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Persian sphinx from Halicarnassus, capital of Caria, 355 BC. Found in Bodrum Castle, but possibly from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Persian sphinx at Halicarnassus.jpg
Persian sphinx from Halicarnassus, capital of Caria, 355 BC. Found in Bodrum Castle, but possibly from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.

Orontobates (in Greek Ὀρoντoβάτης. Old Persian Aurandabad, lived 4th century BC) was a Persian, who married the daughter of Pixodarus, the usurping satrap of Caria, and was sent by the king of Persia to succeed him. On the approach of Alexander the Great of Macedon (334 BC) Orontobates and Memnon of Rhodes entrenched themselves in Halicarnassus. But at last, despairing of defending it, they set fire to the town, and under cover of the conflagration crossed over to Cos, whither they had previously removed their treasures. In addition to the island of Cos, Orontobates, retained control of the citadel at Salmacis, and the towns Myndus, Caunus, Thera and Callipolis together with Triopium.

Next year, while at Soli, Cilicia, Alexander learnt that Orontobates had been defeated in a great battle by Ptolemy and Asander. It is natural to infer that the places which Orontobates held did not long hold out after his defeat. [1]

An officer of the name of Orontobates was present in the army of Darius III at the battle of Gaugamela (331 BC), being one of the commanders of the troops drawn from the shores of the Persian Gulf. [2] Whether he was the same or a different person from the preceding, we have no means of knowing. We are not told that the latter was killed as well as defeated.

It is likely that Alexander the Great knew Orontobates intimately as there was a princess between the two. In his youth Alexander wanted to marry Ada II, the daughter of Pixodarus but this was negated by his father. Incidentally Orontobates married a daughter of Pixodarus, who was probably the same as Ada II. Thus the relation between the two may have been far more complex than what Justin or even Plutarch knew.

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Idrieus King of Caria

{{Infobox royalty | type= monarch | name=Idrieus | image=SATRAPS of CARIA. Hidrieus. Circa 351-0 to 344-3 BC.jpg | caption=Coinage of Idrieus. Obv: Head of [[Apoll] wearing laurel wreath, drapery at neck. Rev: legend ΙΔΡΙΕΩΣ ("IDRIEOS"), Zeus Labraundos standing. Circa 351/0 to 344/3 BCE. | reign= 351–344 BC, | coronation= | succession= Satrap of Caria | predecessor= Artemisia II | successor= Ada | suc-type= Successor | reg-type= | regent= | spouse= Ada | issue = | issue-link= #Issue | full name= | house= Hecatomnids | father= Hecatomnus | mother= | birth_date= | birth_place= | religion= | signature= | signature_alt= }}

Ptolemy ; died 333 BC) son of Seleucus from Orestis or Tymphaia, was one of the select officers called Somatophylaces, or guards of the king's person; he combined with that distinguished post the command of one of the divisions of the phalanx. Ptolemy was from an upper noble family. He was lately married when he accompanied Alexander on his expedition to Asia, 334 BC, on which account he was selected by the king to command the body of Macedonians, who were allowed to return home for the winter at the end of the first campaign. In the following spring he rejoined Alexander at Gordium, with the troops under his command, accompanied by fresh reinforcements. At the Battle of Issus his division of the phalanx was one of those opposed to the Greek mercenaries under Darius III, and upon which the real brunt of the action consequently devolved; and he himself fell in the conflict, after displaying the utmost valour.

Ptolemy, son of Philip was an officer who commanded the leading squadron of Macedonian cavalry at the Battle of the Granicus. Both Gronovius and Droysen, suppose that he is the same man that Alexander left with a force of 3,000 infantry and 200 cavalry to defend the province of Caria, and who subsequently, together with Asander the governor of Lydia, defeated the Persian general Orontobates, 332 BC.


Arsites was Persian satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia in Achaemenid dinesty in the 4th century BC. His satrapy also included the region of Paphlagonia.


  1. Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri , i. 18, ii. 5; Curtius Rufus, Historiae Alexandri Magni, iii. 7
  2. Arrian, iii. 8