Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas

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Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas

سازمان چريک‌های فدايی خلق ايران
AbbreviationOIPFG [1]
Foundedlate 1963 initial activity [2]
April 1971 as the unified organization [1]
DissolvedJune 1980 [3]
Merger of Jazani-Ẓarifi Group and Aḥmadzāda-Puyān-Meftāḥi Group [1]
Succeeded by Organization of Iranian People's Fedaian (Majority)
Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (Minority)
Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas
Headquarters Tehran, Iran
Newspaper Kar [3]
Ideology Marxism-Leninism
Political position Far-left [4]
Colors     Red
AnthemAftabkaran-e-Jangal (lit.Sunplanters of Jungle) [5]
Party flag
Flag of the Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (Red).svg
Flag of the Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (White).svg
Participant in Black September, Iranian Revolution, Iran hostage crisis, Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution
Active1971–1976 [6]
1977 [7] –1980
Group(s)Urban team, rural team [2]
Leaders Hamid Ashraf   (KIA)
Ashraf Dehghani   (POW)
Size3,000 (estimate) [4]
Allies
Battles and war(s) Siahkal incident

The Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (OIPFG; Persian : سازمان چريک‌های فدايی خلق ايران, romanized: Sāzmān-e čerikhā-ye Fadāʾi-e ḵalq-e Irān), simply known as Fadaiyan-e-Khalq (Persian : فداییان خلق, romanized: Fadāʾiān-e ḵalq, lit.  'Popular Selfsacrificers') [7] was a Marxist-Leninist underground guerrilla organization in Iran. [1]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages. It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian and Tajiki Persian. It is also spoken natively in the Tajik variety by a significant population within Uzbekistan, as well as within other regions with a Persianate history in the cultural sphere of Greater Iran. It is written officially within Iran and Afghanistan in the Persian alphabet, a derivation of the Arabic script, and within Tajikistan in the Tajik alphabet, a derivation of Cyrillic.

Romanization of Persian or Latinization of Persian is the representation of the Persian language with the Latin script. Several different romanization schemes exist, each with its own set of rules driven by its own set of ideological goals.

Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time with or without conveying the sense of the original whole.

Contents

Ideology

Ideologically, the group pursued an Anti-imperialist agenda and embraced armed propaganda to justify its revolutionary armed struggle against Iran's monarchy system, [9] and believed in Materialism. [6] They rejected reformism, and were inspired by thoughts of Mao Zedong, Che Guevara, and Régis Debray. [3]

Pahlavi dynasty Dynasty that ruled Iran from 1925 until 1979

The Pahlavi dynasty was the last ruling house of the Imperial State of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution. The dynasty was founded by Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925, a former brigadier-general of the Persian Cossack Brigade, whose reign lasted until 1941 when he was forced to abdicate by the Allies after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. He was succeeded by his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.

Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental states and consciousness, are results of material interactions. According to philosophical materialism, mind and consciousness are by-products or epiphenomena of material processes without which they cannot exist. This concept directly contrasts with idealism, where mind and consciousness are first-order realities to which matter is subject and material interactions are secondary.

Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement. Within the socialist movement, reformism is the view that gradual changes through existing institutions can eventually lead to fundamental changes in a society’s political and economic systems. Reformism as a political tendency and hypothesis of social change grew out of opposition to revolutionary socialism, which contends that revolutionary upheaval is a necessary precondition for the structural changes necessary to transform a capitalist system to a qualitatively different socialist economic system.

They criticized the National Front and the Liberation Movement as " Petite bourgeoisie paper organizations still preaching the false hope of peaceful change". [2] Fedai Guerrillas initially criticized the Soviet Union and the Tudeh Party as well, however they later abandoned the stance as a result of cooperation with the socialist camp. [3]

National Front (Iran) political opposition party in Iran

The National Front of Iran is an opposition political organization in Iran, founded by Mohammad Mosaddegh in 1949. It is the oldest and arguably the largest pro-democracy group operating inside Iran despite having never been able to recover the prominence it had in the early 1950s.

Freedom Movement of Iran

The Freedom Movement of Iran (FMI) or Liberation Movement of Iran is an Iranian pro-democracy political organization founded in 1961, by members describing themselves as "Muslims, Iranians, Constitutionalists and Mossadeghists". It is the oldest party still active in Iran and has been described as a "semi-opposition" or "loyal opposition" party. It has also been described as a "religious nationalist party".

<i>Petite bourgeoisie</i>

Petite bourgeoisie, also petty bourgeoisie, is a French term referring to a social class comprising semi-autonomous peasantry and small-scale merchants whose politico-economic ideological stance in times of socioeconomic stability is determined by reflecting that of a haute ("high") bourgeoisie, with which the petite bourgeoisie seeks to identify itself and whose bourgeois morality it strives to imitate.

Bijan Jazani, known as the "intellectual father" of the organization, contributed to its ideology by writing a series of pamphlets such as "Struggle against the Shah's Dictatorship", "What a Revolutionary Must Know" and "How the Armed Struggle Will Be Transformed into a Mass Struggle?". The pamphlets were followed by Masoud Ahmadzadeh's treatise "Armed Struggle: Both a Strategy and a Tactic" and "The Necessity of Armed Struggle and the Rejection of the Theory of Survival" by Amir Parviz Pouyan. [2]

Bijan Jazani Iranian politician

Bijan Jazani is a major figure among modern Iranian Socialist intellectuals.

Masoud Ahmadzadeh Heravi was an Iranian-born political theorist. Though often described as a Revolutionary Communist, his work mostly dealt with the grounds that Struggle is concerned with 'Strategy' and 'Tactics'. His work centered on the fact that defeat of Capitalism and Comprador Capitalism is possible by "Armed Struggle; both a Strategy and a Tactic". He left Mashhad in 1964 and he went to Tehran and studied Mathematics at the University of Tehran. His works deal with the nature of comprador Capitalism, and the subjects of politics, Guerrilla Warfare, monarchy, and dictatorship.

Amir Parviz Pouyan was an Iranian Theoretician, a revolutionary guerrilla, a Communist organizer and founder of Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas in Iran. On 24 May 1971, Pooyan was killed during an armed action when Pooyan and his companion Rahmatullah Piro Naziri came under fire by the SAVAK for their participation in revolutionary guerrilla activities.

See also

Organization of Iranian Peoples Fedai Guerrillas

The Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas, simply known as Fadaiyan-e-Khalq was a Marxist-Leninist underground guerrilla organization in Iran.

Iranian Peoples Fedai Guerrillas

The Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas, also known as Dehghani faction after its leader Ashraf Dehghani, is an Iranian communist organization that split from the Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (OIFPG) in 1979, dropping the word 'organization' from its name.

The Organization of Iranian People's Fadaian (Majority) is an Iranian left-wing opposition political party in exile. The OIPFM advocates for an Iranian secular republic and the overthrow the current Islamic Republic of Iran government.

Related Research Articles

Organization of Iranian People's Fedaii Guerrillas is an Iranian communist group. It was formed in 1985, as a split from the Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (Minority). The organization is currently banned in Iran.

Peykar

Organization of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class or simply Peykar, also called the Marxist Mojahedin, was a secular splinter group from the People's Mujahedin of Iran (PMoI/MEK), the largest of Iran's guerrilla groups. Its members broke away from the MEK to support secular Marxism Leninism, rather than the Leftist Islamist modernism of the People's Mujahedin. Originating in 1972 and officially founded in 1975, by the early 1980s Peykar was no longer considered active.

Left-wing guerrilla groups of Iran

Several left-wing guerrilla groups attempting to overthrown the pro-Western regime of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi were notable and active in Iran from 1971 to 1979. The groups shared a commitment to armed struggle, but differed in ideology. Most were Marxist in orientation, but the largest group — People's Mujahedin of Iran — was founded as an Islamic socialist organization. The left-wing movement is meant to overthrow conservative or capitalist systems and replace them with Marxist–Leninist, socialist, or anarchist societies.

The Social Democratic Party was a political party formed by Persian emigrants in Transcaucasia with the help of local revolutionaries, maintaining close ties to the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and Hemmat Party.

Organization of Revolutionary Workers of Iran – The Worker’s Way is an Iranian Marxist-Leninist political organisation formed in 1978, by former affiliates of other leftist groups. It is currently exiled in Germany.

Union and Progress Party or Unity and Progress Party was a political party in constitutional period Persia.

Islamic Nations Party

Islamic Nations Party or Party of Islamic Nations was an Islamic leftist armed group with clandestine system short-lived during 1960s. It was initially a secret society active against Pahlavi dynasty in late 1950s. It consisted of middle-class youth, mostly highschool teachers and university students.

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Peykar Party was a small nationalist organization in Iran during 1940s. The party denounced the reign of Reza Shah and it condemned the presence of the Allies on Iranian soil.

Organization of Working-class Freedom Fighters

Organization of Working-Class Freedom Fighters or simply Razmandegan, was a communist party in Iran that opposed both the Soviet line and the guerrilla doctrine.

Socialism in Iran

Socialism in Iran or Iranian socialism is a political ideology that traces its beginnings to the 20th century and encompasses various political parties in the country. Iran experienced a short Third World Socialism period at the zenith of the Tudeh Party after the abdication of Reza Shah and his replacement by his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. After failing to reach power, this form of third world socialism was replaced by Mosaddegh's populist, non-aligned Iranian nationalism of the National Front party as the main anti-monarchy force in Iran, reaching power (1949–1953), and it remained with that strength even in opposition until the rise of Islamism and the Iranian Revolution. The Tudehs have moved towards basic socialist communism since then.

Fedaian Organisation (Minority)

Fedaian Organisation or Organization of Fadaiyan (Minority) is an Iranian exiled Marxist-Leninist organisation. A small remainder faction of the disintegrated Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (Minority) led by Akbar Kāmyābi, the group is now based in Europe. They co-founded Union of People's Fedaian of Iran in 1994.

Union of Iranian Republicans or United Republicans of Iran is a secular political organization founded in 2004 by Iranian leftist activists in exile. They are classified as part of the democratic republican opposition groups, whose members are not exclusively made up of former Marxists, but substantial numbers of them are.

Farrokh Negahdar is an Iranian leftist political activist.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Vahabzadeh, Peyman (28 March 2016) [7 December 2015]. "FADĀʾIĀN-E ḴALQ". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopædia Iranica . Bibliotheca Persica Press. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Abrahamian, Ervand (1982). Iran Between Two Revolutions . Princeton University Press. pp. 483–9. ISBN   0-691-10134-5.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Ḥaqšenās, Torāb (27 October 2011) [15 December 1992]. "COMMUNISM iii. In Persia after 1953". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopædia Iranica . Fasc. 1. VI. New York City: Bibliotheca Persica Press. pp. 105–112. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  4. 1 2 Donald Newton Wilber (2014). Iran, Past and Present: From Monarchy to Islamic Republic. Princeton University Press. p. 344. ISBN   1400857473.
  5. Annabelle Sreberny, Massoumeh Torfeh (2013), Cultural Revolution in Iran: Contemporary Popular Culture in the Islamic Republic, I.B. Tauris, p. 156, ISBN   9781780760896 CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  6. 1 2 Mahmood T. Davari (2004). The Political Thought of Ayatollah Murtaza Mutahhari: An Iranian Theoretician of the Islamic State. Routledge. p. 61. ISBN   978-1-134-29488-6.
  7. 1 2 Hiro, Dilip (2013). "Fedai Khalq". A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Middle East. Interlink Publishing. pp. 483–9. ISBN   9781623710330.
  8. 1 2 3 Arie Perliger, William L. Eubank (2006), "Terrorism in Iran and Afghanistan: The Seeds of the Global Jihad", Middle Eastern Terrorism, Infobase Publishing, pp. 41–42, ISBN   9781438107196 CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  9. Vahabzadeh, Peyman (2010). Guerrilla Odyssey: Modernization, Secularism, Democracy, and the Fadai Period of National Liberation In Iran, 1971–1979. Syracuse University Press. p. 100.