Ormur

Last updated

The Ormur (Pashto : اورمړ), also called Burki or Baraki (Pashto : برکي), is a Pashtun tribe mainly living in Pakistan and parts of Afghanistan. [1]

Pakistan federal parliamentary constitutional republic in South Asia

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

Afghanistan A landlocked south-central Asian country

Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and in the far northeast, China. Its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi) and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences very cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get very hot in summers. Kabul serves as the capital and its largest city.

Contents

Ormur is part of the Pashtun tribal system and identify with the Karlan confederacy of the region. The 16th-century Pashtun warrior-poet Pir Roshan belonged to the Ormur tribe.

Pashtun tribes large family unit of the Eastern Iranian ethnic groups

The Pashtun tribes, or Afghan tribes, are the tribes of the Pashtun people, a large Eastern Iranian ethnic group who use the Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali code of conduct. They are found primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan and form the world's largest tribal society, comprising over 49 million people and between 350 and 400 tribes and clans. They are traditionally divided into four tribal confederacies: the Sarbani (سړبني), the Bettani (بېټني), the Gharghashti (غرغښتي) and the Karlani (کرلاڼي).

Bāyazīd Pīr Rōshān or Pīr Rōkhān ‎ was a Pashtun warrior, poet,Sufi, a freedom fighter and revolutionary leader from Kaniguram, Waziristan. He wrote mostly in Pashto, but also in Persian, Hindustani, and Arabic, while he also spoke Ormuri. He is known for founding the Roshani movement, which gained many followers in the Pashtunistan region and produced numerous Pashto poets and writers. Pir Roshan created a Pashto alphabet, derived from the Arabic script with 13 new letters. A modified version of this alphabet continues to be used to write Pashto. Pir Roshan wrote Khayr al-Bayān, one of the earliest known books containing Pashto prose.

Language and demographics

Ormuri [2] is the first language of the Ormurs living in Kaniguram and its vicinity in South Waziristan; today, all are bilingual in the local Pashto dialect of Wazirwola. Most can also converse in Urdu and some in English.

Kaniguram Town in Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan

Kāṇīguram is a town in South Waziristan, Pakistan. Located within the heart of Mahsud land in Waziristan, Kaniguram is the principal place associated with the Ormur or Burki tribe. It was the hometown of the sixteenth-century Pashtun revolutionary leader and warrior-poet Bayazid Pir Roshan, who wrote the first known book of Pashto language.

South Waziristan District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

South Waziristan District is a district in Dera Ismail Khan Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the southern part of Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, that covers some 11,585 km2 (4,473 mi²). Waziristan comprises the area west and southwest of Peshawar between the Tochi River to the north and the Gomal River to the south. The region was an independent tribal territory from 1893, remaining outside of British-ruled empire and Afghanistan. Tribal raiding into British-ruled territory was a constant problem for the British, requiring frequent punitive expeditions between 1860 and 1945. Troops of the British Raj coined a name for this region "Hell's Door Knocker" in recognition of the fearsome reputation of the local fighters and inhospitable terrain. The capital city of South Waziristan is Wanna. South Waziristan is divided into the three administrative subdivisions of Ladha, Sarwakai, and Wanna. These three subdivisions are further divided into eight Tehsils: Ladha, Makin, Sararogha, Sarwakai, Tiarza, Wanna, Barmal, and Toi Khwla.

Urdu National language and lingua franca of Pakistan; one of the official languages of India; standardized register of Hindustani

Urdu —or, more precisely, Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi. It is a registered regional language of Nepal.

They are also found in Baraki Barak in Logar and in the outskirts of Ghazni in Afghanistan. However, Pashto and Dari have replaced Ormuri language there.[ citation needed ]

Baraki Barak town in Logar Province, Afghanistan

Barakī Barak is a town and the center of Baraki Barak District, Logar Province, Afghanistan. It was also the former capital of Logar Province. The town is in a mountainous area in the valley of the Logar River. The main road Ghazni-Kabul passes about 20 km to the West of the town.

Logar Province Province in Afghanistan

Logar is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country. It is divided into seven districts and contains hundreds of villages. Puli Alam is the capital of the province.

Ghazni City in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan

Ghazni historically known as Ghaznin or Ghazna, is a city in central Afghanistan with a population of around 270,000 people. The city is strategically located along Highway 1, which has served as the main road between Kabul and southern Afghanistan for thousands of years. Situated on a plateau at 2,219 metres (7,280 ft) above sea level, the city is 150 km south of Kabul and serves as the capital of Ghazni Province.

Notable personalities

Religion

Pir Roshan (literal translation: old man/saint/elder of light) (Bayazid Khan) 1525-1581 Pushtun Warrior/Intellectual, founder Roshaniyya (Enlightenment) movement. Inaccurately referred to Bayazid ANSARI as well as founder of the illuminati (Roshaniyya (Enlightenment) movement). Descendants comprise the "Baba Khel" branch of the Burki Qaum (tribe).

Military

Lieutenant-General Wajid Ali Khan Burki MBE (1900–1988), was a high-profile military official who served as Minister-in-Charge of the Ministry of Health under the military government of Field Marshal Ayub Khan. Burki was one of the leading active-duty military official who played an influential role in advising and formulating the Health reforms and policies of the Ayub Khan Military administration. General Burki was Ayub Khan's right-hand man, and was instrumental in Ayub Khan's rise to power. Until today the three families retain adjoining houses in Islamabad as part of their service in the creation of Islamabad. He served as the Vice-Prime Minister of Pakistan, and the commander in chief in the Prime Minister's absence. He and another person at the time were the two major founders of the capital city of Islamabad, forming it from a mostly barren area of land. In many different ways, he played an important part in the history of Pakistan.

Lieutenant-General Zahid Ali AkbarHI(M), SBt, was an engineering officer in the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers, who oversaw the civil construction of the Army GHQ in Rawalpindi, and later directing the Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL), a top secret research facility developing the clandestine atomic bomb program in 1970s.

Project-706

Project-706, also known as Project-726 was a codename of a project to develop Pakistan's first atomic bomb using uranium. At the same time, Pakistani nuclear technology scientists and engineers gained expertise in the use of reactor-grade plutonium and successfully produced weapons grade plutonium by the early 1980s.

See also

Related Research Articles

Waziristan area

Waziristan is a mountainous region covering the former FATA agencies of North Waziristan and South Waziristan and now districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Waziristan covers some 11,585 square kilometres (4,500 sq mi). The area is populated by ethnic Pashtuns. It is named after the Wazir tribe. The language spoken in the valley is Pashto, predominantly the Waziristani dialect. The region forms the southern part of Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas, which is now part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.

The Khattak is a Pashtun tribe numbering over 3 million, which speaks a variant of the softer Kandahari Pashto. It is one of the oldest Pashtun tribes. The Khattaks are settled along the western bank of the Indus River from as north upwards as Lund Khwar, Katlang, Sawaldher, Sher Garh and near Malakand, Shaidu Nowshera District, Kohat District, Mianwali District, Attock District & Karak District in Pakistan. Across the Durand line, a smaller number of Khattaks are scattered in Kandahar, Ghazni, Logar and Khost in Afghanistan. The historic capitals of the Khattaks were Teri, a town at District Karak, and Akora Khattak, a town at District Nowshera.

Afridi ethnic group

The Afrīdī is a Pashtun tribe present in Pakistan, with substantial numbers in Afghanistan. The Afridis are most dominant in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas, inhabiting about 100p mi² (8000 km²) of rough hilly area in the Zarlash eastern Spin Ghar range west of Peshawar, covering most of Khyber Agency, FR Peshawar and FR Kohat. Their territory includes the Khyber Pass and Maidan in Tirah. Afridi migrants are also found in India, mostly in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Jammu and Kashmir.

The Shalmani, or Shilmani is a Pashtun tribe who is primarily concentrated in the Shalman Valley in Khyber Agency near Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Shalmani is also known as Sulemani in Abbottabad, Mansehra and Haripur. The tribe is present in different parts of Pakistan. In Pakistan, the tribe lives in Swat, Upper Dir, Lower Dir, Bajour, Buner, Shangla, Malakand District, Dargai, Sakha Koat,Shodag, Charsadda (Hashtnagar).

The Rōshānī movement was a populist, nonsectarian Sufi reformation movement founded in 16th-century by the Afghan or Pashtun warrior-poet, Bayazid Pir Roshan, who is more commonly known as Pir Roshan or Pir Rokhan. Pir Roshan challenged the inequality and social injustice he imputed to the Moghul rulers of the day, instead advocating an egalitarian and even communistic social system. Its adherents were inducted into the order through a series of secret initiation rituals.

The Mahsud or Mehsud, also spelled Maseed, is a Karlani Pashtun tribe inhabiting mostly the South Waziristan Agency in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. A minor number of Maseed lineages are settled in the Logar Province of Afghanistan, especially in Charkh District, Baraki barak and Muhammad Agha, but also in Wardak, Ghazni and Kunduz Provinces. The Maseeds inhabit the center and north of South Waziristan valley, surrounded on three sides by the Darweshkhel Wazirs, and being shut off by the Bettanis on the east from the Derajat and Bannu districts. Two Pashtun tribes, the Ahmadzai Wazirs and the Maseeds, inhabit and dominate South Waziristan. Within the heart of Maseed territory in South Waziristan lies the influential Ormur (Burki) tribe's stronghold of Kaniguram. The Ormurs are considered by other tribes of South Waziristan to be close brethren of the Maseeds due to marital and other ties and the fact that the Ormurs have lived in and controlled Kaniguram for over a thousand years. There are also some Maseeds living in the UAE, Germany and the United Kingdom.

Pashto literature and poetry

Pashto literature and poetry refers to literature and poetry in Pashto language.

The Pathans of Punjab (Punjabi: پنجابی پٹھان; Pashto: د پنجاب پښتانه‎; also called Punjabi Pathans are originally Pashtun people who have settled in the Punjab region of Pakistan. Most of these Pashtun communities are scattered throughout the Punjab and have over time assimilated into the Punjabi society and culture.

The Mulagori, also spelled Mullagori and Mallagori, is sub section of Momand Pashtun Ghoryakhel confederacy. Predominantly, Mullagori live in the Mula Gori Tehsil of Khyber Agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan, in the and in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan.

Ormuri is a language spoken in Waziristan. It is primarily spoken in the town of Kaniguram in South Waziristan, Pakistan by the Burki people. It is also spoken by a small group of people in Baraki Barak in Logar, Afghanistan. The language belongs to the Eastern-Iranian language group. The extremely small number of speakers makes Ormuri an endangered language that is considered to be in a "threatened" state.

Mir Ali, Pakistan Town in Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan

Mir Ali or Mirali is a town in North Waziristan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan. Mir Ali is located in the Tochi Valley, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) east of Miramshah, 40 kilometres (25 mi) west of Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Khost city, Afghanistan. Mir Ali has an altitude of 674 metres (2,211 ft). In October 2007, the battle between Taliban militants and Pakistani armed forces killed 175 civilians in Mirali.

Pashtun nationalism is a political and social movement which promotes the idea that the Pashtuns are deserving of a sovereign nation in their homeland of Pashtunistan, which consists of the Pashtun-majority parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Pashtun nationalism is closely linked to the cause of Pashtun home rule and Pashtun independence. In Afghanistan, Pashtun nationalists look after the interests of the Pashtun ethnic group and has its support only from them. They favor the ideas of a "Greater Afghanistan". Therefore, the concept of Pashtun nationalism politically overlaps with Afghan nationalism.

Kakazai

The Kakazai, also known as Loi or Loye Mamund, a division of the Mamund clan, are part of the larger Tarkani (ترکاڼي) tribe who are primarily settled in Bajaur Agency, Pakistan, but originally hailed from the Laghman province of Afghanistan. However, it has grown and scattered around to such an extent that it is recognized as tribe of its own.

Khan Roshan Khan Pakistani historian

Khan Roshan Khan was a Pashtun historian, educationalist, and writer from Pakistan known primarily for being president of the Muslim League in Swabi and for writing books on the history of the Pashtun people.

Family of Imran Khan

The family of Imran Khan, the current Prime Minister of Pakistan and former captain of the Pakistan cricket team, is the current First Family of Pakistan. It includes immediate family members and distant relatives from both his paternal and maternal sides. Khan was born on 5 October 1952 in Lahore to father Ikramullah Khan Niazi, a civil engineer, and mother Shaukat Khanum. He grew up as the only son in the family, with four sisters. The family are ethnically of Pashtun origin. Paternally, Khan belongs to the Niazi Pashtun tribe which has long been settled in Mianwali in northwestern Punjab. Khan's mother hailed from the Burki Pashtun tribe settled in Malerkotla (Punjab), which emigrated a few centuries ago from South Waziristan in the tribal areas of northwest Pakistan. Khan's maternal family has produced several great cricketers, the most prominent of whom are Javed Burki and Majid Khan.

Khwajgan (Khwaja Khel)

Khwajgan,(Pashto: خواجګان‎) also known as Khwaja Khel,(خواجه خېل) is a clan or family of Yusufzai Pashtuns settled in different parts of Swat valley Pakistan i-e in Bara Bandai Mingora, Barikot, Charbagh and Dakorak. Khwajgan is the title for "the Masters" or "learned people". Khwajgan, as the plural for "Khwāja", is often used to refer to a network of Sufis in Central Asia from the 10th to the 16th century. In Firdowsi's Shahnama the word is used many times for some rulers and heroes of ancient Iran as well. Khwajgan or Khwaja Khel of Swat valley are those who follow Pashtunwali, a non-written ethical code.

References

Further reading