671 by Christian V. Until 1808, membership in the order was limited to fifty members of noble or royal rank [4] who formed a single class known as White Knights to distinguish them from the Blue Knights who were members of the Order of the Elephant. [5] In 1808, the Order was reformed and divided into four classes. The Grand Commander class is reserved to persons of princely origin. It is awarded only to royalty with close family ties with the Danish Royal House. The statute of the Order was amended in 1951 by a Royal Ordinance so that both men and women could be members of the Order.

Today, the Order of the Dannebrog is a means of honouring and rewarding the faithful servants of the modern Danish state for meritorious civil or military service, for a particular contribution to the arts, sciences or business life or for those working for Danish interests.

Insignia

The badge of the Order is a white enamelled Dannebrog cross (i.e., a cross pattée, the lower arm being longer than the others) with a red enamelled border, for the Knights in silver and for everyone else in gold or silver gilt. At the top of this cross is the royal cypher of the bestowing monarch crowned with the distinctive Danish royal crown [lower-alpha 1] On its front, the cross bears the royal cyphers of Christian V at its centre, as well as the motto of the Order: Gud og Kongen (God and the King) on its arms. On its reverse are found the crowned royal cyphers of Valdemar II Sejr, Christian V and Frederik VI, [lower-alpha 2] as well as the years 1219, 1671 and 1808, the years that each of them ascended the Danish throne. In each of the four angles of the cross is found a small Danish royal crown.

The classes are:

The Grand Cross can, as a special honor, be awarded "with diamonds". There is also a Cross of Honour (D.Ht.) (Dannebrogordens Hæderstegn). [2]

The collar of the Order is made of gold, with small enamelled Dannebrog crosses alternating with alternating crowned royal cyphers representing Kings Valdemar II Sejr and Christian V, the reputed and actual founders of the Order. When the collar is worn the sash is not worn.

The star of the Order is an eight-pointed silver star with straight rays with an enamelled Dannebrog cross (similar to the front of the badge but without the royal cypher above and the royal crowns between the arms of the cross) at the centre.

The breast cross of the Order is similar to the cross on the star but larger and with faceted silver instead of white enamel and without the silver rays of the star.

The ribbon of the Order is white silk moiré with red borders, the national colours of Denmark. [2]

The Order originally had a distinctive habit worn by the knights (after 1808, by the Knights Grand Cross) on very solemn occasions. The habit consisted of a white doublet, white breeches, white stockings and white shoes, over which was worn a red mantle with a white lining and with the star of the order embroidered in silver on its left side. Over this red mantle was worn a short white shoulder cape with a standing collar embroidered in gold, upon which was worn the collar of the Order (the habit was always worn with the collar and never with the ribbon of the Order). The habit also had a black hat with a plume of white and red ostrich feathers. This habit was almost identical to that worn by the knights of the Order of the Elephant.

Recipients

Each Danish ministry has a quota of Knights and Knights 1st class that they may use at their discretion. It is most often given to high-ranking officers of the police, armed forces and emergency services.

Also used for politicians in Folketinget after 8 years of elected service. Ministers are given the rank of Knight 1st Class.

The rank of Commander is given to Colonels, ministers and other high-ranking officials as a retirement-decoration after long service.
Commander 1st class is given for Admirals, Generals, Supreme-court judges, ambassadors and other governmental leaders as a retirement decoration.

Grand Cross is most often used for admirals, generals, Supreme-court judges, ambassadors and similar as a reward for very meritorious service to Denmark.

Grand Cross with Breaststar with Diamonds [lower-alpha 4] is most often given to high-ranking officers of the Royal Court, such as Hofmarskals.

Finally, the Grand Commander grade is only given to 8 people. The reigning monarch is always a Grand Commander, and he/she may give the grade to 7 others - most often close family.

Diplomatic use

Details of the vestments of the Knights of the Dannebrog. Ca. 1750. Details of the costume of the Knights of the Dannebrog ca 1750 by Marcus Tuscher.jpg
Details of the vestments of the Knights of the Dannebrog. Ca. 1750.

The Order of the Dannebrog is often used as a tool of diplomacy. If a foreign country has an Order that they give to foreign diplomats in their country, then their diplomats in Denmark can also be given an Order of the Dannebrog. To be eligible the foreign ambassador must reside in Denmark for at least three years.

Diplomatic rankRank of the Order
AmbassadorGrand Cross
Chargés d Affairs e.p.Commander (Commander 1st Class, if over 40 years of age)
Chargés d Affairs a.i.Commander or Knight 1st Class
Ambassador AdvisorCommander
1st Embassy SecretaryKnight 1st Class
2nd or 3rd Embassy SecretaryKnight
Defence AttachésDepending on military rank
Other AttachésKnight or Commander depending on merit

Cross of Honour

The Dannebrogordenens Hæderstegn (Cross of Honour of the Order of the Dannebrog) in modern times is only awarded to Danes on whom the Order of the Dannebrog has already been bestowed. It is also worn by the individual members of the royal family. Its badge is similar to the badge of the Order, but all in silver, and is worn on a ribbon (gentlemen) or bow (ladies) with rosette on the left chest.

The insignia of the Order must be returned upon the death of the holder.

Grand Commanders

Collar of the Order of the Dannebrog. Order of the Dannebrog (heraldry).svg
Collar of the Order of the Dannebrog.

The late Prince Henrik of Denmark had been a Grand Commander since 1973. As such, his death in 2018 left one position of Grand Commander available. The number of Grand Commanders never exceed 8.

Revocation

It is possible for membership in the Order to be revoked. Before 1808, only two people have had their membership revoked, Peder Griffenfeld who was charged with treason, and Samuel Christoph von Plessen who was charged with looting and gross misconduct. In more recent times it has been revoked on basis of criminality, such as Peter Adler Alberti (1910), Erik Ninn-Hansen (1995), and Peter Brixtofte (2008).

Jewelers and Goldsmiths

Below is a list of jewelers who have made the insignia for the Order:

JewelerPeriod
Royal Goldsmith Poul Kurtz1655–1679
Royal Goldsmith Ferdinand Küblich1670–1687
Royal Goldsmith Fridrich Kurtz1679–1703
Royal Goldsmith Pierre Tresfort1687–1729
Royal Goldsmith Jean Henri de Moor1688–1696
Royal Goldsmith Andreas Normand1700–1727
Royal Jeweler Frederik Fabritius1746–1778
Royal Jeweler Christopher Fabritius1778–1829
Royal Jeweler Frederik Fabritius-1832
Royal Goldsmith Nicolai Christensen? - 1832
Jeweler Poul Ressen Eggersen1832–1841
Royal Jeweler Anton Michelsen1848 -

Anton Michelsen was made a part of Royal Copenhagen A/S who is now the supplier.

See also

Notes

  1. This royal crown is usually flat and of one piece with the badge itself, although some crowns, especially in badges made in the 19th century and early 20th centuries, are three dimension with the badge proper suspended from them.
  2. Valdemar II is the Danish king associated with the legendary origins of the Dannebrog and the reputed first founder of the Order, Christian V is the founder of the present Order and Frederik VI reformed the Order, dividing it into its present six classes
  3. On this badge table cut diamonds entirely replace the white enamel of the cross and smaller diamonds completely cover the royal crowns in the angles of this cross, the royal cypher of the current monarch and its royal crown at the top of this cross as well as the connecting link by which this badge hangs from its ribbon. Only the red enamel border which surrounds the table cut diamond cross of the badge is not set with diamonds.
  4. I.e., fourteen table cut diamonds are set on the white enamel of the cross of the Order which in this case has no royal ciphers, dates nor motto.

Related Research Articles

Prince Joachim of Denmark Count of Monpezat

Prince Joachim of Denmark, Count of Monpezat, is the younger son of Queen Margrethe II and Prince Henrik. Joachim is sixth in the line of succession to the Danish throne, following his elder brother, Crown Prince Frederik, and Frederik's four children.

Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark Crown Prince of Denmark

Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark, Count of Monpezat, is the heir apparent to the throne of Denmark. Frederik is the elder son of Queen Margrethe II and the late Henrik, Prince Consort.

Order of Orange-Nassau civil and military Dutch order of chivalry

The Order of Orange-Nassau is a civil and military Dutch order of chivalry founded on 4 April 1892 by the Queen regent Emma, acting on behalf of her under-age daughter Queen Wilhelmina.

Military Order of Italy military order of the Italian Republic

The Military Order of Italy is the highest military order of the Italian Republic and the former Kingdom of Italy. It was founded as the Military Order of Savoy, a national order by the King of Sardinia, Vittorio Emanuele I, Duke of Savoy in 1815. The order is awarded in five degrees for distinguished wartime conduct of units of the armed forces or individual personnel that has "proven expertise, a sense of responsibility and valour."

Order of the Netherlands Lion award

The Order of the Netherlands Lion, also referred to as the Order of the Lion of the Netherlands is a Dutch order of chivalry founded by King William I of the Netherlands on 29 September 1815.

Order of the Sword Swedish order of chivalry

The Royal Order of the Sword is a Swedish order of chivalry and military decoration created by King Frederick I of Sweden on February 23, 1748, together with the Order of the Seraphim and the Order of the Polar Star.

Order of St. Olav chivalric order

The Royal Norwegian Order of Saint Olav is a Norwegian order of chivalry instituted by King Oscar I on 21 August 1847. It is named after King Olav II, known to posterity as St. Olav.

Order of George I Greek order of merit, award

The Royal Order of George I is a Greek order instituted by King Constantine I in 1915. Since the monarchy's abolition in 1973, it has been considered a dynastic order of the former Greek royal family.

Order of Vasa Swedish order of chivalry

The Royal Order of Vasa is a Swedish order of chivalry, awarded to citizens of Sweden for service to state and society especially in the fields of agriculture, mining and commerce. It was instituted on 29 May 1772 by King Gustav III. It was unrestricted by birth or education and could therefore be awarded to anyone. It was the most junior of all the Swedish orders. It was often awarded to Norwegian subjects of the dual monarchy until Oscar I founded the Norwegian Order of St. Olav in 1847. Since 1974 the order is no longer conferred: officially it has been declared as "dormant", along with the Order of the Sword.

Order of the Polar Star Swedish order of chivalry

The Royal Order of the Polar Star is a Swedish order of chivalry created by King Frederick I on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Seraphim.

Order of Saint Stanislaus (House of Romanov) Russian military and civilian decoration

The Order of Saint Stanislaus, also spelled Stanislas, is a Russian dynastic order of knighthood founded as Order of the Knights of Saint Stanislaus, Bishop and Martyr in 1765 by King Stanisław II Augustus of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1831 after the downfall of the November Uprising, the order was incorporated into the Chapter of Russian Orders as part of the honours system of the Russian Empire by Emperor Nicholas I of Russia.

Military Order of St. Henry award

The Military Order of St. Henry was a military order of the Kingdom of Saxony, a member state of the German Empire. The order was the oldest military order of the states of the German Empire. It was founded on October 7, 1736 by Augustus III, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony. The order underwent several more revisions over the course of the 19th and early 20th centuries. It became obsolete with the fall of the Saxon monarchy in the wake of Germany's defeat in World War I.

Dannebrogordenens Hæderstegn

Dannebrogordenens Hæderstegn is a meritous award connected to the Danish Order of the Dannebrog. The cross was instituted by King Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway on 28 June 1808, and was named Dannebrogsmændenes Hæderstegn (D.M.) until 1952.

Order of the Direkgunabhorn award

The Most Admirable Order of the Direkgunabhorn was established by King Bhumibol Adulyadej on 22 July 1991 to be bestowed upon those who have rendered devotional services to the Kingdom of Thailand. The title Direkgunabhorn (ดิเรกคุณาภรณ์) roughly translates as "Noble order of abundance and quality."

The Royal Order of the Crown of Tonga is an Order of Merit awarded for exceptional services to Tonga and the Crown of Tonga.

Order of the Griffon (Mecklenburg)

The Order of the Griffon was a State Order of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Established on 15 September 1884, it was created to honour benevolence and outstanding service to the public. In August 1904, the Order of the Griffon was extended to citizens of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, with the rulers of the two grand duchies serving jointly as the Grand Masters of the order.

References

  1. Jespersen, Knud J. V. "The Royal Orders of Chivalry". Denmark: The Official Website of Denmark. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. Retrieved 28 December 2012. The Queen heads the two Danish Royal Orders of Chivalry, the Order of the Elephant and the Order of the Dannebrog....Any decision about the bestowal of honours continues to lie solely with the Head of the Order, but the day-to-day administration of the honours system is undertaken by the College of Arms, which forms part of the royal court
  2. 1 2 3 Robertson, Megan C. (16 December 2011). "Kingdom of Denmark: Order of the Dannebrog". Medals of the World. Retrieved 28 December 2012. Ribbon: White with red edges...Instituted: 12 October 1671 by King Christian V...Awarded: For special deeds or conspicuous service to Denmark..Grades: 6 plus a Silver Cross - renamed Cross of Honour of the Order of the Dannebrog (Dannebrogordenens Hæderstegn) in 1952
  3. "De kongelige Ridderordener". Monarkiet i Danmark (in Danish). Copenhagen, Denmark: Kongehuset (The Danish Royal House). 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. Danmark har to kongelige ridderordener, Elefantordenen og Dannebrogordenen (Denmark has two Royal Orders of Chivalry: The Order of the Elephant, and The Order of Dannebrog)
  4. "The Royal Orders of Chivalry". The Danish Monarchy, Official Homepage of the Danish Royal Family. Kongehuset (The Royal House of Denmark). 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. According to those statutes, the order had only one grade called 'White Knight', corresponding to today’s 'Grand Cross Knight'. The circle of knights was limited to Danish royalty and noblemen; commoners did not come into consideration. That changed in connection with the expansion of the Order of the Dannebrog in 1808. On that occasion, the order was divided into different grades, and the circle of those decorated was widened to include common-born persons. Along with a series of lesser changes later, the decisions from 1808 continue as the formal basis for conferral of the Order of the Dannebrog. Today, Danish commoners constitute by far the largest group of those decorated
  5. "The Order of Dannebrog". Ordenshistorish Selskab. The Orders and Medals Society of Denmark. 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. The order had one class and the members were called 'white knights' (as opposed to the Order of the Elephant's 'blue knights')
  6. "H.M. Dronningen--Danske dekorationer". Hendes Majestæt Dronning Margrethe II. Kongehuset (The Royal House of Denmark). 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. Storkommandør af Dannebrogordenen (S.Kmd.)
  7. 1 2 3 "Ordensdetaljer: storkommandør af Dannebrogordenen". borger.dk. Copenhagen: Ministry of Research, Innovation and Higher Education of Denmark. 2012. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2012. Hans Majestæt Carl XVI Gustaf, Konge af Sverige (10.4.1975); Hans Majestæt Kong Harald, Norges Konge (28.10.1991); Hans Majestæt Konstantin II, fhv. Konge af Grækenland (12.3.1964)
  8. "Persondetaljer: Hendes Kongelige Højhed Prinsesse Benedikte". borger.dk. Copenhagen: Ministry of Research, Innovation and Higher Education of Denmark. 2012. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2012. Storkommandører, Prinsesse til Danmark (27.1.1993)
  9. "H.K.H. Prinsesse Benedikte--Danske dekorationer". Hendes Kongelige Højhed Prinsesse Benedikte. Kongehuset (The Royal House of Denmark). 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. Storkommandør af Dannebrogordenen (S.Kmd.)Hjemmeværnets Fortjensttegn (Hjv.Ft.)
  10. "H.K.H. Kronprinsen--Danske dekorationer". Hans Kongelige Højhed Kronprins Frederik. Kongehuset (The Royal House of Denmark). 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. Storkommandør (S.Kmd.)
  11. "Persondetaljer: Hans Kongelige Højhed Kronprins Frederik". borger.dk. Copenhagen: Ministry of Research, Innovation and Higher Education of Denmark. 2012. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2012. Storkommandører Kronprins til Danmark (1.1.2004)
  12. "Persondetaljer: Hans Kongelige Højhed Prins Joachim". borger.dk. Copenhagen: Ministry of Research, Innovation and Higher Education of Denmark. 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. Storkommandører, Prins til Danmark (16.4.2004)[ permanent dead link ]
  13. "H.K.H. Prins Joachim--Danske dekorationer". Hans Kongelige Højhed Prins Joachim. Kongehuset (The Royal House of Denmark). 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. Storkommandør af Dannebrogordenen (S.Kmd.)