Oskar Anderson

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Oskar Anderson
Oskar Anderson.jpg
Oskar Anderson in Tartu (around 1930)
Born
Oskar Johann Viktor Anderson

(1887-08-02)August 2, 1887
DiedFebruary 12, 1960(1960-02-12) (aged 72)
Nationality German, Bulgarian, Russian
Alma mater
Known forVariate Difference Method
Spouse(s)Margarethe Natalie von Hindenburg-Hirtenberg [1]
Scientific career
Fields
Institutions
Thesis  (1912)
Academic advisors Alexander Alexandrovich Chuprov

Oskar Johann Viktor Anderson (Russian : Оскар Иоганн Виктор Андерсон; 2 August 1887, Minsk, Russian Empire – 12 February 1960, Munich, Germany) was a Russian-born German mathematician of Baltic German descent. He was most famously known for his work on mathematical statistics and econometrics.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.

Minsk Capital city in Belarus

Minsk is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislač and the Nyamiha Rivers. As the national capital, Minsk has a special administrative status in Belarus and is the administrative centre of Minsk Region (voblasć) and Minsk District (rajon). The population in January 2018 was 1,982,444, making Minsk the 11th most populous city in Europe. Minsk is the administrative capital of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and seat of its Executive Secretary.

Russian Empire former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire, also known as Imperial Russia or simply Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

Contents

Life

Anderson was born from a Baltic German family in Minsk (now in Belarus), but soon moved to Kazan (Russia). His father, Nikolai Anderson, was professor in Finno-Ugric languages at the University of Kazan. [2] His older brothers were the folklorist Walter Anderson and the astrophysicist Wilhelm Anderson. [3]

Belarus country in Eastern Europe

Belarus, officially the Republic of Belarus, formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital and most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres (80,200 sq mi) is forested. Its major economic sectors are service industries and manufacturing. Until the 20th century, different states at various times controlled the lands of modern-day Belarus, including the Principality of Polotsk, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Russian Empire.

Kazan City of republic significance in Tatarstan, Russia

Kazan is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. With a population of 1,243,500, it is the sixth most populous city in Russia. Kazan is one of the largest religious, economic, political, scientific, educational, cultural and sports centers in Russia. Kazan lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in European Russia, about 715 kilometres (444 mi) east from Moscow. The Kazan Kremlin is a World Heritage Site.

Nikolai Anderson Baltic-German philologist

Nikolai Karl Adolf Anderson was a Baltic German philologist who specialized in comparative linguistics of Finno-Ugric languages.

Oskar Anderson graduated from Kazan Gymnasium with a gold medal in 1906. After studying mathematics for one year at the University of Kazan, he moved to St. Petersburg to study economics at the Polytechnic Institute. [4] [5] From 1907 to 1915, he was Aleksandr Chuprov's student and assistant. In 1912 he married Margarethe Natalie von Hindenburg-Hirtenberg, [1] a granddaughter of Wilhelm Paul von Hindenburg-Hirtenberg  [ ru ] [6] who was commemorated in "The Funeral of 'The Universal Man'" in Dostoyevsky's A Writer's Diary, and started lecturing at a commercial school in St. Petersburg while also studying for a law degree at the University of Saint Petersburg, graduating in 1914. [1]

Kazan Gymnasium was a gymnasium of Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia. It is notable for its alumnus, Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky, who graduated from the school in 1807. Other notable alumni include Ivan Shishkin, a Russian landscape artist, and Gavrila Derzhavin, a poet.

Mathematics Field of study concerning quantity, patterns and change

Mathematics includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

Saint Petersburg Federal city in Northwestern, Russia

Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015). An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject.

In 1918 he took on a professorship in Kiev but he was forced to flee Russia in 1920 due to the Russian Revolution, first taking a post in Budapest (Hungary) before becoming a professor at the University of Economics at Varna (Bulgaria) in 1924.

Kiev City with special status in Kiev City Municipality, Ukraine

Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974, making Kiev the 7th most populous city in Europe.

Budapest Capital city in Hungary

Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city had an estimated population of 1,752,704 in 2016 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, and forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33 percent of the population of Hungary.

Hungary Country in Central Europe

Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres (35,920 sq mi) in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken Uralic language in the world. Hungary's capital and its largest city and metropolis is Budapest. Other major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr.

Anderson was one of the charter members of the Econometric Society, [7] whose members also elected him to be a fellow of the society in 1933. [8] [7] In the same year he also received a fellowship from the Rockefeller Foundation. [9]

The Econometric Society is an international society of academic economists interested in applying statistical tools to their field. It is an independent organization with no connections to societies of professional mathematicians or statisticians. It was founded on December 29, 1930, at the Stalton Hotel in Cleveland, Ohio. As of 2014, there are about 700 Elected Fellows of the Econometric Society, making it one of the most prevalent research affiliations.

The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. It was established by the six-generation Rockefeller family. The Foundation was started by Standard Oil owner John D. Rockefeller ("Senior"), along with his son John D. Rockefeller Jr. ("Junior"), and Senior's principal oil and gas business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates, in New York State on May 14, 1913, when its charter was formally accepted by the New York State Legislature. Its stated mission is "promoting the well-being of humanity throughout the world."

Supported by the foundation, in 1935 he established and became director of the Statistical Institute for Economic Research at the University of Sofia. [10] For the remainder of the decade he also served the League of Nations as an associate member of its Committee of Statistical Experts. [11]

Sofia University university in Sofia, Bulgaria

Sofia University, "St. Kliment Ohridski" at the University of Sofia, is the oldest higher education institution in Bulgaria.

League of Nations 20th-century intergovernmental organisation, predecessor to the United Nations

The League of Nations, abbreviated as LN or LoN, was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, the arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members.

In 1942 he joined the Kiel Institute for the World Economy as head of the Department of Eastern Studies and also took up a full professorship of statistics at the University of Kiel, [1] where he was joined by his brother Walter after the end of the second world war. In 1947 he took a position at the University of Munich, teaching there until 1956, when he retired.

Writings

References/Further reading

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Strecker, Heinrich; Strecker, Rosemarie (2016). "Oskar Anderson". Encyclopedia of Mathematics. Springer-Verlag GmbH, Heidelberg.
  2. "Формулярный списокь (service record): Николай Андерсон (Nikolai Anderson)", Oskar Nikolaevich Anderson (1907-1912) (in Russian), St. Petersburg: Archives of the Petrograd Polytechnical Institute of the Emperor Peter the Great in the Central State Historical Archives of St. Petersburg, pp. 9–18, retrieved 2018-10-27
  3. Рафикова (Rafikova), Г. (G.); Ибрагимова (Ibrahimova), Ф. (F.) (2016). "Биографика Казанского университета: Андерсоны (Kazan University Biography: Anderson)" . Гасырлар авазы – Эхо веков (in Russian). 2016 1/2.
  4. Оскар Николаевич Андерсон (1907-1912) / Oskar Nikolaevich Anderson (1907-1912) (in Russian), St. Petersburg: Archives of the Petrograd Polytechnical Institute of the Emperor Peter the Great in the Central State Historical Archives of St. Petersburg, TsGIASpb 478 1 64, retrieved 2018-10-27
  5. Андерсон Оскар Николаевич - стипендиат (1912-1914) / Oskar Nikolaevich Anderson - scholarship holder (1912-1914) (in Russian), St. Petersburg: Archives of the Petrograd Polytechnical Institute of the Emperor Peter the Great in the Central State Historical Archives of St. Petersburg, TsGIASpb 478 23 5, retrieved 2018-10-27
  6. Снапкоўскі, Юрый (2016). "ГІНДЭНБУРГІ, ПАСТОРЫУСЫ дэ ГІНДЭНБУРГІ (HINDENBURG, PASTORYUS de HINDENBURG) герба «БРОХВІЧ I»". Гербоўнік беларускай шляхты (in Belarusian). 4. pp. 372–379.
  7. 1 2 Fels, Eberhard (1961). "Oskar Anderson, 1887-1960". Econometrica . 29 (1): 74–79. doi:10.2307/1907689. JSTOR   1907689 .
  8. "In Memoriam". List of Deceased Fellows of the Econometric Society. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  9. Faure, Justine (2012), The Rockefeller Foundation Fellows in Social Sciences: Transnational Networks and Construction of Disciplines — The Example of East Central Europe, Rockefeller Archive Center
  10. Avramov, Roumen (September 2018). "Chapter 1: From Nationalization to Nowhere. Ownership in Bulgarian Economic Thought (1944–1989)". In Kovács, János Mátyás. Populating No Man's Land: Economic Concepts of Ownership under Communism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 23–46. ISBN   978-1-4985-3921-0.
  11. "Report of Work in the Social Sciences". The Rockefeller Foundation Annual Report 1937 (PDF) (Report). The Rockefeller Foundation. 1938. p. 258. Retrieved 2018-11-07.
  12. Anderson, Oskar N. (1935). Einführung in die Mathematische Statistik (in German). Springer-Verlag Wien. doi:10.1007/978-3-7091-5923-1. ISBN   978-3-7091-5923-1. Zbl   0012.11104.

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