Orly Airport

Last updated
Paris Orly Airport

Aéroport de Paris-Orly
Paris Aeroport logo.svg
Orly airport - Paris, August 26, 2007.jpg
Summary
Airport typePublic
Operator Groupe ADP
Serves Paris, France
Location Essonne and the Val-de-Marne
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation  AMSL 291 ft / 89 m
Coordinates 48°43′24″N02°22′46″E / 48.72333°N 2.37944°E / 48.72333; 2.37944 Coordinates: 48°43′24″N02°22′46″E / 48.72333°N 2.37944°E / 48.72333; 2.37944
Website aeroportsdeparis.fr
Map
Ile-de-France region location map.svg
Airplane silhouette.svg
LFPO
Location of airport in Île-de-France region
Runways
Direction LengthSurface
mft
02/202,4007,874 Concrete
06/243,65011,975 Bituminous concrete
08/263,32010,892Concrete
Statistics (2018)
Passengers33,120,685 Increase2.svg3.4%
Cargo115 440
Aircraft movements229,052
Source: French AIP, [1] French AIP at EUROCONTROL, [2] Statistics [3]

Paris Orly Airport (French : Aéroport de Paris-Orly), commonly referred to as Orly( IATA : ORY, ICAO : LFPO), is an international airport located partially in Orly and partially in Villeneuve-le-Roi, 7  NM (13 km; 8.1 mi) south [2] of Paris, France.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

An IATA airport code, also known as an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier, is a three-letter code designating many airports and metropolitan areas around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). The characters prominently displayed on baggage tags attached at airport check-in desks are an example of a way these codes are used.

ICAO airport code four-letter code designating many airports around the world

The ICAOairport code or location indicator is a four-letter code designating aerodromes around the world. These codes, as defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization and published in ICAO Document 7910: Location Indicators, are used by air traffic control and airline operations such as flight planning.

Contents

It serves as a secondary hub for domestic and overseas territories flights of Air France and as the homebase for Transavia France. Flights operate to destinations in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, the Caribbean, North America, East Asia and Southeast Asia.

Air France, stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France. It is a subsidiary of the Air France–KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance. As of 2013 Air France serves 36 destinations in France and operates worldwide scheduled passenger and cargo services to 168 destinations in 78 countries and also carried 46,803,000 passengers in 2015. The airline's global hub is at Charles de Gaulle Airport with Orly Airport as the primary domestic hub. Air France's corporate headquarters, previously in Montparnasse, Paris, are located on the grounds of Charles de Gaulle Airport, north of Paris.

Transavia Airlines S.A.S., trading as Transavia France and formerly branded as transavia.com France, is a French low-cost airline owned by Air France S.A. & Transavia Airlines C.V. based at Paris-Orly Airport. It shares its corporate design, website and operating model with its Dutch sister company, Transavia.

Europe Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

Prior to the opening of Charles de Gaulle Airport in March 1974, Orly was the main airport of Paris. Even with the shift of most international traffic to Charles de Gaulle Airport, Orly remains the busiest French airport for domestic traffic and the second busiest French airport overall in passenger traffic, with 33,120,685 passengers in 2018. [3] The airport is operated by Groupe ADP under the brand Paris Aéroport. Since February 2018, the CEO of the airport has been Régis Lacote.

Charles de Gaulle Airport international airport serving Paris and the largest airport in France

Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport, also known as Roissy Airport, is the largest international airport in France and the second largest in Europe. Opened in March 1974, it is named after Charles de Gaulle (1890–1970), leader of the Free French Forces during the Second World War, founder of the French Fifth Republic and President of France from 1959 to 1969.

Groupe ADP French airport authority

Groupe ADP, formerly Aéroports de Paris or ADP, is an international airport operator based in Paris (France). Groupe ADP owns and manages Parisian international airports Charles de Gaulle Airport, Orly Airport and Le Bourget Airport, all gathered under the brand Paris Aéroport since 2016.

Paris Aéroport brand owned by Groupe ADP that applies to all Parisian international airports

Aéroports de Paris S.A., doing business as Paris Aéroport and formerly as Aéroports de Paris or ADP, is the brand owned by Groupe ADP that applies to all Parisian international airports:

Location

Orly Airport covers 15.3 square kilometres (5.9 sq mi) of land. The airport area, including terminals and runways, spans over two départements and seven communes :

In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, and five are overseas departments, which are also classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; the last two have no autonomy, and are used for the organisation of police, fire departments, and sometimes, elections.

Essonne Department of France

Essonne is a French department in the region of Île-de-France. It is named after the Essonne River.

Paray-Vieille-Poste Commune in Île-de-France, France

Paray-Vieille-Poste is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France in northern France. Paris-Orly Airport is partially located in the commune.

Wissous Commune in Île-de-France, France

Wissous is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France in northern France. Paris-Orly Airport is partially located in the commune.

Management of the airport, however, is solely under the authority of Aéroports de Paris , which also manages Charles de Gaulle Airport, Le Bourget Airport, and several smaller airports in the suburbs of Paris.

History

First years

Originally known as Villeneuve-Orly Airport, the facility was opened in the southern suburbs of Paris in 1932 as a secondary airport to Le Bourget. Before this two huge airship hangars had been built there by the engineer Eugène Freyssinet from 1923 on.[ citation needed ]

World War II

As a result of the Battle of France in 1940, Orly Airport was used by the occupying German Luftwaffe as a combat airfield, stationing various fighter and bomber units at the airport throughout the occupation. [10] As a result, Orly was repeatedly attacked by the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Forces (USAAF), destroying much of its infrastructure, and leaving its runways with numerous bomb craters to limit its usefulness to the Germans.[ citation needed ]

After the Battle of Normandy and the retreat of German forces from the Paris area in August 1944, Orly was partially repaired by USAAF combat engineers and was used by Ninth Air Force as tactical airfield A-47. The 50th Fighter Group flew P-47 Thunderbolt fighter-bomber aircraft from the airport until September, then liaison squadrons used the airfield until October 1945. [11]

Post-war

The USAAF diagram from March 1947 shows the 6,140-foot (1,870 m) 27/207 (degrees magnetic) runway (later 03R) with 5,170-foot (1,580 m) 81/261 runway (later 08L) crossing it at its north end. The November 1953 Aeradio diagram shows four concrete runways, all 197 feet (60 m) wide: 03L 7,874 ft (2,400 m), 03R 6,069 ft (1,850 m), 08L 5,118 ft (1,560 m) and 08R 6,627 ft (2,020 m).[ citation needed ]

The American United States Army Air Forces 1408th Army Air Force Base Unit was the primary operator at Orly Field until March 1947 when control was returned to the French Government. (The United States Air Force leased a small portion of the Airport to support Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) at Rocquencourt). The Americans left in 1967 as a result of France's withdrawal from NATO's integrated military command, and all non-French NATO forces were asked to leave France. [12]

In May 1958 Pan Am Douglas DC-7Cs flew to Los Angeles in 21 hr 56 min; TWA, Air France and Pan Am flew nonstop to New York in 14 hrs 10–15 min. Air France flew to Tokyo in 31 hr 5 min via Anchorage or 44 hr 45 min on a seven-stop Lockheed Constellation (1049G model) via India. Air France's ten flights a day to London were almost all Vickers Viscounts; the only other London flight was Alitalia's daily Douglas DC-6B (BEA was at Le Bourget).[ citation needed ]

A development project voted in 2012 planned to merge the airport's south and west terminals with the construction of an 80,000-square-metre (860,000 sq ft) building to create one great terminal. [13] On 14 April 2016, the Groupe ADP rolled out the Connect 2020 corporate strategy and the commercial brand Paris Aéroport was applied to all Parisian airports, including the Orly airport. [14]

Terminals

Terminal 1,2,3,4 PlannouvelledenominationterminauxORLY.png
Terminal 1,2,3,4

Terminals 1 and 2

Known as the West Terminal until March 2019, these two Terminals consist of two floors and a gate area of four "fingers" rather than a brick-style layout. The ground level 0 features the arrivals facilities including 8 baggage reclaim belts as well as several service facilities and shops. The departures area is located on level 1 with more stores and restaurants located here. This central departures area is connected to four gate areas named halls 1–4 which contain departure gates 10A–10P, 20A–20L, 31A–31F and 40A–40G respectively. [15] 23 stands at this terminal are equipped with jet-bridges, with several of them also able to handle wide-body aircraft. [16]

Terminal 3

The new three-level Terminal, inaugurated in April 2019, is a junction building between Terminals 1, 2 and 4, and allows customers to travel between all areas of the airport under one roof. It includes 5,000 sqm of Duty Free shopping along with new restaurants and lounges. [17]

Terminal 4

Formerly known as the South Terminal this innovative 1961 steel-and-glass terminal building consists of six floors. While the smaller basement level −1 as well as the upper levels 2, 3 and 4 contain only some service facilities, restaurants and office space, level 0 features the arrivals facilities as well as several shops and service counters. The airside area and departure gates are located on the upper level 1. The waiting area, which features several shops as well, houses gates A1–A10 and A40–A42 and is furthermore connected to the gate areas Hall A (gates A11–A27) and Hall B (gates B2–B20) to each side of the building. [15] 15 of the terminal's departure gates are equipped with jet-bridges, some of them are able to handle wide-body aircraft. [18]

Airlines and destinations

AirlinesDestinations
Aigle Azur Algiers, Annaba, Bamako, Beirut, Béjaïa, Campinas, Conakry, Constantine, Faro, Funchal, Lisbon, Milan–Malpensa, [19] Moscow–Domodedovo, Oran, Porto, Sétif, Tlemcen
Air Algérie Algiers, Annaba, Batna, Béjaïa, Biskra, Constantine, Oran, Setif, Tlemcen
Air Caraïbes Cayenne, Fort-de-France, Havana, Pointe-à-Pitre, Port-au-Prince, Punta Cana, Santiago de Cuba, Santo Domingo–Las Americas, Sint Maarten
Seasonal: San Salvador (Bahamas)
Air Corsica Ajaccio, Bastia, Figari
Air Europa Madrid, Palma de Mallorca
Air France Ajaccio, Bastia, Biarritz, Bordeaux, Brest, Calvi, Cayenne, Clermont-Ferrand, Figari, Fort-de-France, Lyon, Marseille, Montpellier, Nantes, New York–JFK, Nice, Pau, Perpignan, Pointe-à-Pitre, Quimper (ends 1 September 2019), [20] Saint-Denis de la Réunion, Toulon, Toulouse
Air Malta Malta
Alitalia Milan–Linate
Chalair Agen, [21] Limoges
Corsair International Fort-de-France, Havana, Mauritius, Miami, [22] Montréal–Trudeau, [23] Pointe-à-Pitre, Saint-Denis de la Réunion, Varadero
Seasonal: Abidjan
easyJet Berlin–Tegel, Faro, Geneva, Milan–Linate, Naples, Nice, Pisa, Rome–Fiumicino, Toulouse, Venice
Seasonal: Athens, Brindisi, Cagliari, Dubrovnik, Mykonos, Olbia, Palermo, Rhodes, Split
easyJet Switzerland Geneva
Flybe Rodez
French Bee Papeete, Saint-Denis de la Réunion, San Francisco
HOP! Aurillac, Brive, Calvi, Castres, Figari, La Rochelle, Lourdes/Tarbes
Iberia Madrid
Icelandair Reykjavík–Keflavík
La Compagnie Newark
Level Fort-de-France, Las Vegas (begins 30 October 2019), [24] Newark, Pointe-à-Pitre
Seasonal: Montréal–Trudeau
Norwegian Air Shuttle Copenhagen, Helsinki, Stockholm–Arlanda
Seasonal: Bergen
Pegasus Airlines Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen
Rossiya Airlines Moscow–Sheremetyevo [25]
Royal Air Maroc Agadir, Casablanca, Essaouira, Fes, Marrakech, Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat, Tangier
Seasonal: Nador
TAP Air Portugal Lisbon, Porto
Transavia Amsterdam
Transavia France Agadir, Alicante, Amsterdam, Athens, Barcelona, Beirut, Budapest, Casablanca, Djerba, Dublin, Essaouira, Faro, Lisbon, Madrid, Málaga, Malta, Marrakech, Monastir, Naples, Oujda, Porto, Prague, Rabat, Reykjavík–Keflavík, Seville, Tel Aviv, Tirana, Tunis, Valencia, Venice, Verona, Vienna
Seasonal: Boa Vista, Chania, Corfu, Dakhla, Dubrovnik, Edinburgh, Eilat–Ramon, Fes, Fuerteventura (begins 2 November 2019), [26] Funchal, Heraklion, Kos, Lanzarote (begins 2 November 2019), [26] Mykonos, Olbia, Palermo, Santorini, Split, Tangier, Thessaloniki, Tivat, Zadar
TUI fly Belgium Seasonal: Agadir, Casablanca, Fuerteventura (begins 10 November 2019), [27] Marrakech, Oujda, Rabat, Tangier, Tenerife–South (begins 10 November 2019) [27]
Tunisair Djerba, Monastir, Sfax, [28] Tunis
Twin Jet Le Puy
Vueling Alicante, Barcelona, Copenhagen, Florence, Lanzarote, Lisbon, Málaga, Milan–Malpensa, Porto, Rome–Fiumicino, Tenerife–South, Valencia
Seasonal: Menorca, Palma de Mallorca

Other facilities

AOM French Airlines had its head office in Orly Airport Building 363 in Paray-Vieille-Poste. [29] [30] [31] After AOM and Air Liberté merged in 2001, [32] the new airline, Air Lib, occupied building 363. [33]

Ground transportation

Terminal South Orly South Terminal.jpg
Terminal South
Terminal South Vue Orly Sud Tour VORDME Orly.jpg
Terminal South
Interior of Terminal South RDC Aerogare Orly Sud.jpg
Interior of Terminal South
Interior of Terminal West Etage1 Orly Ouest.jpg
Interior of Terminal West

Train

Car

Orly Airport is connected to the A106 autoroute (spur route of the A6 autoroute).

Buses and coaches

Accidents and incidents

See also

Related Research Articles

Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport international airport in Chile

Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport, also known as Santiago International Airport and NuevoPudahuel Airport, located in Pudahuel, 15 km (9.3 mi) north-west of downtown Santiago, is Chile's largest aviation facility and the busiest international airport in the country.

Nice Côte dAzur Airport international airport serving Côte dAzur, France

Nice Côte d'Azur Airport is an international airport located 3.2 NM southwest of Nice, in the Alpes-Maritimes départment of France. It is the third busiest airport in France and serves as a focus city for Air France and an operating base for easyJet. In 2018, it handled 13,850,561 passengers. The airport is positioned 7 km (4 mi) west of the city centre, and is the principal port of arrival for passengers to the Côte d'Azur.

Geneva Airport international airport serving Geneva, Switzerland

Geneva Airport, formerly and still unofficially known as Cointrin Airport, is the international airport of Geneva, the second most populous city in Switzerland. It is located 4 km (2.5 mi) northwest of the city centre. It surpassed the 15 million passengers mark for the first time in December 2014. The airport serves as a hub for Swiss International Air Lines and easyJet Switzerland. It features a route network of flights mainly to European metropolitan and leisure destinations as well as some long-haul routes to North America, China and the Middle East, amongst them Swiss International Air Lines' only long-haul service outside of Zürich.

Paris–Le Bourget Airport general aviation and former commercial airport serving Paris

Paris–Le Bourget Airport is an airport located within portions of the communes of Le Bourget, Bonneuil-en-France, Dugny and Gonesse, 6 NM north-northeast (NNE) of Paris, France.

Beauvais–Tillé Airport international airport serving Beauvais, France

Beauvais–Tillé Airport, branded as Paris-Beauvais Airport, is an international airport near the city of Beauvais in the commune of Tillé in France. It is the tenth busiest airport in France, handling 3,997,856 passengers in 2016, and is mostly used by charter and low-cost airlines.

XL Airways France French airline

XL Airways France, formerly Star Airlines, is a French airline with its head offices on the grounds of Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport. It operates scheduled flights mainly to long-haul destinations in Africa, the Middle East, the United States and the Caribbean as well as charter flights to medium-haul destinations in the Mediterranean, mostly out of Charles de Gaulle Airport.

Douala International Airport airport

Douala International Airport is an international airport located in Douala, the largest city in Cameroon and the capital of Cameroon's Littoral Region. With its 4 terminals and an average of 1.5 million passengers and 50,000 tonnes of freight per year it is the country's busiest airport. The airport is managed and partly owned (34%) by the company Aeroport du Cameroon (ADC) which also manages all other 13 airports on the Cameroonian soil.

Carcassonne Airport airport

Carcassonne Airport is an airport serving Carcassonne and the south of Languedoc. The airport is located on the western edge of the city, 3 km from the city center, in the Aude department of the Languedoc-Roussillon region in France. It is also known as Salvaza Airport, Carcassonne Salvaza Airport or Carcassonne Airport in Pays Cathare. The airport handles commercial national and international flights as well as private, non-regular air traffic.

Tangier Ibn Battouta Airport airport in Morocco

Tangier Ibn Battuta Airport is an international airport serving Tangier, the capital city of the Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima region in Morocco. The airport is named after Ibn Battouta (1304–1368), a Moroccan traveler who was born in Tangier. The airport was formerly known as Tanger-Boukhalef Airport.

AOM French Airlines 1992-2001 airline in France

AOM French Airlines was the second largest airline in France from 1990 until 2001. Its head office was located in Building 363 at Orly Airport, Paray-Vieille-Poste.

Air Liberté was an airline in France founded in July 1987. Air Liberté was headquartered in Rungis. Air Lib was headquartered in Orly Airport Building 363 in Paray-Vieille-Poste.

Metz–Nancy–Lorraine Airport airport

Metz–Nancy–Lorraine Airport or Aéroport de Metz–Nancy–Lorraine is an airport serving the Lorraine région of France. It is located in Goin, 16.5 km southeast of Metz, and north of Nancy. It opened to the public on October 28, 1991 and replaced Nancy–Essey and Metz–Frescaty airports.

Strasbourg Airport airport

Strasbourg Airport is a minor international airport located in Entzheim and 10 km west-southwest of Strasbourg, both communes of the Bas-Rhin département in the Alsace région of France. In 2014 the airport served 1,167,612 passengers.

Franck Goldnadel, born 14 August 1969, is a French public servant and former director of Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport.

Lyon–Saint-Exupéry Airport international airport in Lyon, France

Lyon–Saint Exupéry Airport, formerly known as Lyon Satolas Airport, is the international airport of Lyon, the third-biggest city in France and an important transport facility for the entire Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region. It lies in Colombier-Saugnieu, 11 nautical miles southeast of Lyon's city centre.

References

Citations

  1. LFPO – PARIS ORLY. AIP from French Service d'information aéronautique , effective 20 June 2019.
  2. 1 2 "EAD Basic – Error Page" . Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  3. 1 2 "Aéroport de Paris – Orly". Les Aéroports Français, Statistiques annuelles (in French). Paris: Union des aéroports Français. Archived from the original on 5 September 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  4. "Plan de Wissous Archived 2010-08-16 at the Wayback Machine ." Wissous. Retrieved on 6 October 2009.
  5. "Plans, cartes et vue aérienne." Athis-Mons. Retrieved on 6 October 2009.
  6. "Plan interactif Archived 2007-06-17 at the Wayback Machine ." Chilly-Mazarin. Retrieved on 6 October 2009.
  7. "Plan Archived 2009-11-04 at the Wayback Machine ." Morangis. Retrieved on 6 October 2009.
  8. "Plan de la ville Archived 2009-06-29 at the Wayback Machine ." Villeneuve-le-Roi. Retrieved on 6 October 2009.
  9. "Plan d'Orly Archived 2008-11-18 at the Wayback Machine ." Orly. Retrieved on 6 October 2009.
  10. "The Luftwaffe, 1933–45" . Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  11. Johnson, David C. (1988), U.S. Army Air Forces Continental Airfields (ETO), D-Day to V-E Day; Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center, Maxwell AFB, Alabama.
  12. McAuliffe, Jerome J. (2005). US Air Force in France 1950–1967. San Diego, California: Milspec Press, Chapter 14, Paris-USAF Operations. ISBN   978-0-9770371-1-7.
  13. Julien Chadeyron (25 October 2012). "The new face of Orly airport in 2018!". Mister10.com. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  14. Charlotte Turner (19 April 2016). "ADP reveals rebrand and opens Orly South Pier". Trbusiness.com. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  15. 1 2 "Terminal maps" . Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  16. [Google Maps]
  17. Orly Sud and Orly Ouest become Orly 1 2 3 4
  18. [Google Maps]
  19. https://www.ch-aviation.com/portal/news/65821-frances-aigle-azur-outlines-longhaul-growth-plans
  20. https://www.lesechos.fr/industrie-services/tourisme-transport/air-france-taille-une-fois-encore-dans-son-reseau-domestique-1018475
  21. https://www.deplacementspros.com/Chalair-va-voler-entre-Orly-et-Agen_a51465.html
  22. https://www.businesstravel.fr/corsair-ouvre-miami-en-juin-2019.html
  23. https://www.air-journal.fr/2019-04-06-corsair-se-renforce-sur-lamerique-du-nord-5211601.html
  24. Liu, Jim (8 May 2019). "LEVEL adds Paris – Las Vegas service from late-Oct 2019". Routesonline. UBM (UK) Ltd. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  25. Liu, Jim (6 January 2019). "Aeroflot schedules additional European routes in S19". Routesonline. UBM (UK) Ltd.
  26. 1 2 Liu, Jim. "Transavia France adds new Paris Orly routes from Nov 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  27. 1 2 Liu, Jim. "TUIfly Belgium W19 Paris Orly – Tenerife routing changes". Routesonline. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  28. Liu, Jim. "Tunisair resumes Sfax – Paris Orly sector from June 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  29. "World Airline Directory 1999." Flight International . 2000. 363.
  30. "Nos coordonnées agences en "France Métropolitaine "." AOM French Airlines. Retrieved on 15 May 2010. "SIEGE Bâtiment 363 B.P. 854 94 551 ORLY AEROGARE CEDEX"
  31. "Résultat de votre recherche." Le Journal officiel électronique authentifié. Retrieved on 15 May 2010. "Siège social : compagnie Air Lib, bâtiment 363, zone centrale à l’aéroport d’Orly, 91550 Paray-Vieille-Poste."
  32. "Découvrir Air Liberté." Air Liberté. 23 February 2002. Retrieved on 15 May 2010. "Le 22 Septembre 2001, AOM et AIR LIBERTE ont donné naissance à une nouvelle compagnie aérienne qui porte désormais le nom AIR LIB."
  33. "World Airline Directory." Flight International . 12–18 March 2002. 57.
  34. "F-BATH Hull-loss description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
  35. "Accident description PP-VJZ". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
  36. Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "No céu de Paris". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 285–290. ISBN   978-85-7430-760-2.

Bibliography

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Paris-Orly Airport at Wikimedia Commons
Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Paris Orly Airport travel guide from Wikivoyage