Order of the Patriotic War

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Order of the Patriotic War
Orden-otechestvennoy-voyny A0078505.jpg Orden-otechestvennoy-voyny A0078505R.jpg
The Order of the Patriotic War, 1st class (obverse left, reverse right)
Awarded by the Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
TypeTwo-grade order
EligibilitySoldiers in the Soviet armed forces, security troops, partisans, and allied personnel.
Awarded forHeroic deeds during the Great Patriotic War, later awarded to all surviving veterans of the war.
StatusNo longer awarded
Statistics
Established20 May 1942
Last awarded1985 to surviving veterans of the war
Total awarded1,370,000 during the war
9,175,595 following 1985 awards
Precedence
Next (higher) Order of the Red Star
Next (lower) Order of Alexander Nevsky
POL Order Wojny Ojczyznianej 1kl BAR.svg POL Order Wojny Ojczyznianej 2kl BAR.svg
US-sized ribbon of the Order of the Patriotic War, 1st class
US-sized ribbon of the Order of the Patriotic War, 2nd class

The Order of the Patriotic War (Russian : Орден Отечественной войны) is a Soviet military decoration that was awarded to all soldiers in the Soviet armed forces, security troops, and to partisans for heroic deeds during the German-Soviet War, known by the former-Soviet Union as the Great Patriotic War.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity. The term can apply to the field element of resistance movements, examples of which are the civilians who collaborated with or opposed Nazi German, Fascist Italian and Ustaše Croatian rule in several countries during World War II.

Contents

History

The Order was established on 20 May 1942 and came in first class and second class depending upon the merit of the deed. It was the first Soviet order established during the war, and the first Soviet order divided into classes. Its statute precisely defined, which deeds are awarded with the order, e.g. shooting down three aircraft as a fighter pilot, or destroying two heavy or three medium or four light tanks, or capturing a warship, or repairing an aircraft under fire after landing on a hostile territory, and so on, were awarded with the first class. It was also given to some allied troops and commanders, including western allies. Altogether, over 324,903 of the 1st class and 951,652 of the 2nd class were issued during the war. Until 1985, the total number reached about 1,370,000. [1]

In 1985, during the celebration of the 40th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War, it was decided that all surviving veterans of the war would be awarded either 2nd or 1st class of the Order, and about 2,054,000 first class and 5,408,000 second class were issued then. [1]

Victory Day (9 May) public holidays in Russia and ex-USSR

Victory Day is a holiday that commemorates the surrender of Nazis in 1945. It was first inaugurated in the 15 republics of the Soviet Union, following the signing of the German Instrument of Surrender late in the evening on 8 May 1945. The Soviet government announced the victory early on 9 May after the signing ceremony in Berlin. Though the official inauguration occurred in 1945 the holiday became a non-labour day only in 1965 and only in certain Soviet republics.

Great Patriotic War (term) historical term

The Great Patriotic War is a term used in Russia and other former republics of the Soviet Union to describe the conflict fought during the period from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945 along the many fronts of the Eastern Front of World War II between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany and its allies. For some legal purposes its period might be extended to 11 May 1945 to also include the end of the Prague Offensive.

As of January 1992, the total number of all awarded Orders was 2,487,098 first class and 6,688,497 second class variants. [1]

Design

It featured a red enamel five-pointed star, made of silver, with straight rays in the background, and crossed sabre and a Mosin rifle. The rays in the background were golden for 1st Class and silver for 2nd Class. The central disc had a golden hammer and sickle on a red enamel background, surrounded by a white enamel ring with the words ОТЕЧЕСТВЕННАЯ ВОЙНА ("Patriotic War"). Originally the Order was attached to a plain red ribbon much like the Gold Star award, but from June 1943 the Order was to be worn on the right chest without ribbon; on less formal occasions a ribbon bar, dark red with a bright red central stripe for the 1st Class, or dark red with bright red edge stripes for the 2nd Class, may be worn instead. [1]

Mosin–Nagant five-shot, bolt-action, internal magazine-fed, military rifle

The 3-line rifle M1891, colloquially known in the West as Mosin–Nagant and in Russia as Mosin's rifle is a five-shot, bolt-action, internal magazine–fed, military rifle developed from 1882 to 1891, and used by the armed forces of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and various other nations. It is one of the most mass-produced military bolt-action rifles in history with over 37 million units having been made since its inception in 1891, and, in spite of its age, it has been used in various conflicts around the world up to the modern day. It fires primarilly 7.62×54mmR cartridge.

Gold Chemical element with atomic number 79

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium.

Hammer and sickle Communist symbol

The hammer and sickle is a far-left symbol meant to represent a union between the peasantry and working-class, that was first adopted – as Russian: серп и мо́лот, translit. serp i mólot: "sickle and hammer" – during the Russian Revolution. At the time of its creation, the hammer stood for the proletariat and the sickle for the peasantry—combined they stood for the worker-peasant alliance for socialism. The sickle symbol resembles a sickle used to harvest grain crops and the hammer is one that would be used to make a razor sharp edge on a sickle or scythe.

Anniversary orders of 1985 were made cheaper, as a single silver piece, gold-plated in the 1st class. [1]

First ClassSecond Class
Order of the Patriotic War (1st class).png Order Of The Patriotic War (2nd Class).png
Ribbon
Order gpw1 rib.png Order gpw2 rib.png

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Description of the order (in Russian)