Order of the Red Banner of Labour

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Order of the Red Banner of Labour
Order of the Red Banner of Labour OBVERSE.jpg
Order of the Red Banner of Labour (obverse), type 2 post 1943
Awarded by the Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
TypeSingle-grade order
EligibilitySoviet and foreign citizens. Institutions including factories
Awarded forAccomplishments in labour, the civil service, literature, the arts and sciences
StatusNo longer awarded
Statistics
EstablishedDecember 28, 1920
First awardedJune 28, 1921
Last awardedDecember 21, 1991
Total awarded1,224,590
Related Order of the Red Banner
Orderredbannerlabor rib.png
Ribbon of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour
Reverse of a post 1943 type 2 Order of the Red Banner of Labour Order of the Red Banner of Labour REVERSE.jpg
Reverse of a post 1943 type 2 Order of the Red Banner of Labour
Olympic gold medalist figure skater Irina Rodnina, twice recipient of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour Irina Rodnina cropped.jpg
Olympic gold medalist figure skater Irina Rodnina, twice recipient of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour

The Order of the Red Banner of Labour (Russian : Орден Трудового Красного Знамени, translit.  Orden Trudovogo Krasnogo Znameni) was an order of the Soviet Union established to honour great deeds and services to the Soviet state and society in the fields of production, science, culture, literature, the arts, education, health, social and other spheres of labour activities. It is the labour counterpart of the military Order of the Red Banner. A few institutions and factories, being the pride of Soviet Union, also received the order. The Order of the Red Banner of Labour began solely as an award of the Russian SFSR on December 28, 1920. The all-Union equivalent was established by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on September 7, 1928 [1] and approved by another decree on September 15, 1928. [2] The Order's statute and regulations were modified by multiple successive decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, on May 7, 1936, [3] on June 19, 1943, [4] on March 28, 1980, [5] and on July 18, 1980. [6]

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Romanization of Russian Romanization of the Russian alphabet

Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

Contents

Award statute

The Order of the Red Banner of Labour can be awarded to citizens of the USSR, to businesses, associations, institutions, organizations, and allied autonomous republics, territories, autonomous regions, districts, cities and other localities; it may also be awarded to persons who are not citizens of the USSR, as well as to enterprises, institutions and organizations located in foreign countries: [1] [5]

The Order of the Red Banner of Labour could be awarded multiple times to the same recipient for successive deeds and long time merit. [3]

The Order of the Red Banner of Labour was worn on the left side of the chest and in the presence of other awards of the USSR, was located immediately after the Order of the Red Banner. [1] If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence. [7]

Order of the Red Banner Soviet award for Heroism in combat or long service in the armed forces

The Order of the Red Banner was the first Soviet military decoration. The Order was established on 16 September 1918, during the Russian Civil War by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. It was the highest award of Soviet Russia, subsequently the Soviet Union, until the Order of Lenin was established in 1930. Recipients were recognised for extraordinary heroism, dedication, and courage demonstrated on the battlefield. The Order was awarded to individuals as well as to military units, cities, ships, political and social organizations, and state enterprises. In later years, it was also awarded on the twentieth and again on the thirtieth anniversary of military, police, or state security service without requiring participation in combat.

Award description

The design of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour evolved over the years. Its original design, called "type 1" was amended in 1936, this new variant will be identified as "type 2".

Type 1

The "type 1" Order consisted of a 38 mm wide by 43 mm high silver badge in the shape of a cogwheel, at center, a disc bordered along its entire outer diameter by panicles of wheat. Protruding from under the lower half of the central disc, a red enamelled triangle pointing downwards. On the central disc in the background, a hydro electric dam, at center, a gilded hammer and sickle, at the top, a waving red banner bearing the inscription "Proletarians of the World, unite!" (Russian : “Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!”). At the very bottom of the cogwheel, the relief inscription "USSR" (Russian : “СССР”) on a stylised horizontal shield bisected by a smaller cogwheel meshing into the larger one. On the otherwise plain reverse, a recess at center bearing a threaded post, two rivets used to secure the hammer and sickle and the award serial number engraved on the lower portion opposite the "USSR" inscription. The Order was secured to clothing with a threaded screw and nut arrangement. The earlier nuts were 28 mm in diameter, later ones measured 32 mm.

Gear rotating machine

A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or in the case of a cogwheel, inserted teeth, which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque. Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and direction of a power source. Gears almost always produce a change in torque, creating a mechanical advantage, through their gear ratio, and thus may be considered a simple machine. The teeth on the two meshing gears all have the same shape. Two or more meshing gears, working in a sequence, are called a gear train or a transmission. A gear can mesh with a linear toothed part, called a rack, producing translation instead of rotation.

Hammer and sickle Communist symbol

The hammer and sickle is a far-left symbol meant to represent a union between the peasantry and working-class, that was first adopted – as Russian: серп и мо́лот, translit. serp i mólot: "sickle and hammer" – during the Russian Revolution. At the time of its creation, the hammer stood for the proletariat and the sickle for the peasantry—combined they stood for the worker-peasant alliance for socialism. The sickle symbol resembles a sickle used to harvest grain crops and the hammer is one that would be used to make a razor sharp edge on a sickle or scythe.

The proletariat is the class of wage-earners in an economic society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power. A member of such a class is a proletarian.

Type 2

The "type 2" Order also consisted of a silver badge in the shape of a cogwheel, it measured 38 mm wide by 44 mm high. On the lower circumference of the cogwheel, the relief inscription "Proletarians of the World, unite!" (Russian : “Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!”), below the cogwheel, a red enamelled relief five pointed star superimposed on a shield from which four short panicles of wheat protrude left and right. At the center, a disc surrounded by a gilded wreath of oak leaves bearing the relief image of a hydro electric dam, below the dam, blue enamelled water, at the center of the disc, the gilded hammer and sickle, from the inner left side of the disc, a gilded mast bearing a waving red enamelled banner protruding from the central disc, covering the upper portion of the cogwheel and protruding past its outer upper edge on which "USSR" (Russian : “СССР”) is inscribed in gilded letters. Along the outer circumference of the central disc's wreath, white enamelled slots spaced equally on the cogwheel. On the otherwise plain reverse, a concave recess at center bearing a threaded post, eight rivets (only three rivets on the post 1943 variant) used to secure the various parts to the badge and the award serial number engraved on the lower portion below the recess. The Order was secured to clothing with a threaded screw and a 33 mm in diameter nut until 1943 when it was secured by a ring through the medal suspension loop to a pentagonal mount covered by an overlapping 24 mm wide light blue silk moiré ribbon with 4 mm wide dark blue edge stripes. [4]

Type 1 obverseType 2 obverse
Order of the Red Banner of Labour 1 type.jpg Order of Red Banner of Labor thumb.png
1931–19361936–1943

Recipients (partial list)

The individuals listed below were recipients of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour. [8] [9]

The first recipient of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour of the RSFSR was Nikita Menchukov for saving an important bridge from being destroyed by flowing ice.

Order of the Red Banner of Labour of the USSR number 1 was presented to the Putilov (later Kirov) Works in Leningrad. The first individual awardees were V. Fedetov, A. Shelagin and M. Kyatkovsky for the rescue of a polar expedition.

Mikhail Gorbachev received the Order of the Red Banner of Labour for harvesting a record crop on his family's collective farm in 1949 at age 17, an honor which was very rare for someone so young. He is one of the Order's youngest recipients.

Six-time recipients

Five-time recipients

Four-time recipients

Three-time recipients

Two-time recipients

Single awards

Institutions, organisations, localities

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of September 7, 1928" (in Russian). Russian WikiSource. 1928-09-07. Retrieved 2012-04-29.
  2. "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of September 15, 1928" (in Russian). Russian WikiSource. 1928-09-15. Retrieved 2012-04-29.
  3. 1 2 "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of May 7, 1936" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. 1936-05-07. Retrieved 2012-04-29.
  4. 1 2 "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of June 19, 1943" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. 1943-06-19. Retrieved 2012-04-29.
  5. 1 2 3 "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of March 28, 1980" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. 1980-03-28. Retrieved 2012-04-29.
  6. "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of July 18, 1980 № 2523-X" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. 1980-07-18. Retrieved 2012-04-29.
  7. "Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of September 7, 2010 No 1099" (in Russian). Russian Gazette. 2010-09-07. Retrieved 2012-04-30.
  8. "List of recipients of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour compiled from ru.Wikipedia". Russian Wikipedia.Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  9. "List of recipients of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour compiled from en.Wikipedia". English Wikipedia.Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  10. Clements, Barbara Evans (1979). Bolshevik Feminist: The Life of Aleksandra Kollontai. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 270. ISBN   0-253-31209-4.
  11. Winston S. Churchill. The Second World War. VI. p. 421. ISBN   0-14-008616-1.