|Order of the October Revolution|
The insignia of the Order of the October Revolution
|Awarded by the |
|Eligibility||Soviet and foreign citizens and institutions, including military units and administrative areas|
|Awarded for||"Services furthering communism or the state, or in enhancing the defences of the Soviet Union"|
|Status||No longer awarded|
|Established||October 31, 1967|
|First awarded||November 4, 1967|
|Last awarded||December 21, 1991|
|Next (higher)||Order of Lenin|
|Next (lower)||Order of the Red Banner|
Ribbon of the Order of the October Revolution
The Order of the October Revolution (Russian : Орден Октябрьской Революции, Orden Oktyabr'skoy Revolyutsii) was instituted on October 31, 1967, in time for the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution. It was conferred upon individuals or groups for services furthering communism or the state, or in enhancing the defenses of the Soviet Union, military and civil. It is the second-highest Soviet order, after the Order of Lenin.
The insignia of the Order consisted of a badge, which was a red star with golden rays between the arms; at the centre was a pentagon bearing the image of the cruiser Aurora participating in the October Revolution. Above this was a red flag bearing the words "October Revolution" in Russian. A Hammer and Sickle emblem was placed at the bottom. The badge was worn on the left chest with a red ribbon bearing five blue stripes at the centre.
The Aurora was itself awarded the Order, the only ship ever to have received the award. Military units and institutions receiving the award applied the order name to their title upon its reception.
Aurora is a 1900 Russian protected cruiser, currently preserved as a museum ship in Saint Petersburg. Aurora was one of three Pallada-class cruisers, built in Saint Petersburg for service in the Pacific. All three ships of this class served during the Russo-Japanese War. Aurora survived the Battle of Tsushima and was interned under US protection in the Philippines, and eventually returned to the Baltic Fleet.
The Order of Saint Vladimir was an Imperial Russian order established in 1782 by Empress Catherine II in memory of the deeds of Saint Vladimir, the Grand Prince and the Baptizer of the Kievan Rus'.
The Order of the Red Banner was the first Soviet military decoration. The Order was established on 16 September 1918, during the Russian Civil War by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. It was the highest award of Soviet Russia, subsequently the Soviet Union, until the Order of Lenin was established in 1930. Recipients were recognised for extraordinary heroism, dedication, and courage demonstrated on the battlefield. The Order was awarded to individuals as well as to military units, cities, ships, political and social organizations, and state enterprises. In later years, it was also awarded on the twentieth and again on the thirtieth anniversary of military, police, or state security service without requiring participation in combat.
The Order of St. Andrew the Apostle the First-Called is the highest order of the Russian Federation. Established as the first and highest order of chivalry of the Russian Empire in 1698, it was abolished under the USSR before being re-established as the top Russian order in 1998.
The Order of the White Eagle is Poland's highest order awarded to both civilians and the military for their merits. It was officially instituted on 1 November 1705 by Augustus II the Strong and bestowed on eight of his closest diplomatic and political supporters.
Yuli Mikhailovich Vorontsov was a Russian and Soviet diplomat, President of International Centre of the Roerichs (Moscow). In the mid-1970s he was Chargé d'Affaires at the Soviet embassy in Washington under Ambassador Dobrynin. He was then Ambassador to India (1978-1983) and France (1983-1986). He returned to Moscow to be the first deputy foreign minister (1986-1990) and participated in arms reduction talks with the United States. In 1988-1989, he was simultaneously the Ambassador to Afghanistan as Soviet troops withdrew from the country. He then served as the last Soviet ambassador to United Nations between 1990 and 1991 and as the first Russian Permanent Representative to the UN from 1991 to 1994. After this he served as the Russian ambassador to the United States from 1994 to 1998. In 2000 Vorontsov was chosen as the high-level coordinator for issues related to a paragraph of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1284 which once again required Iraq to face "its obligations regarding the repatriation or return of all Kuwaiti and third country nationals or their remains, [and] the return of all Kuwaiti property [...] seized by Iraq".
Guards or Guards units were elite military units of Imperial Russia prior to 1917-18. The designation of Guards was subsequently adopted as a distinction for various units and formations of the Soviet Union and the modern Russian Federation. The tradition goes back to a chieftain's druzhina of medieval Kievan Rus' and the Marksman Troops, the Muscovite harquebusiers formed by Ivan the Terrible by 1550. The exact meaning of the term "Guards" varied over time.
Mother Heroine was an honorary title in the Soviet Union awarded for bearing and raising a large family. The state's intent was not only to honor such large families but also to increase financial assistance for pregnant women, mothers of large families, and single mothers, and to promote an increased level of health in mother and child. The award was established in 1944 and continued to exist until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.
The Order of Saint Stanislaus, also spelled Stanislas, was a Polish order of knighthood founded in 1765 by King Stanisław August Poniatowski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It remained under the Kingdom of Poland between 1765 and 1831, and was incorporated under the Russian Empire from 1831 to 1917, until the Russian revolution.
The Royal Norwegian Order of Saint Olav is a Norwegian order of chivalry instituted by King Oscar I on 21 August 1847. It is named after King Olav II, known to posterity as St. Olav.
The Order of Glory was a military decoration of the Soviet Union established by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on November 8, 1943. It was awarded to soldiers and non-commissioned officers of the Red Army as well as to aviation junior lieutenants, for bravery in the face of the enemy.
The Order of the Red Banner of Labour was an order of the Soviet Union established to honour great deeds and services to the Soviet state and society in the fields of production, science, culture, literature, the arts, education, health, social and other spheres of labour activities. It is the labour counterpart of the military Order of the Red Banner. A few institutions and factories, being the pride of Soviet Union, also received the order. The Order of the Red Banner of Labour began solely as an award of the Russian SFSR on December 28, 1920. The all-Union equivalent was established by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on September 7, 1928 and approved by another decree on September 15, 1928. The Order's statute and regulations were modified by multiple successive decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, on May 7, 1936, on June 19, 1943, on March 28, 1980, and on July 18, 1980.
Russia has a number of military academies of different specialties. This article primarily lists institutions of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation rather than those of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The Order of Alexander Nevsky is an order of merit of the Russian Federation named in honour of saint Alexander Nevsky (1220–1263) and bestowed to civil servants for twenty years or more of highly meritorious service. It was originally established by the Soviet Union as a military honour during World War II, more precisely by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of July 7, 1942. Its statute was amended by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of February 26, 1947. It bears a similar name to the Imperial Order of St. Alexander Nevsky which had been established by Empress Catherine I of Russia in 1725, and continued to be bestowed by the heads of the House of Romanov after the 1917 Russian Revolution. The Order of Alexander Nevsky was reinstated by the Soviet Union, minus the words "Imperial" and "Saint", for award to officers of the army for personal courage and resolute leadership. The Order was retained by the new Russian Federation following the dissolution of the USSR by Decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation 2557-I of March 20, 1992 but was never awarded. The September 7, 2010 Decree №1099 of the President of the Russian Federation redesigned the badge of the Order closer to pre-1917 imperial model and amended the statute of the Order making it a purely civilian award.
The Royal Order of George I is a Greek order instituted by King Constantine I in 1915. Since the monarchy's abolition in 1973, it has been considered a dynastic order of the former Greek royal family.
The ribbon of Saint George is a Russian military symbol consisting of a black and orange bicolour pattern, with three black and two orange stripes. It appears as a component of many high military decorations awarded by the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the current Russian Federation.
The Medal "For Distinction in Military Service" was a military decoration awarded in two classes by the Soviet Union and later by the Russian Federation, to deserving military personnel of the Ministry of Defense, of internal troops and of border troops of both the USSR and Russian Federation. It was gradually phased out following the dissolution of the USSR being replaced by various ministerial awards.
The Order of Lenin, named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was established by the Central Executive Committee on April 6, 1930. The order was the highest civilian decoration bestowed by the Soviet Union. The order was awarded to:
In the period from 1918 to 1935 of the young Soviet Union any bourgeois military thoughts were put under general suspicion by the communists, the new political establishment. Among others, the Old Russian tradition to wear epaulets and shoulder straps as rank insignia was rigorously abolished and was replaced with a new tradition of rank designations and insignia for the new Red Army and the nascent Soviet Navy.
The Honorary Revolutionary Weapon was the highest award in the Soviet Armed Forces between 1919 and 1930. It was awarded to senior commanders for exceptional combat achievement; the majority of recipients received it for actions during the Russian Civil War.