Otto Wilhelm Masing (8 November [ O.S. 28 October] 1763 in Lohusuu, Kreis Dorpat, Livland Governorate – 15 March [ O.S. 3 March] 1832 in Äksi, Livland Governorate) was an early Baltic German Estophile and a major advocate of peasant rights, especially regarding education.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first was to change the start of the year from Lady Day to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar. Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates.
Lohusuu is a small borough in Mustvee Parish Jõgeva County, in northeastern Estonia. It was the administrative centre of the Lohusuu Parish. As of 2011 Census, the settlement's population was 317.
Kreis Dorpat was one of the nine subdivisions of the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire. It was situated in the northeastern part of the governorate. Its capital was Tartu (Dorpat). The territory of Kreis Dorpat corresponds to the present-day Tartu County, most of Jõgeva County, parts of Põlva and Valga counties and a small part of Ida-Viru County.
He received schooling at the town school of Narva (1777–1779) and then (1779–1782) at the Gymnasium of Torgau (Germany) before studying theology, music and drawing at the University of Halle, returning to Estonia in 1786.
Narva is the third largest city in Estonia. It is located at the eastern extreme point of Estonia, at the Russian border, on the Narva River which drains Lake Peipus.
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it usually refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational system throughout many countries of central, north, eastern, and south Europe.
Torgau is a town on the banks of the Elbe in northwestern Saxony, Germany. It is the capital of the district Nordsachsen.
In 1796 he married Dorothea Amalie Ehlertz (1776–1809) in Dorpat (Tartu),a daughter of the city councillor Carl Ulrich Ehlertz (1739–1790) and his wife Louisa Dorothea née Stockenberg (1755–1803), a great-granddaughter of the sculptor Johann Gustav Stockenberg.
St. John's Church, Tartu is a Brick Gothic Lutheran church, one of the landmarks of the city of Tartu, Estonia. It is dedicated to John the Baptist.
Tartu is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn.
A Councillor is a member of a local government council.
His first employment after concluding his studies was as private tutor at Püssi Manor for the children of the nobleman Otto Magnus von Toll.
Püssi is a town in Lüganuse Parish, Ida-Viru County, in northeastern Estonia, with a population of 917 as of 2018. It is located near the road between Tallinn and St. Petersburg.
In 1788 he became the pastor of the (Lutheran) church in Lüganuse (1788–1795), then serving from 1795 in Viru-Nigula (1795–1815) and from 1815 in Äksi, where he remained as pastor until his death.
Lüganuse is a small borough in Ida-Viru County, northern Estonia. It is the administrative centre of Lüganuse Parish. As of 2011 Census, the settlement's population was 439, of which the Estonians were 423 (96.4%).
Viru-Nigula is a small borough in Lääne-Viru County, Estonia. It is the administrative centre of Viru-Nigula Parish. Viru-Nigula has a population of 336.
Äksi is a small borough in Tartu Parish, Tartu County in Estonia. It is located on the southern shore of Lake Saadjärv, and has a population of 477.
From 1818 he also took on the post of assessor of the consistory of Livonia and from 1821 onwards he was also Provost for Tartu.
In 1795, Masing compiled and published a children's textbook for learning reading, the ABD. (The letter 'C' does not appear in Estonian words, and back then, was not considered a member of Estonian alphabet. This considered, the title could be translated as "ABC.") He published a further textbook with methodical reading instructions, the Luggemislehhed, in 1821.
From 1821 to 1823, Masing published a newsletter Marahva Näddala-Leht (Estonian for Peasant's Weekly), one of the earliest regular publications in the Estonian language.
Among other linguistic contributions, Masing is credited with creating the letter 'õ' to denote an Estonian phoneme not found in other nearby languages.
Theodosius Andreas Harnack was a Baltic German theologian.
The Baltic governorates, originally the Ostsee governorates, was a collective name for the administrative units of the Russian Empire set up in the territories of Swedish Estonia, Swedish Livonia (1721) and, afterwards, of Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1795).
The Governorate of Livonia was one of the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire, now divided between the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia.
Bengt Gottfried Forselius was a founder of public education in Estonia, author of the first ABC-book in the Estonian language, and creator of a spelling system which made the teaching and learning of Estonian easier. Forselius and Johan Hornung were mainly responsible for making a start at reforming the Estonian literary language in the late 17th century. Some German constructions were abandoned, and a strict spelling system was adopted which still relied on German orthography.
The Baltic or Baltic German nobility was the privileged social class in the territories of today's Estonia and Latvia. It existed continuously since the Northern Crusades and the medieval foundation of Terra Mariana. Most of the nobility were Baltic Germans, but with the changing political landscape over the centuries, Polish, Swedish and Russian families also became part of the nobility, just as Baltic German families re-settled in e.g. the Swedish and Russian Empires. The nobility of Lithuania is for historical, social and ethnic reasons often separated from the German-dominated nobility of Estonia and Latvia.
Jaan Poska VR III/1 was an Estonian barrister and politician.
Estophilia refers to the ideas and activities of people not of Estonian descent who are sympathetic to or interested in Estonian language, Estonian literature or Estonian culture, the history of Estonia and Estonia in general. Such people are known as Estophiles. The opposite of Estophilia is Estophobia.
Anti Selart is an Estonian historian.
Georg von Oettingen was a Baltic German physician and ophthalmologist who was born at the manor Gut Wissust. He was a brother of theologian Alexander von Oettingen (1827–1905), and physicist Arthur von Oettingen (1836–1920).
Jakob Ernst Arthur Böttcher was a Baltic German pathologist and anatomist who was a native of Bauska, in what was then the Courland Governorate. He worked primarily within the Russian Empire.
Hermann Guido von Samson-Himmelstjerna; name sometimes given as Guido Samson von Himmelstiern was a Baltic German physician and professor of Staatsarzneikunde.
Karl August Senff was a Baltic German painter, engraver and teacher. He is best known for his etchings of famous German and Estonian military figures in service to the Imperial Russian Army. He served as professor of drawing at the University of Dorpat from its reopening in 1802 until his death in 1838 where he trained some of Estonia's most celebrated artists.
Johan(n) Gustav Stockenberg was a Swedish sculptor and stonemason who worked in Sweden, Russia and mainly in Reval.
Karl Christian Ulmann was a Baltic German theologian.
Otto Moritz (I) Ludwig von Engelhardt was a Baltic German mineralogist. He was a member of the Engelhardt family.
Johann Friedrich von Recke was a senior public official in the Baltic Germans Duchy of Courland. He is remembered now, primarily, for his activities as an antiquarian and collector.
Hermann of Buxhoeveden or Bekeshoevede (1230-1285) was a medieval clergyman. He was consecrated bishop of Ösel–Wiek on 20 August 1262 in Lübeck and remained in that post until his death. He was a member of the Buxhoeveden family, as was a later holder of the same bishopric, Reinhold von Buxhoeveden.
Thomas Wilhelm Greiffenhagen was a Baltic German journalist and politician who was the mayor of Reval from June 1883 to August 1885.
Kotzebue was a Baltic German noble family of Brandenburgish origin, tracing its origin back to Kossebau in Altmark. They held nobility status in the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Bavaria.
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