Otwock

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Otwock
PL Otwock 23 Koscielna Street.jpg
Świdermajer-styled house in Otwock
Flaga Otwocka.jpg
Flag
POL Otwock COA.svg
Coat of arms
Masovian Voivodeship location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Otwock
Poland adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Otwock
Coordinates: 52°7′N21°16′E / 52.117°N 21.267°E / 52.117; 21.267 Coordinates: 52°7′N21°16′E / 52.117°N 21.267°E / 52.117; 21.267
Country Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
Voivodeship POL wojewodztwo mazowieckie flag.svg  Masovian
County Otwock County
Gmina Otwock (urban gmina)
Established1877
Town rights9 November 1916
Government
  MayorJarosław Margielski (PiS)
Area
  Total47.33 km2 (18.27 sq mi)
Elevation
100 m (300 ft)
Population
 (2019)
  Total44,635
  Density940/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
05-400 to 05-402
Area code(s) +48 022
Car plates WOT
Website http://www.otwock.pl

Otwock [ˈɔtfɔt͡sk] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) is a town in central Poland, some 23 kilometres (14 mi) southeast of Warsaw, with 44,635 inhabitants (2019). Otwock is a part of the Warsaw Agglomeration. It is situated on the right bank of Vistula River below the mouth of Swider River. Otwock is home to a unique architectural style called Swidermajer.

Contents

Otwock is situated in the Masovian Voivodship since 1999; previously, it was in Warszawa Voivodship (1975–1998). It is the capital of Otwock County. The town covers the area of 47 square kilometres (18 sq mi). Forested areas make up 23% of the territory.

History

"The Commandant" Jozef Pilsudski with his legionaries in Otwock in 1915 Pilsudski in Otwock.jpg
"The Commandant" Józef Piłsudski with his legionaries in Otwock in 1915

Even though the first mention of a village called Otwosko comes from the early 15th century, Otwock did not fully develop until the second half of the 19th century, when in 1877 the Vistula River Railroad was opened, which ran from Mława via Warsaw, to Lublin and Chełm. Otwock, which is located along the line, became a popular suburb, with numerous spas and several notable guests, including Józef Piłsudski and Władysław Reymont, who wrote his Nobel prize-winning novel Chłopi there. In 1916, Otwock was incorporated as a town and became the seat of a powiat. In 1936 railway connection Warsaw - Otwock was electrified as the first rail line in Poland.

World War II

Layover yard in Otwock, 19 August 1942. In the distance, Jews sit on the ground overnight, while awaiting transport to Treblinka extermination camp. Clandestine photo Otwock Jews - September 19, 1942.jpg
Layover yard in Otwock, 19 August 1942. In the distance, Jews sit on the ground overnight, while awaiting transport to Treblinka extermination camp. Clandestine photo

Following the Nazi–Soviet Invasion of Poland in December 1939, the German authorities established a Jewish ghetto in Otwock. A murderous Action T4 euthanasia program was carried out by the Nazis in the local Zofiówka Sanatorium for the psychiatric patients [1] in order to confine its Jewish population for the purpose of persecution and exploitation. [2] The Ghetto was liquidated between August and 19 September 1942, when 75% of its Jewish population of 12,000–15,000 numbering at around 8,000 were assembled by the Nazis at a layover yard in Otwock (pictured) and transported in cattle trucks to extermination camps in Treblinka and Auschwitz. [3] Jews who remained were summarily shot at Reymonta Street soon after. [4]

Otwock is the hometown of Irena Sendler (1910 – 2008), the Polish humanitarian who saved thousands of Jewish children during the Holocaust; as well as Krystyna Dańko, both awarded the titles of Righteous among the Nations by Yad Vashem. Writer Calel Perechodnik, a Jewish Ghetto Policeman from Otwock also hailed from this town. Following the liberation, a children's home for Holocaust survivors was established in Otwock. [5]

Economy

In 1958, Ewa, the first Polish nuclear reactor was activated in Swierk district of Otwock. A second research reactor, Maria, was erected in 1974.

Otwock is home to a sports club Start Otwock (founded in 1924). The club is renowned for its weight-lifters such as Szymon Kołecki and Marcin Dołęga. Also, the Start Club's own prodigy is football forward Janusz Żmijewski who in the 1960s played for Legia Warszawa and the national team of Poland.

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Otwock is twinned with:

See also

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References

  1. The statistical data compiled on the basis of "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland" Archived 8 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine by Virtual Shtetl Museum of the History of the Polish Jews  (in English), as well as "Getta Żydowskie," by Gedeon,  (in Polish) and "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters at www.deathcamps.org/occupation/ghettolist.htm  (in English). Accessed 12 July 2011.
  2. "The War Against The Jews." The Holocaust Chronicle, 2009. Chicago, Il. Accessed 21 June 2011.
  3. Sabina Bauman, "Czwarty marsz" (The Fourth March of the Living) Archived 7 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Linia otwocka 26 September 2005.
  4. Społeczny Komitet Pamięci Żydów Otwockich i Karczewskich - działania w latach 2002-2007 Archived 30 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine Sekcja terenowa Polskiej Rady Chrześcijan i Żydów (Otwock Branch of Poland’s Advisory of Christians and Jews Archived 9 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine ); Zbigniew Nosowski, President.  (in Polish)
  5. A Time to Heal: The Story of the Children's Home in Otwock an online exhibition by Yad Vashem