Oscar Peterson

Last updated
Oscar Peterson

Oscar Peterson - 1950.JPG
Background information
Birth nameOscar Emmanuel Peterson
Born(1925-08-15)August 15, 1925
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
DiedDecember 23, 2007(2007-12-23) (aged 82)
Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
Genres Jazz, classical
Occupation(s)Musician, composer
Years active1945–2007
Labels RCA Victor, Mercury, MPS, Pablo, Telarc, Verve
Associated acts Louis Armstrong, Count Basie, Ray Brown, Clark Terry, Roy Eldridge, Herb Ellis, Ella Fitzgerald, Dizzy Gillespie, Norman Granz, Benny Green, Coleman Hawkins, Barney Kessel, Milt Jackson, Niels-Henning Ørsted Pedersen, Joe Pass, Ben Webster, Ulf Wakenius
Website oscarpeterson.com

Oscar Emmanuel Peterson, CC CQ OOnt (August 15, 1925 – December 23, 2007) was a Canadian jazz pianist and composer. He was called the "Maharaja of the keyboard" by Duke Ellington, but simply "O.P." by his friends. [1] [2] He released over 200 recordings, won eight Grammy Awards, and received numerous other awards and honours. He is considered one of the greatest jazz pianists, [3] and played thousands of concerts worldwide in a career lasting more than 60 years.



Early years

Peterson was born in Montreal, Quebec, to immigrants from the West Indies; his father worked as a porter for Canadian Pacific Railway. [4] [5] Peterson grew up in the neighbourhood of Little Burgundy in Montreal. It was in this predominantly black neighborhood that he encountered the jazz culture. [6] At the age of five, Peterson began honing his skills on trumpet and piano, but a bout of tuberculosis when he was seven prevented him from playing the trumpet again, so he directed all his attention to the piano. His father, Daniel Peterson, an amateur trumpeter and pianist, was one of his first music teachers, and his sister Daisy taught him classical piano. Peterson was persistent at practising scales and classical études.

As a child, Peterson studied with Hungarian-born pianist Paul de Marky, a student of István Thomán, who was himself a pupil of Franz Liszt, so his early training was predominantly based on classical piano. But he was captivated by traditional jazz and boogie-woogie and learned several ragtime pieces. He was called "the Brown Bomber of the Boogie-Woogie". [7]

At the age of nine Peterson played piano with a degree of control that impressed professional musicians. For many years his piano studies included four to six hours of daily practice. Only in his later years did he decrease his practice to one or two hours daily. In 1940, at fourteen years of age, he won the national music competition organized by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. After that victory, he dropped out of the High School of Montreal, where he played in a band with Maynard Ferguson. [8] He became a professional pianist, starring in a weekly radio show and playing at hotels and music halls. In his teens he was a member of the Johnny Holmes Orchestra. From 1945 to 1949 he worked in a trio and recorded for Victor Records. He gravitated toward boogie-woogie and swing with a particular fondness for Nat King Cole and Teddy Wilson. [9] By the time he was in his 20s, he had developed a reputation as a technically brilliant and melodically inventive pianist. [10]

Oscar Peterson as a 20 year old, at the Hamilton Infirmary in 1945 Oscar Peterson Standing.jpg
Oscar Peterson as a 20 year old, at the Hamilton Infirmary in 1945

Duos, trios, and quartets

In a cab on the way to the Montreal airport, Norman Granz heard a radio program broadcasting from a local club. He was so impressed that he told the driver to take him to the club so he could meet the pianist. In 1949 he introduced Peterson in New York City at a Jazz at the Philharmonic concert at Carnegie Hall. [7] He remained Peterson's manager for most of his career. This was more than a managerial relationship; Peterson praised Granz for standing up for him and other black jazz musicians in the segregationist south of the 1950s and 1960s. In the documentary video Music in the Key of Oscar, Peterson tells how Granz stood up to a gun-toting southern policeman who wanted to stop the trio from using "whites-only" taxis. [11]

In 1950 Peterson worked in a duo with double bassist Ray Brown. Two years later they added guitarist Barney Kessel. Then Herb Ellis stepped in after Kessel grew weary of touring. The trio remained together from 1953 to 1958, often touring with Jazz at the Philharmonic. [9]

Peterson also worked in a duo with Sam Jones, Niels-Henning Ørsted Pedersen, Joe Pass, Irving Ashby, [12] Count Basie, [13] and Herbie Hancock. [14]

He considered the trio with Brown and Ellis "the most stimulating" and productive setting for public performances and studio recordings. In the early 1950s, he began performing with Brown and drummer Charlie Smith as the Oscar Peterson Trio. Shortly afterward Smith was replaced by guitarist Irving Ashby, who had been a member of the Nat King Cole Trio. Ashby, who was a swing guitarist, was soon replaced by Kessel. [15] Their last recording, On the Town with the Oscar Peterson Trio , recorded live at the Town Tavern in Toronto, captured a remarkable degree of emotional as well as musical understanding between three players. [16]

When Ellis departed in 1958, they hired drummer Ed Thigpen because they felt no guitarist could compare to Ellis. [9] Brown and Thigpen worked with Peterson on his albums Night Train and Canadiana Suite . Both left in 1965 and were replaced by bassist Sam Jones and drummer Louis Hayes (and later, drummer Bobby Durham). The trio performed together until 1970. In 1969 Peterson recorded Motions and Emotions with orchestral arrangements of "Yesterday" and "Eleanor Rigby" by The Beatles. In the fall of 1970, Peterson's trio released the album Tristeza on Piano . Jones and Durham left in 1970.

Joe Pass and Oscar Peterson at Eastman Theatre Rochester, New York, in 1977 Joe Pass & Oscar Peterson.jpg
Joe Pass and Oscar Peterson at Eastman Theatre Rochester, New York, in 1977

In the 1970s Peterson formed a trio with guitarist Joe Pass and bassist Niels-Henning Ørsted Pedersen. This trio emulated the success of the 1950s trio with Brown and Ellis and gave acclaimed performances at festivals. Their album The Trio won the 1974 Grammy Award for Best Jazz Performance by a Group. On April 22, 1978, Peterson performed in the interval act for the Eurovision Song Contest 1978 that was broadcast live from the Palais des congrès de Paris. In 1974 he added British drummer Martin Drew. This quartet toured and recorded extensively worldwide. Pass said in a 1976 interview, "The only guys I've heard who come close to total mastery of their instruments are Art Tatum and Peterson".[ citation needed ]

Peterson was open to experimental collaborations with jazz musicians such as saxophonist Ben Webster, trumpeter Clark Terry, and vibraphonist Milt Jackson. In 1961, the Peterson trio with Jackson recorded the album Very Tall. His solo recordings were rare until Exclusively for My Friends (MPS), a series of albums that were his response to pianists such as Bill Evans and McCoy Tyner. He recorded for Pablo, led by Norman Granz, after the label was founded in 1973. [17] In the 1980s he played in a duo with pianist Herbie Hancock. In the late 1980s and 1990s, after a stroke, he made performances and recordings with his protégé Benny Green. In the 1990s and 2000s he recorded several albums accompanied by a combo for Telarc.

Ill health and later years

Tombstone of Oscar Peterson at St. Peter's Anglican Church in Mississauga Grave of Oscar Peterson - St. Peter's Anglican Church.jpg
Tombstone of Oscar Peterson at St. Peter's Anglican Church in Mississauga

Peterson had arthritis since his youth, and in later years he had trouble buttoning his shirt. Never slender, his weight increased to 125 kg (276 lb), hindering his mobility. He had hip replacement surgery in the early 1990s. [18] Although the surgery was successful, his mobility was still inhibited. In 1993 a stroke weakened his left side and removed him from work for two years. During the same year incoming prime minister Jean Chrétien, his friend and fan, offered him the position of Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario. According to Chrétien, Peterson declined the job due to ill health related to the stroke. [19]

Although he recovered some dexterity in his left hand, his piano playing was diminished, and his style had relied principally on his right hand. In 1995 he returned to occasional public performances and recorded for Telarc. In 1997 he received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award and an International Jazz Hall of Fame Award. His friend, Canadian politician and amateur pianist Bob Rae, said, "a one-handed Oscar was better than just about anyone with two hands." [20]

In 2003, Peterson recorded the DVD A Night in Vienna for Verve with Niels-Henning Ørsted Pedersen, Ulf Wakenius, and Martin Drew. He continued to tour the U.S. and Europe, though at most one month a year, with rest between concerts.

In 2007 his health declined. He canceled his plans to perform at the Toronto Jazz Festival and a Carnegie Hall all-star concert that was to be given in his honour. Peterson died on December 23, 2007 of kidney failure at his home in Mississauga, Ontario. [21] [22]

Personal life

Peterson was married four times. [23] [24] He smoked cigarettes and a pipe and often tried to break the habit, but every time he stopped he gained weight. He loved to cook and remained a large man throughout his life. [25]

Composer and teacher

Peterson in 1977 Oscar Peterson.jpg
Peterson in 1977

Peterson taught piano and improvisation in Canada, mainly in Toronto. With associates, he started and headed the Advanced School of Contemporary Music in Toronto for five years during the 1960s, but it closed because touring called him and his associates away, and it did not have government funding. [26] Later, he mentored the York University jazz program and was the Chancellor of the university for several years in the early 1990s. [27] [28] He published jazz piano etudes for practice. He asked his students to study the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, especially The Well-Tempered Clavier , the Goldberg Variations , and The Art of Fugue , considering these piano pieces essential for every serious pianist. Among his students were pianists Benny Green and Oliver Jones. [29]

Peterson and Tatum

He was influenced by Teddy Wilson, Nat King Cole, James P. Johnson, and Art Tatum, to whom many compared Peterson in later years [30] After his father played a record of Tatum's "Tiger Rag", he was intimidated and disillusioned, quitting the piano for several weeks. "Tatum scared me to death," he said, and was "never cocky again" about his ability at the piano. [31] Tatum was a model for Peterson's musicianship during the 1940s and 1950s. Tatum and Peterson became good friends, although Peterson was always shy about being compared with Tatum and rarely played the piano in Tatum's presence.

Peterson also credited his sistera piano teacher in Montreal who also taught several other Canadian jazz musicianswith being an important teacher and influence on his career. Under his sister's tutelage, Peterson expanded into classical piano training and broadened his range while mastering the core classical pianism from scales to preludes and fugues by Johann Sebastian Bach. [32]

Building on Tatum's pianism and aesthetics, Peterson also absorbed Tatum's musical influences, notably from piano concertos by Sergei Rachmaninoff. Rachmaninoff's harmonizations, as well as direct quotations from his 2nd Piano Concerto, are scattered throughout many recordings by Peterson, including his work with the most familiar formulation of the Oscar Peterson Trio, with bassist Ray Brown and guitarist Herb Ellis. During the 1960s and 1970s Peterson made numerous trio recordings highlighting his piano performances; they reveal more of his eclectic style, absorbing influences from various genres of jazz, popular, and classical music.

According to pianist and educator Mark Eisenman, some of Peterson's best playing was as an understated accompanist to singer Ella Fitzgerald and trumpeter Roy Eldridge. [33]

Awards and honours

Grammy Awards

Other awards

Statue of Oscar Peterson was unveiled by Queen Elizabeth II at the National Arts Centre in Ottawa in June 2010. Statue of Oscar Peterson 1.jpg
Statue of Oscar Peterson was unveiled by Queen Elizabeth II at the National Arts Centre in Ottawa in June 2010.



See also

Related Research Articles

Norman Granz American jazz musician and producer

Norman Granz was an American jazz music impresario.

Art Tatum American jazz pianist

Arthur Tatum Jr. was an American jazz pianist.

Ray Brown (musician) American jazz double bassist and cellist

Raymond Matthews Brown was an American jazz double bassist known for extensive work with Oscar Peterson and Ella Fitzgerald.

Hiromi Uehara Japanese-born jazz composer and pianist (1979-)

Hiromi Uehara, known professionally as Hiromi, is a jazz composer and pianist born in Hamamatsu, Japan. She is known for her virtuosic technique, energetic live performances and blend of musical genres such as stride, post-bop, progressive rock, classical and fusion in her compositions.

Toshiko Akiyoshi Japanese American jazz pianist, composer, arranger, band master (1929-)

Toshiko Akiyoshi is a Japanese jazz pianist, composer, arranger, and bandleader.

Ben Webster American saxophonist

Benjamin Francis Webster was an American jazz tenor saxophonist. He is considered one of the three most important "swing tenors" along with Coleman Hawkins and Lester Young. Known affectionately as "The Brute" or "Frog", he had a tough, raspy, and brutal tone on stomps, yet on ballads he played with warmth and sentiment. He was indebted to alto saxophonist Johnny Hodges, who, he said, taught him to play his instrument.

Hank Jones American jazz pianist, bandleader, arranger and composer (1918-2010)

Henry Jones Jr., best known as Hank Jones, was an American jazz pianist, bandleader, arranger, and composer. Critics and musicians described Jones as eloquent, lyrical, and impeccable. In 1989, The National Endowment for the Arts honored him with the NEA Jazz Masters Award. He was also honored in 2003 with the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) Jazz Living Legend Award. In 2008, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts. On April 13, 2009, the University of Hartford presented Jones with an honorary Doctorate of Music for his musical accomplishments.

Paul Bley Canadian free jazz, post-bop pianist and keyboardist

Hyman Paul Bley, CM was a Canadian pianist known for his contributions to the free jazz movement of the 1960s as well as his innovations and influence on trio playing and his early live performance on the Moog and Arp audio synthesizers. Bley was a long-time resident of the United States. His music has been described by Ben Ratliff of the New York Times as "deeply original and aesthetically aggressive". Bley's prolific output includes influential recordings from the 1950s through to his solo piano records of the 2000s.

Oscar Moore American jazz guitarist

Oscar Frederic Moore was an American jazz guitarist known for his ten years with the King Cole Trio, a working jazz ensemble that included pianist and singer Nat King Cole.

Adam Makowicz Polish-Canadian musician

Adam Makowicz is a Polish pianist and composer living in Toronto. He performs jazz and classical piano pieces, as well as his own compositions.

Tommy Flanagan American jazz pianist

Thomas Lee Flanagan was an American jazz pianist and composer. He grew up in Detroit, initially influenced by such pianists as Art Tatum, Teddy Wilson, and Nat King Cole, and then by the newer bebop musicians. Within months of moving to New York in 1956, he had recorded with Miles Davis and on Sonny Rollins' landmark Saxophone Colossus. Recordings under various leaders, including the historically important Giant Steps of John Coltrane, and The Incredible Jazz Guitar of Wes Montgomery, continued well into 1962, when he became vocalist Ella Fitzgerald's full-time accompanist. He worked with Fitzgerald for three years until 1965, and then in 1968 returned to be her pianist and musical director, this time for a decade.

Mulgrew Miller American pianist

Mulgrew Miller was an American jazz pianist, composer, and educator. As a child he played in churches and was influenced on piano by Ramsey Lewis and then Oscar Peterson. Aspects of their styles remained in his playing, but he added the greater harmonic freedom of McCoy Tyner and others in developing as a hard bop player and then in creating his own style, which influenced others from the 1980s on.

This article contains the discography of jazz pianist Oscar Peterson. No distinction is made between sessions as leader or sideman.

<i>Night Train</i> (Oscar Peterson album) 1963 studio album by The Oscar Peterson Trio

Night Train is an album by the Oscar Peterson Trio, released in 1963 by Verve Records.

Brad Mehldau American jazz pianist, composer, and arranger

Bradford Alexander Mehldau is an American jazz pianist, composer, and arranger.

Oliver Jones (pianist) Canadian musician

Oliver Theophilus Jones, is a Canadian jazz pianist, organist, composer and arranger.

Victor Stefan Vogel was a Canadian jazz pianist, composer, arranger, trombonist, and conductor.

Peter Beets is a Dutch jazz pianist. He has shared the stage with Chick Corea, Wynton Marsalis, Dee Dee Bridgewater, George Coleman, Johnny Griffin, Chris Potter, Kurt Rosenwinkel and John Clayton. He recorded with Jeff Hamilton and Curtis Fuller and in 2001 he released his New York Trio, which was the start of his international career.

<i>Oscar Peterson and Nelson Riddle</i> 1963 studio album by Oscar Peterson

Oscar Peterson and Nelson Riddle is a 1963 album by Oscar Peterson with orchestra arranged and conducted by Nelson Riddle. The album was produced by Norman Granz and released on Verve Records.

Dado Moroni Italian musician

Edgardo "Dado" Moroni is an Italian jazz pianist and composer.


  1. Remarks by Herbie Hancock, Quincy Jones and Bob Rae, Oscar Peterson Tribute - Simply The Best. Concerts On Demand. CBC Radio Two (January 12, 2008). Retrieved on January 13, 2008.
  2. Severo, Richard (October 20, 2010). "Oscar Peterson: 1925-2007 / Virtuoso pianist - among jazz world's giants". The San Francisco Chronicle.
  3. Scott Yanow. "Oscar Peterson Biography". allmusic. Retrieved January 28, 2007.. With typical modesty, Peterson hailed Art Tatum as the greatest jazz pianist, declaring: "Musically speaking, he was and is my musical God, and I feel honoured to remain one of his humbly devoted disciples." Journal, Oscar Peterson, March 7, 2004; Jazz Professional, 1962, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. Retrieved 2011-07-14.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. "Obituaries: Oscar Peterson". The Daily Telegraph . London. 26 December 2007. Retrieved February 6, 2011.
  5. Michelot, Pabli. "Le Jazz d’Oscar Peterson". L'Encre Noir, February 8, 2017.
  6. "Little Burgundy". McGill University. Retrieved December 25, 2007.
  7. 1 2 J. D. Considine (December 26, 2007). "King of the keys made jazz a pleasure". The Globe and Mail . Toronto. Archived from the original on December 26, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  8. Maynard Ferguson (obituary) dated 26 Aug 2006 at The Daily Telegraph online, accessed 30 December 2017
  9. 1 2 3 Yanow, Scott. "Oscar Peterson". AllMusic. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  10. John Chilton (5 August 2002). Roy Eldridge, Little Jazz Giant. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN   978-0-8264-5692-2.
  11. View Video, 2004.
  12. "Peterson, Oscar". doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.j352400 . Retrieved 2018-01-15.
  13. "Basie, Count". doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.a2240170 . Retrieved 2018-01-15.
  14. King, Betty Nygaard. "Oscar Peterson". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2018-01-15.
  15. "A look at Oscar Peterson's career:". oscarpeterson.com. Archived from the original on April 28, 2007. Retrieved May 23, 2007.
  16. Nat Hentoff. Co-editor, The Jazz Review .
  17. Yanow, Scott (2000). Bebop. Miller Freeman. pp. 333–. ISBN   978-0-87930-608-3 . Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  18. "Peterson, Oscar". MusicWeb Encyclopaedia of Popular Music. Archived from the original on May 22, 2006. Retrieved December 25, 2007.
  19. Alexander Panetta. "Chrétien calls Peterson 'most famous Canadian', says Mandela was moved to meet him". CANOE. The Canadian Press. Archived from the original on December 26, 2007. Retrieved December 26, 2007.
  20. "Oscar Peterson Tribute - Simply The Best". Concerts On Demand. CBC Radio Two. January 12, 2008. Archived from the original on January 15, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2008.
  21. "Canadian jazz great Oscar Peterson dies". CBC News. December 24, 2007. Retrieved December 24, 2007.
  22. Levine, Doug (December 27, 2007). "Jazz World Mourns Oscar Peterson". VOA News. Voice of America. Archived from the original on January 29, 2009. Retrieved December 27, 2008.
  23. Voce, Steve (26 December 2007). "Oscar Peterson: Virtuoso pianist who dominated jazz piano in the second half of the 20th century". The Independent. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  24. "Oscar Peterson Biography - Challenged by Tatum Disc, Founded School in Toronto, Suffered Stroke, Selected works". biography.jrank.org. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  25. Batten, Jack (11 September 2012). "Oscar Peterson: The Man and His Jazz". Tundra. Retrieved 20 January 2018 via Google Books.
  26. Al Levy (21 November 2004). "Oscar Peterson". alevy.com. Retrieved 2008-01-12.
  27. "'I don't think we'll ever see another Oscar Peterson': Oliver Jones". CBC News. January 11, 2008. Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  28. "YFile » Ron Westray appointed as Oscar Peterson Chair". yfile-archive.news.yorku.ca. 24 September 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  29. "Several of jazz world's top names to honour Oscar Peterson at free concert". The Canadian Press. January 12, 2008. Archived from the original on December 31, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  30. Oscar Peterson | Bio Archived 2007-12-26 at the Wayback Machine
  31. Don Heckman (December 25, 2007). "Oscar Peterson, 82; pianist dazzled jazz world with technique, creativity". Los Angeles Times . Archived from the original on December 28, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  32. William R Cunningham and Sylvia Sweeney, In the Key of Oscar, National Film Board of Canada, 1992.
  33. Shsante Infantry (December 26, 2007). "Oscar Peterson, 82: Jazz giant". The Toronto Star . Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  34. 1 2 "Oscar Peterson: Montreal-born pianist is an unofficial Canadian ambassador". concordia.ca. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  35. https://www.ontario.ca/page/order-ontario#section-6
  36. "Oscar Peterson concert hall". Concordia University. Retrieved January 28, 2007.
  37. "2008 SOCAN Awards". www.socan.ca. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  38. "Legendary Jazz Pianist to Receive City's Highest Award", Mississauga – Newsroom, September 8, 2003.
  39. Archived May 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  40. ""Celebrate the Jazz" - Oscar Peterson Public School Official Opening". York Region District School Board. Archived from the original on April 27, 2009. Retrieved November 3, 2009.
  41. Martin Knelman (June 29, 2010). "Knelman: Oscar Peterson's piano lives on in Ottawa". Toronto Star. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  42. "Oscar Peterson sculpture awaits Queen's hand". CBC News. June 16, 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
  43. "Honorary Degree Citation". archives.concordia.ca. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  44. King, Betty Nygaard. "Oscar Peterson". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2017-02-28.
Academic offices
Preceded by
Larry Clarke
Chancellor of York University
Succeeded by
Arden Haynes