Ostend

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Ostend
Oostende
Albert-I-promenade-20040908-010.jpg
Promenade at Ostend seaside
Afbeelding OostendeVlag.svg
Wapen van Oostende.svg
Location of Ostend
Ostend
Belgium location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Ostend
Location in Belgium
Location of Ostend in West Flanders
Oostende West-Flanders Belgium Map.svg
Coordinates: 51°13′33″N02°55′10″E / 51.22583°N 2.91944°E / 51.22583; 2.91944 Coordinates: 51°13′33″N02°55′10″E / 51.22583°N 2.91944°E / 51.22583; 2.91944
CountryFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Community Flemish Community
Region Flemish Region
Province West Flanders
Arrondissement Ostend
Government
  Mayor Bart Tommelein (Open VLD)
  Governing party/ies Open VLD, N-VA, Groen, CD&V
Area
  Total40.95 km2 (15.81 sq mi)
Population
 (2022-01-01) [1]
  Total71,557
  Density1,700/km2 (4,500/sq mi)
Postal codes
8400
Area codes 059
Website www.oostende.be

Ostend (Dutch : Oostende, pronounced [ˌoːstˈɛndə] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); French: Ostende [ɔstɑ̃d] ; German: Ostende [ɔstˈʔɛndə] ; West Flemish : Ostende) [2] is a coastal city and municipality, located in the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It comprises the boroughs of Mariakerke, Raversijde, Stene and Zandvoorde, and the city of Ostend proper – the largest on the Belgian coast.

Contents

History

Origin to Middle Ages

In the Early Middle Ages, Ostend was a small village built on the east-end (oost-einde) of an island (originally called Testerep) between the North Sea and a beach lake. Although small, the village rose to the status of "town" around 1265, when the inhabitants were allowed to hold a market and to build a market hall.

The major source of income for the inhabitants was fishing. The North Sea coastline has always been rather unstable due to the power of the water. In 1395 the inhabitants decided to build a new Ostend behind large dikes and further away from the always-threatening sea.

15th to 18th century

Ostend on the Ferraris map (around 1775) Ostend, Belgium ; Ferraris Map.jpg
Ostend on the Ferraris map (around 1775)
St Petrus and St Paulus Church PPkerk(01).jpg
St Petrus and St Paulus Church
Beach, seafront and Europacenter building Oostende Europacentrum 01.jpg
Beach, seafront and Europacenter building

The strategic position on the North Sea coast had major advantages for Ostend as a harbour but also proved to be a source of trouble. The town was frequently taken, ravaged, ransacked and destroyed by conquering armies. The Dutch rebels, the Gueuzen, took control of the town. The Siege of Ostend, 1601 to 1604, of which it was said that "the Spanish assailed the unassailable and the Dutch defended the indefensible", cost a combined total of more than 80,000 dead or wounded, making it the single bloodiest battle of the Eighty Years' War. This shocking event set in motion negotiations that led to a truce several years later. When the truce broke down, it became a Dunkirker base.

After this era, Ostend was turned into a harbour of some importance. In 1722, the Dutch again closed off the entrance to the world's biggest harbour of Antwerp, the Westerschelde. Therefore, Ostend rose in importance because the town provided an alternative exit to the sea. The Belgium Austriacum had become part of the Austrian Empire. The Austrian Emperor Charles VI granted the town the trade monopoly with Africa and the Far-East. The Oostendse Compagnie (Ostend trade company) was allowed to found colonies overseas. However, in 1727 the Oostendse Compagnie was forced to stop its activities because of Dutch and British pressure. The Netherlands and Britain would not allow competitors on the international trade level. Both nations regarded international trade as "their" privilege.

19th century

On 19 September 1826 the local artillery magazine exploded. At least 20 people were killed and a further 200 injured. The affluent quarter of d'Hargras was levelled and scarcely a building in the city escaped damage. Disease followed the devastation leading to further deaths. [3]

The harbour of Ostend continued to expand because the harbour dock, as well as the traffic connections with the hinterland, were improved. In 1838, a railway connection with Brussels was constructed. [ citation needed ] Ostend became a transit harbour to England in 1846 when the first ferry sailed to Dover. [ citation needed ] An October 1854 meeting of American envoys led to the Ostend Manifesto. [4] Important for the image of the town was the attention it started to receive from the Belgian kings Leopold I and Leopold II. Both monarchs liked to spend their holidays in Ostend. Important monuments and villas were built to please the Royal Family, including the Hippodrome Wellington horse racing track and the Royal Galleries. The rest of aristocratic Belgium followed and soon Ostend became known as "the queen of the Belgian sea-side resorts".

In 1866, Ostend was the venue for a crucial meeting of exile Spanish Liberals and Republicans which laid the framework for a major uprising in their country, [ citation needed ] culminating in Spain's Glorious Revolution two years later.

20th century

Ostend (in common with nearly the entirety of the country) was occupied by German forces and used as an access point to the sea for submarines and other light naval forces for much of the duration of World War I. As a consequence the port was subjected to two naval assaults by the Royal Navy.

The town hosted all of the sailing events for the 1920 Summer Olympics for Antwerp. [5] Only the finals of the 12 foot dinghy were sailed in Amsterdam. Ostend also hosted the polo events. [6]

World War II involved a second occupation of the town by Germany within a period of little more than twenty years; an occupation which it shared this time with most of northern Europe. Both conflicts brought significant destruction to Ostend. In addition, other opulent buildings which had survived the wars were later replaced with structures in the modernist architecture style.

21st century

Ostend's Winter in the Park festival draws more than 600,000 people to the seaside city. During December, Ostend's Christmas market, one of the largest in Europe, features vendors and food sellers along with ice skating, music and other events. A light-show tunnel on one of the major shopping streets attracts and amuses visitors from all over Belgium, Europe and beyond. [7]

Sights

Ostend is known for its sea-side esplanade, including the Royal Galleries of Ostend, pier, and fine-sand beaches. Ostend is visited by many day-trippers heading to the beaches, especially during July and August. Tourists from inland Belgium and from abroad mostly arrive by train (day trips) and head for the closest beach area, the Klein Strand, located next to the pier. The locals and other residents in Belgium usually occupy the larger beach (het Groot Strand).

Near the beach is a well-preserved section of the fortified Atlantic Wall, open to the public as the Atlantic Wall Open Air Museum located in Raversijde. One can walk through the streets around Het Vissersplein. At certain times, there are markets in the neighbourhood streets and in the summer the Vissersplein has music festivals. The Vissersplein (Bonenstraat/Kadzandstraat) is a car free zone with many brasseries where patrons can sit outside and have a drink. Towards the port side there are many little fish outlets, and beyond that the ferries can be observed docking.

Notable sites include:

Oostende panoramic view.jpg
Ostend beach and the promenade pier – panoramic view

Museums

The James Ensor museum can be visited in the house where the artist lived from 1917 until 1949.

The Mu.Zee (merged from the Provinciaal Museum voor de Moderne Kunst and the Museum voor Schone Kunsten) is the museum of modern art (from the 1830s to the present) and displays works of noted local painters such as James Ensor, Leon Spilliaert, Constant Permeke and the revolutionary post-war Belgian COBRA movement amongst others.

Climate

Ostend has a maritime temperate climate, influenced by winds from the North Sea, making summers cooler than inland Europe. 24-hour average temperatures below the freezing point is a rare occurrence. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Ostend has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps. [8]

Climate data for Ostend (1981–2010 normals; sunshine 1984–2013)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)6.2
(43.2)
7.0
(44.6)
10.6
(51.1)
13.8
(56.8)
16.8
(62.2)
19.3
(66.7)
21.7
(71.1)
22.0
(71.6)
19.7
(67.5)
15.3
(59.5)
10.1
(50.2)
6.6
(43.9)
14.5
(58.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)3.7
(38.7)
3.8
(38.8)
6.8
(44.2)
9.1
(48.4)
12.6
(54.7)
15.3
(59.5)
17.6
(63.7)
17.4
(63.3)
14.9
(58.8)
11.3
(52.3)
7.2
(45.0)
4.2
(39.6)
10.5
(50.9)
Average low °C (°F)1.0
(33.8)
0.7
(33.3)
2.8
(37.0)
4.5
(40.1)
8.4
(47.1)
11.2
(52.2)
13.2
(55.8)
12.9
(55.2)
10.6
(51.1)
7.6
(45.7)
4.4
(39.9)
1.8
(35.2)
6.6
(43.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)64.6
(2.54)
53.2
(2.09)
55.0
(2.17)
44.9
(1.77)
58.8
(2.31)
66.3
(2.61)
66.4
(2.61)
77.7
(3.06)
77.6
(3.06)
84.2
(3.31)
85.8
(3.38)
78.2
(3.08)
812.7
(32.00)
Average precipitation days12.510.111.09.310.19.68.99.310.512.013.212.8129.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 638312919021921723021515711965491,736
Source: Royal Meteorological Institute [9]

Transport

Ostend–Bruges International Airport located 5 km (3 miles) from Ostend is primarily a freight airport but offers passenger flights to leisure destinations in Southern Europe and Turkey. TUI fly Belgium has its headquarters in Ostend. [10] TAAG Angola Airlines's Ostend offices are on the grounds of Ostend Airport. [11]

The Ostend railway station is a major hub on the National Railway Company of Belgium network with frequent InterCity trains serving Brugge railway station, Gent-Sint-Pieters, Brussels South and Liège-Guillemins on Belgian railway line 50A. The Coast Tram connects Ostend with De Panne to the south and Knokke-Heist in the north.

Ostend formerly had busy ferry routes to Dover and Ramsgate, but the last of these services ended with the failure of TransEuropa Ferries in 2013. [12]

Notable residents

References to these notable citizens of Ostend can be found on the oostende.be website. [13]

Sport clubs

Ostend has been used as a film location by numerous directors. The movies Place Vendôme with Catherine Deneuve; Daughters of Darkness [15] with Delphine Seyrig as Countess Bathory; Armaguedon [16] with Alain Delon; Camping Cosmos with Lolo Ferrari; and Ex Drummer , based on the novel by Herman Brusselmans; were partially shot in Ostend.

The comic Le Bal du rat mort  [ fr ], about a dreadful invasion of rats, is set in Ostend.

See also

Related Research Articles

Ostende may refer to:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Constant Permeke</span> Belgian painter and sculptor

Constant Permeke was a Belgian painter and sculptor who is considered the leading figure of Flemish expressionism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ostend Company</span>

The Ostend Company, officially the General Company Established in the Austrian Netherlands for Commerce and Navigation in the Indies was a chartered trading company in the Austrian Netherlands in the Holy Roman Empire which was established in 1722 to trade with the East and West Indies. It took its name from the Flemish port city of Ostend.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Léon Spilliaert</span> Belgian graphic artist and painter

Léon Spilliaert was a Belgian symbolist painter and graphic artist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gustave De Smet</span> Belgian painter (1877–1943)

Gustave Franciscus De Smet was a Belgian painter. Together with Constant Permeke and Frits Van den Berghe, he was one of the founders of Flemish Expressionism. His younger brother, Léon De Smet, also became a painter.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ostend–Bruges International Airport</span> Airport in West Flanders, Flemish Region

Ostend–Bruges International Airport, commonly known simply as Ostend Airport, is an international airport located 2.7 nautical miles south southwest of Ostend, West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, near the coast and about 25 km (16 mi) from the city centre of Bruges. Although freight transport is the focus of a large proportion of its activities, the airport is increasingly used for passenger flights, mainly charter and holiday flights organised by tour operators. It is also often used for private business flights.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hippodrome Wellington</span>

The Hippodrome Wellington is a horse racing track in Ostend in the Flemish Region of Belgium built in 1883, renovated in 2011 and named after Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Museum of Fine Arts, Ghent</span> Art museum in Ghent, Belgium

The Museum of Fine Arts an art museum in Ghent, Belgium, is situated at the East side of the Citadelpark.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Regie voor Maritiem Transport</span>

Regie voor Maritiem Transport (RMT) was the Belgian state-owned ferry service and operated ferries on the Ostend-Dover route under the name Oostende Lines. For the last few years until its demise in February 1997, the ferries from Ostend went to Ramsgate instead of Dover in partnership with Sally Line.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mu.ZEE</span> Art museum and gallery in West Flanders, Belgium

The Mu.ZEE is a museum in Ostend, Belgium, specializing in Belgian art from 1830 onwards. It was created in 2008 by the fusion of the former Provinciaal Museum voor Moderne Kunst and the Museum voor Schone Kunsten Oostende, both located in Ostend. The museum has two dependencies, the Ensorhuis in Ostend, and the Permekemuseum in Jabbeke. Mu.ZEE is an abbreviation of "Kunstmuseum aan Zee".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oostende railway station</span> Railway station in West Flanders, Belgium

Oostende railway station, officially Oostende, is a railway station in Ostend, West Flanders, Belgium. It is operated by the National Railway Company of Belgium (NMBS/SNCB).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Blankenberge railway station</span> Railway station in West Flanders, Belgium

Blankenberge is a railway station in Blankenberge, West Flanders, Belgium. The station opened on 16 August 1863 on the Line 51.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Royal Galleries of Ostend</span> Historical building in Belgium

The Royal Galleries of Ostend are a seaside neoclassical arcade on a dike on the beach of Ostend, Belgium. They extend from the royal villa in the east to the Hippodrome Wellington horse racing track in the west. The galleries are over 380 metres (1,250 ft) long, with a large pavilion at each end. The luxury Thermae Palace Hotel sits atop the central section.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">François Musin</span> Belgian painter (1820-1888)

François-Etienne Musin was a Belgian painter who specialized in seascapes and scenes of coastal landscapes, rivers and harbours.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Flemish Expressionism</span>

Flemish Expressionism, also referred to as Belgian Expressionism, was one of the dominant art styles in Flanders during the interbellum. Influenced by artists like James Ensor and the early works of Vincent van Gogh, it was a distinct contemporary of German Expressionism. Contrary to the more rebellious and erotic nature of many German Expressionist works, the Flemish art of the School of Latem was more oriented towards the farming life, and was expressed in earthy colours and vigorous brushwork. It was also in general more oriented towards France and Brussels than to Germany, and incorporated elements of Fauvism and Cubism, for example the interest in "primitive" art, of both the ethnic and folk traditions. Flemish Expressionists like Spilliaert were more influenced by Ensor and Symbolism, or like Wouters were closer to the vibrant colours used by the Fauvists. The main proponents were Gust De Smet, Constant Permeke and Frits Van den Berghe.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Belfius Art Collection</span>

The Belfius Art Collection is a collection of Belgian art owned by the Belfius Bank.

The following lists events that happened during 1907 in the Kingdom of Belgium.

<i>The Rooftops of Ostend</i> Painting by James Ensor

The Rooftops of Ostend is an oil on canvas painting by the Flemish expressionist painter James Ensor. This painting is on the official inventory of Flemish masterpieces. The Rooftops of Ostend is in the possession of Royal Museum of Fine Arts Antwerp.

<i>King Leopold II statue</i> (Ostend) Statue to King Leopold II in Belgium

The statue of King Leopold II in the Belgian city of Ostend is located on the Royal Galleries by the beach. King Leopold II of Belgium was commemorated here as a benefactor of Ostend and the Belgian Congo. The inauguration was on 19 July 1931.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Michel Van Cuyck</span>

Michel Thomas Antonius Van Cuyck was a Belgian painter, watercolorist and lithographer.

References

  1. "Bevolking per gemeente op 1 januari 2022". Statbel.
  2. Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, pp. 598 and 603, ISBN   9783411040667
  3. The Explosion at Ostend, The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer, 30 September 1826
  4. Potter, David M. and Fehrenbacher, Don M. (1976), The Impending Crisis, 1848-1861, reprint, n.d., New York: Harper Torchbooks, Ch.8, "The Ebb Tide of Manifest Destiny," p. 190. ISBN   0-06-131929-5 .
  5. "1920 Summer Olympics sailing". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  6. "1920 Summer Olympics polo". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  7. "Kerstvakantie trok 600.000 mensen naar de kust". 6 January 2020.
  8. "Climate Summary for Ostend, Belgium". Weatherbase.com. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  9. "Klimaatstatistiek van de Belgische gemeenten" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal Meteorological Institute . Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  10. "TUIfly Academy Brussels Archived 17 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine ." Jetairfly. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  11. "TAAG Offices Archived 29 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine ." TAAG Angola Airlines. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
  12. "[ permanent dead link ].". Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  13. "Oostendse biografieën". Archief.oostende.be. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  14. Kranenborg, J.B. "Ancestors of Cornelis Leendert de Groot". Ninth Generation. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  15. Daughters of Darkness at IMDb
  16. "Armaguedon". French.imdb.com. 1 May 2009. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2011.

Further reading