Otto Johannes Brendel (October 10, 1901 in Erlangen, Germany – October 8, 1973 in New York City) was a German art historian and scholar of Etruscan art and archaeology.
In 1928, he received his Ph.D. from the Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg under Ludwig Curtius on the topic of Roman iconography of the Augustan period. While at Heidelberg, Brendel studied with many notable scholars, including Franz Boll, Alfred von Domaszewski, Friedrich Karl von Duhn, Richard Carl Meister, Eugen Täubler, the literary theorist Ernst Robert Curtius, Friedrich Gundolf, Karl Jaspers, and the classical art historians Karl Lehmann and Friedrich Zimmer.[ citation needed ] He emigrated to the United States in 1938.
In the United States, he taught at Washington University in St. Louis from 1938 to 1941 and Indiana University from 1941 to 1956. From 1949 to 1951, Brendel was at the American Academy in Rome, first under a Prix de Rome and then with a Fulbright Fellowship. In 1956, he became Professor of Art History and Archaeology at Columbia University, and became emeritus in 1963, continuing to teach until his retirement in June 1973. He died that September. At the time of his death he had written the manuscript for the Pelican History of Art volume on Etruscan Art. It was completed posthumously by Emeline Hill Richardson, and published in 1978.His work Prolegomena to the Study of Roman Art represents a notable scholarly approach to the historiography of Roman art. Otto's wife Maria arranged to have many of his unfinished works published after his death.
One of Brendel's students was Larissa Bonfante. Brendel married Maria Weigert Brendel (1902-1994) in 1929.Brendel's daughter Cornelia Brendel Foss was married to American composer Lukas Foss.
The Etruscan civilization of ancient Italy covered a territory, at its greatest extent, of roughly what is now Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio, as well as parts of what are now the Po Valley, Emilia-Romagna, south-eastern Lombardy, southern Veneto, and Campania.
Johann Carl Otto Ribbeck, was a German classical scholar. His works are mostly confined to criticisms of Latin poetry and to classical character sketches.
Christian Karl Friedrich Hülsen was a German architectural historian of the classical era who later changed to studying the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
Emeline Hurd Hill Richardson was a notable classical archaeologist and Etruscan scholar. Hill was the daughter of William Hurd Hill and Emeleen Carlisle (Hill). She studied at Radcliffe College, receiving an A.B. in 1932 and an M.A. in 1935. In 1935/36 she studied with Bernard Ashmole at the University of London. She completed her Ph.D. in 1939 at Radcliffe College. From 1941–1949 she was on the faculty of Wheaton College in Norton, Massachusetts. In 1950, Emeline Hill Richardson held a stipend at the American Academy in Rome and was involved in the Cosa excavations. She married Lawrence Richardson in 1952. She lectured both at Stanford and Yale Universities.
The Apollo of Veii is a life-size painted terracotta Etruscan statue of Apollo (Aplu), designed to be placed at the highest part of a temple. The statue was discovered in the Portonaccio sanctuary of ancient Veii, in what is now central Italy, and dates from c. 510 - 500 BC. It was created in the so-called "international" Ionic or late-archaic Etruscan style.
Franz Wickhoff was an Austrian art historian, and is considered a member of the Vienna School of Art History.
Etruscan art was produced by the Etruscan civilization in central Italy between the 10th and 1st centuries BC. From around 750 BC it was heavily influenced by Greek art, which was imported by the Etruscans, but always retained distinct characteristics. Particularly strong in this tradition were figurative sculpture in terracotta, wall-painting and metalworking especially in bronze. Jewellery and engraved gems of high quality were produced.
Larissa Bonfante was an Italian-American classicist, Professor of Classics emerita at New York University and an authority on Etruscan language and culture.
Antal Hekler was a Hungarian/German classical archaeologist and art historian. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Satre or Satres was an Etruscan god who appears on the Liver of Piacenza, a bronze model used for haruspicy. He occupies the dark and negative northwest region, and seems to be a "frightening and dangerous god who hurls his lightning from his abode deep in the earth." It is possible that Satre is also referred to with the word "satrs" in the Liber Linteus, the Etruscan text preserved in Ptolemaic Egypt as mummy wrappings.
The so-called Mars of Todi is a near life-sized bronze warrior, dating from the late 5th or early 4th century BC, produced in Etruria for the Umbrian market. It was found at Todi, on the slope of Mount Santo.
Margarete Bieber was a Jewish German-American art historian, classical archaeologist and professor. She became the second woman university professor in Germany in 1919 when she took a position at the University of Giessen. She studied the theatre of ancient Greece and Rome as well as the sculpture and clothing in ancient Rome and Greece.
Hermine "Erminia" Speier was a German archaeologist. One of the few female archaeologists of her time, she was the first female employee of the Vatican Museums and one of the first professional women to be employed by the Vatican. She was a pioneering contributor to the collections of archaeological photographs and is often credited as being the first archaeological photo-archivist.
Guido Kaschnitz von Weinberg was an Austrian-German archaeologist and art historian. He was the husband of writer Marie Luise Kaschnitz.
Maria Weigert Brendel (1902–1994) was a German expert on classical art. She studied at the University of Heidelberg, before being pulled out of the University by her father, and being forced to flee the country to avoid Nazi persecution. Later in her life, she posthumously published a number of Otto Brendel's works.
Barbara Elisabeth Borg is Professor of Classical Archaeology at the University of Exeter. She is known in particular for her work on Roman tombs, the language of classical art, and geoarchaeology.
Sinclair Wynn Bell is an American classical archaeologist and art historian. He is a Professor of Art History at Northern Illinois University where he teaches courses in Greek, Etruscan, and Roman art history, architecture, and archaeology, as well as museum studies. His research focuses on the art and archaeology of the Etruscans; sport and spectacle in the Roman imperial period, especially the Roman circus; and slavery in ancient Rome, especially the visual representation of slaves, freedmen, and foreigners in Roman art.
Karl Leo Heinrich Lehmann (1894–1960) was a German-born American art historian, archaeologist, and professor. He was known for archaeology work in Samothrace, Greece and the related publications. He was a professor at New York University Institute of Fine Arts from 1935, until his death in 1950. Lehmann was the founder and director of the Archaeological Research Fund at New York University