Order of the Red Star

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Order of the Red Star
Order of the Red Star.jpg
The Order of the Red Star (obverse)
Awarded by the Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
TypeSingle-grade order
EligibilitySoviet military personnel
Awarded forGreat contribution to the defense of the USSR in war and in peacetime and for ensuring public safety
StatusNo longer awarded
Statistics
Established6 April 1930
First awardedSeptember 1930
Last awarded19 December 1991
Total awarded3,876,740
Order redstar rib.png
Ribbon of the Order of the Red Star
Reverse of the Order of the Red Star ZV0053764R.jpg
Reverse of the Order of the Red Star
Lieutenant colonel Anatoly Lebed wearing his three Orders of the Red Star earned in Afghanistan (Photo from Russian Def Min) Anatoly Lebed.jpg
Lieutenant colonel Anatoly Lebed wearing his three Orders of the Red Star earned in Afghanistan (Photo from Russian Def Min)
Afghanistan veteran Igor Vladimirovich Vysotsky wearing his Order of the Red Star and other awards on civilian attire Vysotskii I.V..jpg
Afghanistan veteran Igor Vladimirovich Vysotsky wearing his Order of the Red Star and other awards on civilian attire
1946 Soviet 60 kopek stamp bearing the Order of the Red Star Stamp of USSR 1044.jpg
1946 Soviet 60 kopek stamp bearing the Order of the Red Star

The Order of the Red Star (Russian : Орден Краснoй Звезды) was a military decoration of the Soviet Union. It was established by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 6 April 1930 [1] but its statute was only defined in decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 5 May 1930. [2] That statute was amended by decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 7 May 1936, [3] of 19 June 1943, [4] of 26 February 1946, of 15 October 1947, of 16 December 1947 [5] and by decree No 1803-X of 28 March 1980. [6]

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

Contents

Award statute

The Order of the Red Star was awarded to soldiers of the Soviet Army, Navy, border and internal security forces, employees of the State Security Committee of the USSR, as well as NCOs and officers of the bodies of internal affairs; to units, warships, associations, enterprises, institutions and organizations; as well as to military personnel of foreign countries: [6]

Soviet Army name given to the main part of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union between 1946 and 1992

The Soviet Army is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not fully abolished until 25 December 1993. Until 25 February 1946, it was known as the Red Army, established by decree on 15 (28) January 1918 "to protect the population, territorial integrity and civil liberties in the territory of the Soviet state." The Strategic Missile Troops, Air Defense Forces and Air Forces were part of the Soviet Army in addition to the Ground Forces.

Soviet Navy naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces

The Soviet Navy was the naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces. Often referred to as the Red Fleet, the Soviet Navy was a large part of the Soviet Union's strategic plan in the event of a conflict with opposing super power, the United States, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), or another conflict related to the Warsaw Pact of Eastern Europe. The influence of the Soviet Navy played a large role in the Cold War (1945-1991), as the majority of conflicts centered on naval forces.

Soviet Border Troops military border guard service of the Soviet Union

Soviet Border Troops were the militarized border guard of the Soviet Union, subordinated to its subsequently reorganized state security agency: first to Cheka/OGPU, then to NKVD/MGB and, finally, to KGB. Accordingly, they were known as NKVD Border Troops and KGB Border Troops. Unlike border guards of many other countries, Soviet Border Troops also included the maritime border guarding units.

The Order of the Red Star is worn on the right side of the chest and when in the presence of other orders of the USSR, placed immediately after the Order of the Patriotic War 2nd class. [4] If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence. [7]

Order of the Patriotic War military decoration of the Soviet Union

The Order of the Patriotic War is a Soviet military decoration that was awarded to all soldiers in the Soviet armed forces, security troops, and to partisans for heroic deeds during the German-Soviet War, known by the former-Soviet Union as the Great Patriotic War.

Long service award

The Order of the Red Star was also used as a long service award from 1944 to 1958 to mark fifteen years of service in the military, state security, or police. Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 14 September 1957 [8] emphasised the devaluation of certain Soviet high military Orders used as long service awards instead of their originally intended criteria. This led to the joint 25 January 1958 decree of the Ministers of Defence, of Internal Affairs and of the Chairman of the Committee on State Security of the USSR establishing the Medal "For Impeccable Service" putting an end to the practice.[ citation needed ]

Minister of Defence (Soviet Union) in the Soviet Union

The Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union refers to the head of the Ministry of Defence who was responsible for defence of the communist Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 to 1922 and the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991.

Ministry of Internal Affairs (Russia) Russian government ministry responsible for security and law enforcement within Russian borders

The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation is the interior ministry of Russia. Emperor Alexander I of Russia founded its predecessor in 1802 in Imperial Russia. The Ministry has its headquarters in Moscow.

KGB Main security agency for the Soviet Union

The KGB, translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991. As a direct successor of preceding agencies such as Cheka, NKGB, NKVD and MGB, the committee was attached to the Council of Ministers. It was the chief government agency of "union-republican jurisdiction", acting as internal security, intelligence and secret police. Similar agencies were constituted in each of the republics of the Soviet Union aside from Russia, and consisted of many ministries, state committees and state commissions.

Award description

The Order of the Red Star is a red enamelled 47mm to 50mm wide (depending on the variant) silver five pointed star. In the center of the obverse, an oxydised silver shield bearing the image of an erect soldier wearing an overcoat and carrying a rifle, along the shield's entire circumference, a narrow band bearing the Communist motto in relief, "Workers of the world, unite!" (Russian : «Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!»), the band below the soldier bore the relief inscription "USSR" (Russian : «СССР»). Below the shield, the hammer and sickle also of oxydised silver. The otherwise plain reverse bore the maker's mark and the award serial number. The Order was attached to clothing by a threaded stud and screw attachment. [2]

Hammer and sickle Communist symbol

The hammer and sickle is a far-left symbol meant to represent a union between the peasantry and working-class, that was first adopted – as Russian: серп и мо́лот, translit. serp i mólot: "sickle and hammer" – during the Russian Revolution. At the time of its creation, the hammer stood for the proletariat and the sickle for the peasantry—combined they stood for the worker-peasant alliance for socialism. The sickle symbol resembles a sickle used to harvest grain crops and the hammer is one that would be used to make a razor sharp edge on a sickle or scythe.

When the order wasn't worn, a ribbon could be worn in its stead on the ribbon bar on the left side of the chest. The ribbon of the Order of the red Star was a 24mm wide silk moiré dark red with a 5mm wide central silver stripe. [4]

Noteworthy recipients (partial list)

The Order of the Red Star was awarded 6 times to 5 people, 5 times to more than 15 people, four times to more than 150 people, three times to more than 1,000 people. Below is a short partial list of such multiple recipients:

Six times

Five times

Four times

Three times

Twice

Singles

Units

In 2015 the Order of the Red Star award awarded to Ukrainian army units were removed as part of a removal of Soviet awards and decorations from Ukrainian military units. [14]

Related Research Articles

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Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy" commemorative medal of the Soviet Union

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Medal "For the Defence of Odessa" military decoration of the Soviet Union

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Medal "For the Defence of Stalingrad" military decoration of the Soviet Union

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Medal "For the Defence of Moscow" military decoration of the Soviet Union

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Medal "For the Defence of the Caucasus" military decoration of the Soviet Union

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Medal "For the Capture of Berlin" military decoration of the Soviet Union

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Medal "For the Capture of Budapest" military decoration of the Soviet Union

The Medal "For the Capture of Budapest" was a World War II campaign medal of the Soviet Union established on 9 June 1945 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to satisfy the petition of the People's Commissariat for Defense of the Soviet Union to recognise and reward the participants of the battle for the capture of the city of Budapest from the armed forces of Nazi Germany. The medal's statute was amended on 18 July 1980 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR № 2523-X.

Medal "For the Capture of Königsberg" military decoration of the Soviet Union

The Medal "For the Capture of Königsberg" was a World War II campaign medal of the Soviet Union established on June 9, 1945 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to satisfy the petition of the People's Commissariat for Defense of the Soviet Union for recognition of the participants of the battle to capture the city of Königsberg from the armed forces of Nazi Germany. The medal's statute was amended on July 18, 1980 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR № 2523-X.

Medal "For the Capture of Vienna" military decoration of the Soviet Union

The Medal "For the Capture of Vienna" was a World War II campaign medal of the Soviet Union established on June 9, 1945 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to satisfy the petition of the People's Commissariat for Defense of the Soviet Union to reward the participants of the battles for the capture of the city of Vienna from the armed forces of Nazi Germany. The medal's statute was amended on July 18, 1980 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR № 2523-X.

References

  1. "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of April 6, 1930" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. 6 April 1930. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
  2. 1 2 "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of May 5, 1930" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. 5 May 1930. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
  3. "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of May 7, 1936" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. 7 May 1936. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
  4. 1 2 3 "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of June 19, 1943" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. 19 June 1943. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
  5. "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of December 16, 1947" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. 16 December 1947. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
  6. 1 2 3 "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of March 28, 1980 No 1803-X" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. 28 March 1980. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
  7. "Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of September 7, 2010 No 1099" (in Russian). Russian Gazette. 7 September 2010. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
  8. "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of September 14, 1957" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. 14 September 1957. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
  9. "Marcus Simon A. 1912g.r." Ministry of Defence - Russian Federation. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  10. Rhodes, Richard (1996). Dark Star - The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 93. ISBN   978-0684824147.
  11. Rhodes, Richard (1996). Dark Star - The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 388. ISBN   978-0684824147.
  12. "Солженицын Александр Исаевич, Орден Красной Звезды :: Документ о награде :: Память народа". pamyat-naroda.ru.
  13. "Nobel Prize in Literature 1970". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
  14. "УКАЗ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА УКРАЇНИ №646/2015" [Ukaz President of Ukraine No. 646/2015] (in Ukrainian). President of Ukraine. 21 November 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2016.