Overseas Vietnamese

Last updated

Vietnamese diaspora
Việt hải ngoại
Total population
4,500,000 (official estimates) [1]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 2,067,527 (2016) [2]
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia 400,000-1,000,000 [3] [4] [5]
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 420,415 (2020) [6]
Flag of France.svg  France ~400,000 [7] [8]
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 320,000 (2019) [9]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia >300,000 (2018) [10] [11]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 240,514 [12]
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 224,518 (2020) [13]
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 188,000 (2019) [14]
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 150,000 [15]
Flag of Laos.svg  Laos 122,000 [16]
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 100,000 [17]
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 90,000 [18]
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 80,000 [19]
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 60,000-80,000 [20]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 50,000-100,000 [21]
Flag of Angola.svg  Angola 45,000 [22]
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 10,000-50,000 [23] [24]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Mainland China 36,205 [lower-alpha 1] [25]
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 27,600[ citation needed ]
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 27,366 (2020) [26]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 23,488 (2019) [27]
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 20,676 (2020) [28]
Flag of Macau.svg  Macau ~20,000 (2018) [29]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 20,000 [30]
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 20,000 [31] [32] [33]
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 15,953 (2020) [34]
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 14,000 (2012) [35]
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 12,051 [36]
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 12,000 (2012) [37]
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus >12,000 [38] [39]
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 5,565-20,000 [40] [41]
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 10,086 (2018) [42]
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland ~8,000 [43]
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 7,304 (2016) [44]
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 5,000 [45]
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 5,000 [46]
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 3,000 [47]
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 2,500 [48]
Overseas Vietnamese population. Vietnam is marked red. Darker blue represent the largest number of Vietnamese people living abroad by percents. Global Vietnamese population.png
Overseas Vietnamese population. Vietnam is marked red. Darker blue represent the largest number of Vietnamese people living abroad by percents.

Overseas Vietnamese (Vietnamese : Người Việt hải ngoại, or Việt Kiều) refers to Vietnamese people who live outside Vietnam. There are approximately 4.5 million overseas Vietnamese, the largest community of whom live in the United States. The oldest wave of overseas Vietnamese left Vietnam as economic and political refugees after the 1975 fall of Saigon and the North Vietnamese takeover of the formerly pro-American South Vietnam.


Overseas Vietnamese make up the fifth largest Asian diaspora, after Overseas Chinese, Indian diaspora, Overseas Filipinos and Lebanese diaspora.

The term overseas Vietnamese, or Việt Kiều, is differentiated with Gin people in southeastern China, one of 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. They are ethnic Vietnamese, can communicate verbally with Kinh people, but cannot read or understand the Latin-script's chữ Quốc ngữ .

The term Việt Kiều ("Vietnamese sojourner") is used by people in Vietnam to refer to Vietnamese living outside the country. [49] However, many overseas Vietnamese prefer the terms Người Việt hải ngoại ("overseas Vietnamese") or Người Việt tự do ("Vietnamese with freedom"). [50]


Overseas Vietnamese can be divided into distinct categories:[ citation needed ]

According to a 2014 report by the Associated Press, "women make up at least two-thirds of workers who leave the country", and sometimes leave fathers behind to care for children. The report also said that "the total amount of remittances sent back from all Vietnamese workers overseas now exceeds $2 billion a year." [61]

In addition, as of 2020, 190,000 Vietnamese were studying abroad. [62] Most were studying in Australia (30,000), the United States (29,000), Canada (21,000), the UK (12,000) and Asian countries (70,000). [63]

Around the World

United States

Vietnamese immigrants in the United States comprise one of the largest immigrant communities in the world. The community grew from 231,000 in 1980 to perhaps as many as 1.3 million in 2012. [64] Most immigrants fled to the United States as refugees in the wake of the Vietnam War, arriving in three distinct waves from the 1960s to the 1990s. The first wave was comprised mainly of South Vietnamese military personnel and citizens targeted by communist forces because of their associations with both the South Vietnamese government and the United States. [64]

The second wave, which occurred in the 1970s, brought rural Vietnamese to the United States in what became known as the "boat people crisis." This wave was characterized by people who lacked the education or wealth of the first wave, as well as a large number of ethnic Chinese who were fleeing persecution by the Vietnamese government.

The final wave took place in the 1980s into the 1990s. A majority of these immigrants were the children of Vietnamese mothers and American soldiers, and they greatly increased the population of Vietnamese in America. By 2012, this population comprised 31% of the 4 million foreign-born population from South East Asia, 11% of the 11.9 million foreign-born from Asia, and 3% of the 40.8 million overall foreign-born population. [64]

Mass migration from Vietnam began in response to the Vietnamese government in the 1970s. During the North Vietnamese military offensive of mid-March 1975, many South Vietnamese citizens were pushed farther and farther south into Saigon. On April 30, the final U.S. troops and diplomats left Saigon and the country came under the control of the Provisional Revolutionary Government. As a result the North Vietnam Army (N.V.A.) took control of the country and many Vietnamese became refugees and immigrated to the United States. [65]

By 1979, the United Nations recognized that the Vietnamese refugee crisis was a "world problem", which led to the First Geneva Conference on Indochinese Refugees in July, 1979. The United States, United Kingdom, Australia, France, and Canada each agreed to accept refugees for resettlement, and Vietnamese refugee entries to the U.S. to peaked from 1979 to 1982. [66] That year, President Jimmy Carter doubled the number of Southeast Asian refugees accepted into the United States, from 7,000 to 14,000. However, 62% of Americans said they disapproved of the measure. [67]

The South Vietnamese coming to the U.S. in the second wave did not come willingly. They were forced out of their homes by the N.V.A. and sought refuge in the United States. Many of these people felt betrayed by the U.S.'s handling of the situation in Vietnam and felt conflicted about making the journey there. [68] Nearly all the Vietnamese migrants to the United States during this time were listed as refugees, not as immigrants, because of the forced manner in which they had been exiled to the United States; 99% of Vietnamese newcomers to the United States who received a Green Card in 1982 fell into this category.

Congregation of the Mother Coredemptrix in Carthage, Missouri Congregation Of The Mother Coredemtrix.jpg
Congregation of the Mother Coredemptrix in Carthage, Missouri

In 2016 the U.S. Census Bureau estimated the Vietnamese American population to be 2,067,527. The majority live in metropolitan areas in the western half of the country, especially in California and Texas. There are particularly large communities in Orange County, California, San Jose, California, Houston, Texas and Seattle, Washington. The group that fled to escape the North Vietnam takeover generally are antagonistic toward the government of Vietnam. [69]

In the United States, Vietnamese immigrants have achieved high levels of education. In 2015, 30% of Vietnamese Americans had attained a Bachelor's degree or higher (compared to 19% for the general population) Specifically, 21% of Vietnamese Americans had attained a Bachelor's degree (37% for U.S. born Vietnamese and 18% for foreign-born Vietnamese), and 8.9% had attained a postgraduate degree (14% for U.S. born Vietnamese and 7% for foreign-born Vietnamese), compared to 11% postgraduate degree attainment among the general American population. [70] [71] [72]


Vietnamese constitute about 5% of the population of Cambodia, [5] making them the largest ethnic minority. Vietnamese people began migrating to Cambodia as early as the 17th century. In 1863, when Cambodia became a French colony, many Vietnamese were brought to Cambodia by the French to work on plantations and occupy civil servant positions. During the Lon Nol regime (1970–1975) and Pol Pot regime (1975–1979), many Vietnamese living in Cambodia were killed. Others were either repatriated or escaped to Vietnam or Thailand. During the ten-year Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia from 1979 to 1989 many Vietnamese who had previously lived in Cambodia returned and along with them came friends and relatives. Many former South Vietnamese soldiers also came to Cambodia, fleeing persecution from the communist government.

Many living in Cambodia usually speak Vietnamese as their first language and have introduced the Cao Dai religion, with 2 temples built in Cambodia. Many Cambodians learned Vietnamese as a result. They are concentrated in the Kratie and Takeo provinces of Cambodia, where villages predominately consist of ethnic Vietnamese.

Vietnamese people are also the top tourist group in Cambodia, with 130,831, up 19% as of 2011. [73]


The Temple du Souvenir Indochinois in the Bois de Vincennes, erected in 1907, is a monument built by the earliest waves of Vietnamese migrants to France. Pavillon jardin tropical.jpg
The Temple du Souvenir Indochinois in the Bois de Vincennes, erected in 1907, is a monument built by the earliest waves of Vietnamese migrants to France.

The number of ethnic Vietnamese living in France is estimated to be about 350,000 as of 2014. [8] France was the first Western country where Vietnamese migrants settled due to the colonization of Vietnam by France that began in the late 1850s. [74] The colonial period saw a significant representation of Vietnamese students in France, as well as professional and blue-collar workers, with many settling permanently. [75] The country would continue to be home to by far the largest overseas Vietnamese population outside Asia until the 1980s, when a higher number of Vietnam War refugees resettled in the United States. [76]

A number of Vietnamese loyal to the colonial government and Vietnamese married to French colonists emigrated to France following Vietnam's independence through the Geneva Accords in 1954. During the Vietnam War, a significant number of students and those involved in commerce from South Vietnam continued to arrive in France. The largest influx of Vietnamese people, however, arrived in France as refugees after the Fall of Saigon and end of the Vietnam War in 1975. Vietnamese refugees who settled in France usually had higher levels of education and affluence than Vietnamese refugees who settled in North America, Australia, and the rest of Europe, likely due to cultural familiarity with French culture and that many affluent Vietnamese families had already settled in France. [75]

Most Vietnamese in France live in Paris and the surrounding Île-de-France area, but a significant number also reside in major urban centers in the south-east of the country, primarily Marseille, Lyon, and Toulouse. Earlier Vietnamese migrants also settled in the cities of Lille and Bordeaux. [75] In contrast to their counterparts in the English-speaking world, the Vietnamese in France have a higher degree of assimilation, due to cultural, historical, and linguistic knowledge of the host country.

The community is still strongly attached to its homeland while being well integrated in French society. The generation of Vietnamese refugees continues to hold on to traditional values. The later generations of French-born Vietnamese strongly identify with French culture rather than Vietnamese, as most were raised and brought up in the French system rather than the Vietnamese one. [77] French media and politicians generally view the Vietnamese community as a "model minority", in part because they are represented as having a high degree of integration within the French society as well as having high economic and academic success. Furthermore, Vietnamese in France on average have a high level of educational attainment and success, a legacy dating back to the colonial era when affluent families and those with connections to the French colonial government sent their children to France to study. [78]

The Vietnamese community in France is divided between those who oppose the communist Hanoi government and those who are supportive of it. [79] [80] The pro-communist camp is the more established of the two and was the larger group until the 1970s, consisting mainly of students, workers, and long-established immigrants who arrived before 1975 and their descendants. Meanwhile, the anti-communist camp consists of students, refugees and middle-class immigrants from the former south, who began to arrive after Vietnamese independence in 1954 but most of whom fled Vietnam after 1975.

This division in the community has been present since the 1950s when some Vietnamese students and workers in France supported and praised the communist Vietminh's policies back home, while Vietnamese loyal to the colonial or non-communist governments and immigrated to France were largely anti-communist. [78] This political rift remained minor until the Fall of Saigon in 1975 when staunchly anti-communist refugees from South Vietnam arrived and established community networks and institutions. The two camps have contradictory political goals and ideologies, and members of one group rarely interact with those of the other group. Such political divisions have prevented the Vietnamese in France from forming a strong, unified community in their host nation, as their counterparts have in North America and Australia (1980). [80]


Vietnamese people in Australia constitute one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, with 294,798 people claiming Vietnamese ancestry at the 2016 census. [81] First generation Vietnamese Australians who came as refugees varied widely in income and social class. Of those from the Vietnam War era, many Vietnamese Australians are white collar professionals, while others work primarily in blue-collar jobs. Australian-born Vietnamese tend to earn high levels of educational attainment and success. In 2001, the labour participation rate for Vietnamese refugees was 61%, about the same as that of Australian born residents (63%). [82] Around three quarters of ethnic Vietnamese live in New South Wales (40.7%) and Victoria (36.8%).

The surname, Nguyễn, is the seventh most common family name in Australia [83] (second to Smith in the Melbourne phone book). [84]

New Zealand

According to the 2018 census, 10,086 New Zealanders identify themselves with the Vietnamese ethnic group. [85] Many of them came to New Zealand to escape religious persecution or war. [86]


According to the 2016 census, Canada has 240,615 people who identify as ethnic Vietnamese. [87] The majority of Vietnamese people in Canada reside in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, with some having lived in Quebec before 1975. Vancouver is also another major destination for newly-arrived Vietnamese immigrants since 1980, including Vietnamese of Chinese descent, with the city having a large Chinese population.


Vietnamese comprise the largest Asian ethnic group in Germany. [88] As of 2011, there are about 137,000 people of Vietnamese descent in Germany. [89] [90] In Western Germany, most Vietnamese arrived in the 1970s or 1980s as refugees from the Vietnam War. The comparatively larger Vietnamese community in Eastern Germany traces its origins to assistance agreements between the East German and the North Vietnamese government. Under these agreements, guest workers from Vietnam were brought to East Germany, where they soon made up the largest immigrant group [91] and were provided with technical training. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, many stayed in Germany, although they often faced discrimination, especially in the early years after reunification.

As in France, the Vietnamese community is divided between anticommunists in the former West (including the former West Berlin) and pro-communists in the former East, although the difference runs along former borderlines rather than being diffused as in France.

Czech Republic

The number of Vietnamese people in the Czech Republic was estimated at 61,012 at the 2009 census, [92] although more recent figures have placed the number as high as 80,000. [93]

Most Vietnamese immigrants in the Czech Republic reside in Prague, where there is an enclave called " Sapa ". Unlike Vietnamese immigrants in Western Europe and North America, these immigrants were usually communist cadres studying or working abroad who decided to stay after the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe. The Vietnamese surname Nguyen is even listed as the most common of foreign surnames in the Czech Republic and is the 9th most common surname in the country overall. (It is worth noting that female and male forms of the same Czech surnames were counted separately, while the total number of Nguyens refers to both male and female bearers of the surname.) [94]

United Kingdom

Vietnamese residing in the United Kingdom number around 55,000 people, in contrast to the trend of the U.K. tending to have the largest East and South East Asian diasporas in Europe. In the 1980s, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher agreed to take quotas of refugees and 12,000 boat people came to Britain. [95] The most established Vietnamese communities in Britain are in Hackney and other parts of London. There are also communities in Birmingham, Manchester and other major U.K. cities. In addition to the official 4.5 million Vietnamese recognized abroad, an underreported number of illegal Vietnamese immigrants abroad reside in the United Kingdom, a part of worldwide criminal activities resembling modern slavery. [96] [97] Many Vietnamese, lacking official papers and denied official assistances, unfortunately, may become involved in criminal activities, such as unknowingly being hired in cannabis factories. [98] [99] The Essex lorry deaths highlighted the issue of illegal Vietnamese immigrants being smuggled from poverty-stricken regions of Vietnam to other parts of the world. [100]


Around 50,000 Vietnamese live in Poland, mostly in big cities. [101] They publish a number of newspapers, both pro- and anti-Communist. The first immigrants were Vietnamese students at Polish universities in the post-World War II era. These numbers increased slightly during the Vietnam War, when agreements between the communist Vietnamese and Polish governments allowed Vietnamese guest workers to obtain industrial training in Poland. A large number of Vietnamese immigrants also arrived after 1989. [102]


An estimated 14,000 ethnic Vietnamese reside in Belgium as of 2012. Similar to the Vietnamese community in France, the Vietnamese Belgian community traces its roots to before the end of the Vietnam War. Beginning in the mid-1960s, Belgium became a popular alternative destination to France for South Vietnamese seeking higher education and career opportunities abroad. A much larger influx of Vietnamese arrived as refugees after the Fall of Saigon. After the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, a small number of Vietnamese workers in former Soviet Bloc countries who were sponsored by the communist Vietnamese government also sought asylum in Belgium. [103]

The Vietnamese Belgian population largely resides in and around the capital of Brussels or in the southern French-speaking Wallonia region, especially around the city of Liège. As in France, South Vietnamese refugees to Belgium were largely of higher social standing and integrated much easier into their host country's society than their peers who settled in North America, Australia and the rest of Europe due to better linguistic and cultural knowledge. The Vietnamese Belgian community is strongly attached to its counterpart community in France, with both communities largely achieving higher socioeconomic success in their host countries than other overseas Vietnamese populations. [103]


Vietnamese people in Russia form the 72nd-largest ethnic minority community in Russia according to the 2002 census. The Census estimated their population at only 26,205 individuals, making them among the smaller groups of Việt Kiều. [104] Unofficial estimates, however, put their population as high as 100,000 to 150,000. [105] [106]


An estimated 21,700 ethnic Vietnamese live in Norway as of 2014, and the country has hosted a Vietnamese community since refugee arrivals after the end of the Vietnam War in 1975. The Vietnamese are considered among the best integrated non-Western immigrant groups in Norway, with high rates of Norwegian citizenship among immigrants and success rates in education on par with those of ethnic Norwegians. [107]


About 19,000 ethnic Vietnamese reside in the Netherlands according to a 2010 estimate. The community largely consists of South Vietnamese refugees who first arrived in 1978. A much smaller number of North Vietnamese workers also arrived from eastern Europe after the fall of the Berlin Wall. [108]


An estimated 2,600 ethnic Vietnamese live in Bulgaria according to a 2015 estimate. [109]

Under international agreements in 1980, Bulgaria and other Warsaw Pact members accepted Vietnamese guest workers who were sponsored by the communist government into the country as a relatively inexpensive manual labour workforce. At one point, over 35,000 Vietnamese people worked in Bulgaria between 1980 and 1991 and many Vietnamese students completed their higher education at various Bulgarian universities. [110]

South Korea

As of 2011, there were over 110,000 ethnic Vietnamese people in South Korea, making them the second largest minority group in the country. Vietnamese in South Korea consist mainly of migrant workers and women introduced to South Korean husbands through marriage agencies. [111] [112] In the 13th century, several thousand Vietnamese fled to Korea after the overthrow of the Vietnamese Lý Dynasty, where they were received by King Gojong of Goryeo. [113]


The Fall of Saigon in 1975 at the end of the Vietnam War saw many Vietnamese refugees escaping by boats to Malaysia. The first refugee boat arrived in Malaysia in May 1975, carrying 47 people. [114] A refugee camp was established later at Pulau Bidong in August 1978 with assistance of the United Nations and became a major refugee processing center for Vietnamese seeking residency in other countries. While a very small number of Vietnamese refugees settled in Malaysia, the majority of Vietnamese in Malaysia consist of skilled and semi-skilled workers who arrived during the 1990s as economic cooperation between Vietnam and Malaysia increased. [115]


Vietnamese form one of the largest foreign ethnic groups in Taiwan, with a resident population of around 200,000, including students and migrant workers. [116] Vietnamese in Taiwan largely arrived as workers in the manufacturing industry or as domestic helpers. There are also a large number of Vietnamese women married to Taiwanese men through international matchmaking services in Vietnam, despite the illegality of such services in the country. [117]


Over 135,000 Vietnamese people resided in Japan at the end of 2014. [118] In 2019, around 371,755 Vietnamese people lived in Japan, making it the third largest foreign community in the country. At least 190,000 are "skilled trainees" and this particular number is growing sharply. [119] Vietnamese people first came to Japan as students beginning in the 20th century. [120] Most of the community, however, is composed of refugees admitted in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as well as a smaller proportion of migrant laborers who began arriving in 1994. [121] [122]


As Vietnam and Laos are neighbors, there has been a long history of population migrations between the territories making up the two respective countries. When Laos was a French protectorate in the first half of the 20th century, the French colonial administration brought many Vietnamese people to Laos to work as civil servants. This policy was the object of strenuous opposition by Laotian nationals, who in the 1930s made an unsuccessful attempt to replace the local government with Laotian civil servants. [123]


The Vietnamese in China are known as the Gin ethnic group, arriving in Southeastern China beginning in the 16th century. They largely reside in the province of Guangxi and speak Vietnamese and a local variety of Cantonese. [124]

Hong Kong

Vietnamese migration to Hong Kong began after the end of the Vietnam War in 1975, when boat people took to the sea and began fleeing Vietnam in all directions. Those who landed in Hong Kong were placed in refugee camps until they could be resettled in a third country. Under the Hong Kong government's Comprehensive Plan of Action, newly arriving Vietnamese were classified as either political refugees or economic migrants. Those deemed to be economic migrants would be denied the opportunity for resettlement overseas.[ citation needed ]


Many Vietnamese boat refugees who crossed South China Sea landed in the Philippines after the fall of South Vietnam in 1975. These refugees established a community called Viet-Ville (French for "Viet-Town") in Puerto Princesa, Palawan. At the time, it became the centre of Vietnamese commerce and culture, complete with Vietnamese restaurants, shops, Catholic churches and Buddhist temples. In the decades that followed however, the Vietnamese population dwindled greatly, with many emigrating to the United States, Canada, Australia or Western Europe. Viet-Ville today remains a popular destination for local tourists.


Vietnamese refugees arriving at Ben-Gurion International Airport, In Israel Flickr - Government Press Office (GPO) - Vietnamese refugees happily waving to the welcoming crowd at Ben Gurion Airport.jpg
Vietnamese refugees arriving at Ben-Gurion International Airport, In Israel

The number of Vietnamese people in Israel is estimated at 150 to 200. Most of them came between 1976 and 1979 when about 360 Vietnamese refugees were granted political asylum by Prime Minister Menachem Begin. Most later left Israel, mainly for Europe or North America, to reunite with their extended families. Many of the second generation descendants have assimilated into Israeli culture, marrying Israelis, speaking Hebrew and serving in the Israel Defense Forces. A minority choose to keep their culture alive by shunning intermarriage and speaking Vietnamese at home. [125] [126] Today, the majority of the community lives in the Gush Dan area in the center of Israel but also a few dozen Vietnamese-Israelis or Israelis of Vietnamese origin live in Haifa, Jerusalem and Ofakim.

Relations with Vietnam

Relations between overseas Vietnamese populations and the current government of Vietnam traditionally range between polarities of geniality and overt contempt. Generally, overseas Vietnamese residing in North America, Western Europe, and Australia (which represent the vast majority of overseas Vietnamese populations) are virulently opposed to the existing government of Vietnam. [127] [128] The smaller population of overseas Vietnamese residing in Europe, however, (mainly in Central and East Europe), the Middle East, Africa and Asia, most of whom have been sent for training in formerly communist countries, generally maintain positive or more neutral, if not very friendly relations with the government. [128] Many of these East European Vietnamese are from Northern Vietnam and usually have personal or familial affiliations with the communist regime [129] Those who left before the political exodus of 1975, largely residing in France, generally identify their sentiments as somewhere in between the two polarities. [127] This division is also strongly reflected in their religious adherence. Most of the Vietnamese diaspora living in Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand have been strongly Christians and very anti-communists, while the Vietnamese living in Eastern Europe, Asia, Middle East and Africa are more aligned to Buddhism and, in smaller scale, atheists and Muslims. [130] [131] [132]

The former South Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyễn Cao Kỳ returned to Vietnam in 2004 and was generally positive about his experience. However, Kỳ's reconciliation was met with anger by most overseas Vietnamese, who called him a traitor and a communist collaborator for reconciling and working with the current communist regime. [133] Notable expatriate artists have returned to Vietnam to perform (many of whom are met with scorn and boycott by the expatriate community itself after they do so). Notably, the composer Pham Duy had returned to Ho Chi Minh City (referred to as Saigon by overseas Vietnamese and those living in Vietnam) to live the rest of his life there after living in Midway City, California since 1975. The government in Vietnam used less antagonistic rhetoric to describe those who left the country after 1975. According to the Vietnamese government, while in 1987 only 8,000 overseas Vietnamese returned to Vietnam for the purpose of visiting, that number jumped to 430,000 in 2004.

The government enacted laws to make it easier for overseas Vietnamese to do business in Vietnam, including laws allowing them to own land. Overseas Vietnamese, however, still face discrimination while trying to do business there. The first company in Vietnam to be registered to an Overseas Vietnamese was Highlands Coffee, a successful chain of specialty coffee shops, in 1998. [134]

In June 2007, Vietnamese President Nguyen Minh Triet visited the United States, and one of his scheduled stops was in the vicinity Orange County, home of Little Saigon, the largest Vietnamese community outside of Vietnam. Details of his plans were not announced beforehand due to concerns about massive protests. Despite these efforts, a large crowd of anti-communist protest still occurred. [135] Several thousand people protested in Washington, D.C. and Orange County during his visit. [136] [137]

Relations Among the Vietnamese Diaspora

There is a significant level of tension amongst the Vietnamese diaspora. [138] Widespread regionalism exists between Vietnamese from North America and Western Europe against Vietnamese from other parts of the world. Former Soviet-aligned nations and other Asian countries have influenced the existing regionalism through frequent negative portrayals; most Vietnamese from Western Europe and North America have long viewed themselves as more civilized and developed. [139] Those from Vietnam, other Asian countries, and occasionally Eastern Europe complain about racism perpetuated by Vietnamese from Western Europe and North America. [140] This treatment was further exacerbated by the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States, with the majority of Vietnamese in Western Europe and North America having pro-Trump attitudes while the remaining Vietnamese being skeptical of him. [141] [142] [143] [144] Flag allegiances were further soured and the generational divide was further exacerbated when the former South Vietnamese flag appeared at the Capitol Riots. [145]

See also


  1. Excluding Gin people, who are usually classified as a separate but closely related ethnic group.

Related Research Articles

Vietnamese Americans are Americans of Vietnamese ancestry. They make up about half of all overseas Vietnamese and are the fourth-largest Asian American ethnic group after Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, and Indian Americans. There are 2.2 million people of Vietnamese descent residing in the U.S.

Little Saigon is a name given to ethnic enclaves of expatriate Vietnamese mainly in English-speaking countries. Alternate names include Little Vietnam and Little Hanoi, depending on the enclave's political history. Saigon is the former name of the capital of the former South Vietnam, where a large number of first-generation Vietnamese immigrants arriving to the United States originate, whereas Hanoi is the current capital of Vietnam.

Hoa people

The Hoa people are Vietnamese of full or partial Han Chinese ancestry. They are an ethnic minority group in Vietnam and comprise a part of Overseas Chinese community in Southeast Asia. They may also be called "Chinese-Vietnamese" or "Chinese people living in/from Vietnam" by the Vietnamese and Chinese diaspora and by the Overseas Vietnamese.

Khmer Krom

Khmer Krom people are ethnically Khmer people living in or from the region of Tây Nam Bộ, the south western part of Vietnam. In Vietnam, they are recognized as one of Vietnam's fifty-three ethnic minorities: Vietnamese: Người Khơ-me and Vietnamese: Người Miên.

Vietnamese Canadians Canadians with Vietnamese ancestry

Vietnamese Canadians are Canadian citizens of Vietnamese ancestry. As of 2016, there are 240,615 Vietnamese Canadians, most of whom reside in the provinces of Ontario, Alberta, and Quebec.

Vietnamese Australians are Australians of Vietnamese ancestry, or people who migrated to Australia from Vietnam. Communities of overseas Vietnamese are referred to as Việt Kiều or người Việt hải ngoại.

Cambodians in France consist of ethnic Khmer people who were born in or immigrated to France. The population as of 2020 was estimated to be about 80,000, making the community one of the largest in the Cambodian diaspora. The Cambodian population in France is the most established outside Southeast Asia, with a presence dating to well before the Vietnam War and subsequent Indochina refugee crisis.

The Chinese diaspora in France consists of people of Chinese ancestry who were born in or immigrated to France. The population of the community is estimated to be about 600,000, making it the largest Asian community in the country. Though they form a small part of the overseas Chinese population, the Chinese diaspora of France represents the largest overseas Chinese community in Europe.

Vietnamese people in Russia form the 72nd-largest ethnic minority community in Russia according to the 2002 census. With a population of 26,205, they are one of the smaller groups of overseas Vietnamese. Unofficial estimates put their population as high as 100,000 to 150,000. However, the real number of Vietnamese in Russia is often hard to analyze, due to large number of illegal Vietnamese immigrants living underground across Russia and due to the nature of the Vietnamese–Russian relations.

Vietnamese people in the United Kingdom include British citizens and non-citizen immigrants and expatriates of full or partial Vietnamese ancestry living in the United Kingdom. They form a part of the worldwide Vietnamese diaspora.

Vietnamese people in Germany(Vietnamese:Việt kiều Đức / Người Việt tại Đức; German: Die Vietnamesen in Deutschland) form the country's third largest group of resident foreigners from Asia, with Federal Statistical Office figures showing 96,108 Vietnamese nationals residing in Germany at the end of 2018. Not included in those figures are individuals of Vietnamese origin or descent who have been naturalised as German citizens. Between 1981 and 2007, 41,499 people renounced Vietnamese citizenship to take up German nationality. A further 40,000 irregular migrants of Vietnamese origin were estimated to live in Germany, largely concentrated in the Eastern states, as of 2005.

The Vietnamese people in France consists of people of Vietnamese ancestry who were born in or immigrated to France. Their population was about 400,000 as of 2017, making them one of the largest Asian communities in the country.

Asian diasporas in France consist of foreign residents and French citizens originating from Asian countries living in France. French citizens of Asian descent primarily have ancestry from the former French colonies of Indochina and China. Other Asian ethnic groups found in France include South Asians, Japanese and Koreans. While they are Asian by definition, Middle Easterners are often considered to be a separate category from that of Asian in France because of large differences in culture and ethnic composition from the rest of the Asian continent as well as racial relationships between the group and general French populace.

The Laotian diaspora consists of roughly 800,000 people, both descendants of early emigrants from Laos, as well as more recent refugees who escaped the country following its communist takeover as a result of the Laotian Civil War. The overwhelming majority of overseas Laotians live in just three countries: Thailand, the United States, and France.

Indochina refugee crisis Outflow of 3 million refugees from communism in the late 20th century

The Indochina refugee crisis was the large outflow of people from the former French colonies of Indochina, comprising the countries of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, after communist governments were established in 1975. Over the next 25 years and out of a total Indochinese population in 1975 of 56 million, more than 3 million people would undertake the dangerous journey to become refugees in other countries of Southeast Asia, Hong Kong, or China. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 250,000 Vietnamese refugees had perished at sea by July 1986. More than 2.5 million Indochinese were resettled, mostly in North America, Australia, and Europe. More than 525,000 were repatriated, either voluntarily or involuntarily, mainly from Cambodia.

Chinese community in Paris Community in France

As of 1990, the majority of Asians living in the Paris area were ethnic Chinese originating from several countries. The largest group includes ethnic Chinese from Indochina, and a smaller group originates from Zhejiang.

Quartier Asiatique Asian quarter of Paris, France

The Quartier Asiatique, also called Triangle de Choisy or Petite Asie is the largest commercial and cultural center for the Asian community of Paris. It is located in the southeast of the 13th arrondissement in an area that contains many high-rise apartment buildings. Despite its status as a "Chinatown", the neighborhood also contains significant Vietnamese, Laotian and Cambodian populations.

Vietnamese people in Belgium or Vietnamese Belgian refers to people of Vietnamese ancestry who were born in or immigrated to Belgium. The population of the community is about 14,000 as of 2012.

Vietnamese community in Paris

Paris is home to the oldest Overseas Vietnamese community in the Western world and is also one of the largest outside Vietnam. There are an estimated 70,000 people of Vietnamese descent within the city limits of Paris as of 2018, with the greater Île-de-France area home to another estimated 100,000. Both figures make the Paris metropolitan area host to one of the greatest concentrations of Vietnamese outside Vietnam, if not the largest.

Diasporic Vietnamese narratives refer to the stories, memories, and experiences written about the Vietnamese diaspora. Vietnamese diaspora is the dispersion of Vietnamese people living outside of Vietnam. Scholars indicate that the Vietnamese diaspora is unique because of its complex "historical roots of refugee-exile circumstances." At the same time, Priscilla Koh asserts that "overseas Vietnam" should not be grouped as one massive "undifferentiated category" because periods of departure are not only complex, but their political eras should also be thoughtfully considered. Koh further states that during the 20th century, Vietnam has experienced several instances of "mass emigration" due to war, poverty, opportunities to study abroad, and political changes.


  1. "Overseas remittances to Vietnam continue increasing". Review of Vietnamese Migration Abroad. Saigon online. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  2. "ASIAN ALONE OR IN ANY COMBINATION BY SELECTED GROUPS: 2016". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  3. Ponnudurai, Parameswaran (19 March 2014). "Ethnic Vietnamese in Cambodia Left in Limbo Without Citizenship". Radio Free Asia. RFA Khmer Service. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  4. "Vietnamese in Cambodia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  5. 1 2 "A People in Limbo, Many Living Entirely on the Water". The New York Times . 2018-03-28.
  6. "令和2年6月末現在における在留外国人数について". Immigration Services Agency, Ministry of Justice. 2020-10-09. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  7. "Les célébrations du Têt en France par la communauté vietnamienne" (in French). Le Petit Journal. Retrieved 2020-09-28.
  8. 1 2 Thanh Binh Minh Trân. "Étude de la Transmission Familiale et de la Practique du Parler Franco-Vietnamien" (PDF). Actas/Proceedings II Simposio Internacional Billingüismo (in French). Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  9. 跨「越」鴻溝30年 擺脫汙名 聽見新住名告白 - 華視新聞網. Chinese Television System . 2019-03-16.
  10. "2016 Census Community Profiles". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  11. Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of (2012-05-24). "Main Features - Country of birth". www.abs.gov.au.
  12. "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. 7 February 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  13. Vietnam ranks second in number of foreigners staying in RoK
  14. "Bevölkerung in Privathaushalten 2019 nach Migrationshintergrund". Federal Statistical Office of Germany (Statistisches Bundesamt). 28 July 2020.
  15. L. Anh Hoang; Cheryll Alipio (2019). Money and Moralities in Contemporary Asia. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 59–84. ISBN   9789048543151.
  16. "Chủ tịch Quốc hội gặp gỡ cộng đồng người Việt Nam tại Thái Lan" (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  17. https://www.e-polis.cz/clanek/specifika-zivota-vietnamske-komunity-v-cr.html
  18. "Viet Nam, Malaysia's trade unions ink agreement to strengthen protection of migrant workers". International Labour Organization. 16 March 2015.
  19. "Wietnamczycy upodobali sobie Polskę. Może być ich 60 tys. w naszym kraju". www.wiadomosci24.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2015-11-02.
  20. "Vietnam who after 30 years in the UK" . Retrieved 2021-02-06.
  21. "Cuộc sống người Việt ở Angola". RFA. 1 June 2013.
  22. "Vietnamese come to Ukraine for a better life, although many long to return to homeland". Kyiv Post. December 3, 2009.
  23. "Protecting Vietnamese community in Ukraine". Vietnamese Embassy in Ukraine. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  24. "Major Figures on Residents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and Foreigners Covered by 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. April 29, 2011. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
  25. "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents" . Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  26. "Population; sex, age, migration background and generation, 1 January". Statistics Netherlands. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  27. "Population by country of birth and year" . Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  28. "Việt Nam opens consulate office in China's Macau" . Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  29. "Embassy of the UAE in Hanoi » Vietnam - UAE Relations-Bilateral relations between UAE - Vietnam". Archived from the original on 2014-01-10. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
  30. "CỘNG ĐỒNG NGƯỜI VIỆT NAM Ở Ả-RẬP XÊ-ÚT MỪNG XUÂN ẤT MÙI - 2015" . Retrieved 2021-02-06.
  31. "Người trong cuộc kể lại cuộc sống "như nô lệ" của lao động Việt ở Ả Rập Saudi" . Retrieved 2021-02-06.
  32. "Tình cảnh 'Ô-sin' Việt ở Saudi: bị bóc lột, bỏ đói" . Retrieved 2021-02-06.
  33. "FOLK1C: Population at the first day of the quarter by region, sex, age (5 years age groups), ancestry and country of origin". Statistics Denmark.
  34. . Chimviet.free.fr(in French). Retrieved on 2019-11-19.
  35. http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/pxweb/en/StatFin/StatFin__vrm__vaerak/statfin_vaerak_pxt_11rv.px/table/tableViewLayout1/?rxid=726cd24d-d0f1-416a-8eec-7ce9b82fd5a4
  36. "Vietnamese in Cyprus, Laos celebrate traditional New Year". Vietnamplus. Retrieved 2015-10-31.
  37. Deputy FM meets Vietnamese nationals in Cyprus. Retrieved 2015-10-31.
  38. https://www.minv.sk/swift_data/source/policia/hranicna_a_cudzinecka_policia/rocenky/rok_2019/2019-rocenka-UHCP_EN.pdf
  39. https://spectator.sme.sk/c/20059086/slovakias-invisible-minority-counters-migration-fears.html
  40. https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/2018-census-ethnic-groups-dataset
  41. https://vietnamnews.vn/society/716142/vietnamese-community-in-switzerland-support-fight-against-coronavirus.html
  42. Vukovich, Gabriella (2018). Mikrocenzus 2016 - 12. Nemzetiségi adatok [2016 microcensus - 12. Ethnic data](PDF). Hungarian Central Statistical Office (in Hungarian). Budapest. ISBN   978-963-235-542-9 . Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  43. "Người Việt tại tâm dịch của Italia" (in Vietnamese). VOV. 2020-03-27.
  44. "Truyền "ngọn lửa" văn hóa cho thế hệ trẻ người Việt tại Áo" (in Vietnamese). 2020-02-23.
  45. "Condiții inumane pentru muncitorii vietnamezi din România". Digi24 (in Romanian). 21 March 2019.
  46. "Lấy quốc tịch Châu Âu thông qua con đường Bulgaria" (in Vietnamese). Tuổi Trẻ. 2019-03-13.
  47. Ines M. Miyares, Christopher A. Airriess (2007). Contemporary ethnic geographies in America. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 7. ISBN   978-0-7425-3772-9.
  48. Jonathan H. X. Lee; Kathleen M. Nadeau, eds. (2010). Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife. ABC-CLIO. p. 1219. ISBN   9780313350672.
  49. Koh, Priscilla (2015). "You Can Come Home Again: Narratives of Home and Belonging among Second-Generation Việt Kiều in Vietnam". Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia. 30 (1): 173–214. doi:10.1355/sj30-1f. JSTOR   24779833. S2CID   145589360.
  50. http://eeas.europa.eu/archives/delegations/vietnam/documents/eu_vietnam/vn_migration_abroad_en.pdf
  51. http://www.ceemr.uw.edu.pl/vol-4-no-1-june-2015/editorial/vietnamese-communities-central-and-eastern-europe-part-global
  52. "VietNamNet Bridge". 2007-12-31. Archived from the original on 2007-12-31. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  53. Lamb, Kate (2019-10-11). "South Korea bans men with history of abuse from marrying foreign women". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  54. "Cô dâu Việt ở Đài Loan". Báo Thanh Niên.
  55. https://simply-morocco.com/vietnamese-women-in-morocco-what-are-they-doing-there/
  56. http://baobinhduong.vn/en/vietnamese-in-uae-eager-to-cheer-on-national-football-team-at-asian-cup-a194270.html
  57. https://www.thepeninsulaqatar.com/article/04/02/2019/Vietnamese-expatriates-feel-safe-in-Qatar
  58. http://dangcongsan.vn/nguoi-viet-nam-o-nuoc-ngoai/cong-dong-nguoi-viet-nam-tai-ai-cap-mot-long-huong-ve-to-quoc-535850.html
  59. Ives, Mike (2014-07-17). "As Vietnam's women go abroad, dads tend the home". Associated Press . Retrieved 2014-07-18.
  60. Huynh, Helen (2020-07-24). "Many overseas Vietnamese students want to change their study abroad plans". Vietnam Insider. Retrieved 2021-03-21.
  61. "190.000 lưu học sinh Việt Nam đang ở nước ngoài: Bộ GD&ĐT khuyến cáo khẩn". Báo điện tử Tiền Phong (in Vietnamese). 2020-03-20. Retrieved 2021-03-21.
  62. 1 2 3 Badalona, Jeanne (2014-08-22). "Vietnamese Immigrants in the United States in 2012". migrationpolicy.org. Retrieved 2020-11-11.
  63. Do, Hien Duc. "The New Migrants from Asia: Vietnamese in the United States." OAH Magazine of History 10, no. 4 (1996): 61-66. Accessed November 11, 2020. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25163102.
  64. Campi, Alicia (2005-06-01). "From Refugees to Americans: Thirty Years of Vietnamese Immigration to the United States". American Immigration Council. Retrieved 2020-12-01.
  65. Ha, Thu-Huong. "Forty-one years ago, the US took a big gamble on Vietnamese refugees". Quartz. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  66. Chu, Lan T. "From Reaction to Action: Re-conceptualizing the Vietnamese American Diasporic Experience." Journal of Vietnamese Studies 11, no. 2 (2016): 37-42. Accessed October 7, 2020. doi:10.2307/26377908.
  67. Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". Factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  68. "Vietnamese in the U.S. Fact Sheet". Pewsocialtrends.org. 8 September 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  69. Collet, Christian (May 26, 2000). "The Determinants of Vietnamese American Political Participation: Findings from the January 2000 Orange County Register Poll" (PDF). 2000 Annual Meeting of the Association of Asian American. Scottsdale, Arizona. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 10, 2008.
  70. Ong, Nhu-Ngoc T.; Meyer, David S. (April 1, 2004). "Protest and Political Incorporation: Vietnamese American Protests, 1975–2001". Center for the Study of Democracy. 04 (8).
  71. Cambodia receives 778,467 int'l tourists in Q1, up 14% Archived 2011-05-09 at the Wayback Machine . News.xinhuanet.com (2011-05-03). Retrieved on 2011-05-30.
  72. Nguyen Quy Dao, La diaspora vietnamienne et sa coopération avec le Vietnam, 2013 Archived 2016-01-09 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  73. 1 2 3 La Diaspora Vietnamienne en France un cas particulier Archived 2013-12-03 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  74. Blanc, Marie-Eve. Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World, Springer, pp. 1158–1166, 2004. ISBN   978-0-306-48321-9
  75. Blanc, Marie-Eve (2004). "Vietnamese in France". In Ember, Carol (ed.). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Springer. p. 1162. ISBN   978-0-306-48321-9.
  76. 1 2 La diaspora vietnamienne Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  77. Bousquet p. 5
  78. 1 2 Helping the World's homeless; Vietnamese in France proud, divided The Christian Science Monitor, 1980
  79. http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/communityprofile/036?opendocument
  80. 1301.0 – Year Book Australia, 2005. Abs.gov.au. Retrieved on 2011-05-30.
  81. The Age (2006-09-04). "Nguyens keeping up with the Joneses". Melbourne. Retrieved 2006-09-09.
  82. Melbourne City Council. "City of Melbourne – Multicultural Communities – Vietnamese". Archived from the original on 2006-10-04. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
  83. https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/2018-census-totals-by-topic-national-highlights
  84. "Story: Vietnamese: Page 1-Migration". Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  85. "Census Profile, 2016 Census Canada [Country] and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. November 29, 2017. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  86. Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland – Startseite. Destatis.de (2008-10-20). Retrieved on 2011-05-30.
  87. Süddeutsche: Vietnamesen in Deutschland: "Nur Bildung führt weg vom Reisfeld"
  88. Bernd Wolf (2007): The Vietnamese diaspora in Germany; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit
  89. Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  90. "Foreigners by type of residence, sex and citizenship" (PDF). Czech Statistics Office. 31 October 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-01.
  91. Miroslav Nozina, The Dragon & the Lion: Vietnamese Organized Crime in the Czech Republic, Think Magazine
  92. "Nguyen je devátým nejčastějším příjmením v Česku, poráží i Procházky" (in Czech). idnes.cz. June 8, 2011.
  93. Malcolm Dick. "Vietnamese people in Birmingham". Archived from the original on 2007-06-30. Retrieved 2007-11-27.
  94. https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/3962556
  95. https://abcnews.go.com/International/6000-mile-journey-scores-vietnamese-migrants-smuggled-trafficked/story?id=67318722
  96. Silverstone, Daniel; Savage, Stephen (2010). "Farmers, factories and funds: Organised crime and illicit drugs cultivation within the British Vietnamese community". Global Crime. 11: 16–33. doi:10.1080/17440570903475683. S2CID   144827119.
  97. https://www.france-terre-asile.org/images/stories/publications/pdf/En_route_to_the_United_Kingdom_-_a_field_survey_of_vietnamese_migrants.pdf
  98. https://theconversation.com/how-to-prevent-the-deaths-of-more-vietnamese-migrants-trying-to-reach-britain-125989
  99. "Wietnamczyk w postkomunistycznej Europie" [Vietnamese in post-communist Europe]. rp.pl (in Polish). 2008-11-23. Retrieved 2011-05-30.
  100. Nowicka, Ewa (26 January 2015). "Young Vietnamese generation in Poland: caught between a rock and a hard place" (PDF). Przegląd Zachodni. 2004 (II): 215–239. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-28. Retrieved 2015-09-11.
  101. 1 2 Regard sur la communauté vietnamienne en Belgique (in French)
  102. Население по национальности и владению русским языком по субъектам Российской Федерации (Microsoft Excel) (in Russian). Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Retrieved 2006-12-01.
  103. "Cộng đồng người Việt Nam ở nước ngoài" (in Vietnamese). Quê Hương. 2005-03-09. Archived from the original on 2006-12-24. Retrieved 2007-02-22.
  104. Blagov, Sergei (2000-02-08). "Russian rhetoric fails to boost business". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 2000-09-25. Retrieved 2007-02-22.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  105. Anbjørg Bakken (June 20, 2006). "Flittigere enn gutta". Aftenposten . Retrieved 2007-03-23.
  106. CBS 2010
  107. Кръстева, Анна; Евгения Мицева; et al. (2005). "Виетнамци". Имиграцията в България (PDF). София: IMIR. ISBN   954-8872-56-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-19.
  108. Терзиев, Светослав (2008-04-21). "Виетнамците идат— помним ли ги?" (in Bulgarian). Сега. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2008-08-31.
  109. Nguyen, Nhu (1999). The Reality: Vietnamese Migrant Workers in South Korea. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Mobility Research and Support Center.
  110. Onishi, Norimitsu (2007-02-21). "Marriage brokers in Vietnam cater to S. Korean bachelors". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2007-03-27.
  111. Yi Hun-beom (2007-08-20), "당신의 몸에도 다른 피가 흐른다", JoongAng Ilbo, archived from the original on 2011-07-13, retrieved 2010-01-14
  112. Last Vietnamese boat refugee leaves Malaysia, 30 August 2005, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, retrieved 17 September 2013
  113. K. P. Waran (20 October 1996). "Malaysia offers help in some areas". New Straits Times . Retrieved 27 February 2014.
  114. "Vietnamese in Taiwan fear an anti-Vietnam backlash may soon ensue". FTV News. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  115. Quang, Hanh (2005-08-23). "VN-Taiwan discuss brides' rights in illegally-made matches". Vietnamnet Bridge. Vietnam News Agency. Archived from the original on 2007-12-31. Retrieved 2008-01-23.
  116. "法務省:【在留外国人統計(旧登録外国人統計)統計表】".
  117. "Vietnamese community becomes 3rd largest foreign group in Japan | Society | Vietnam+ (VietnamPlus)". 2019-10-27. Archived from the original on 2019-10-27. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  118. Tran, My-Van (2005). A Vietnamese Royal Exile in Japan: Prince Cuong De (1882–1951). Routledge. pp. 3–5, 41–47. ISBN   0-415-29716-8.
  119. Shingaki, Masami; Shinichi Asano (2003). "The lifestyles and ethnic identity of Vietnamese youth residing in Japan". In Roger Goodman (ed.). Global Japan: The Experience of Japan's New Immigrant and Overseas Communities. Routledge. pp. 165–176. ISBN   0415297419.
  120. Anh, Dang Nguyen (2003). "Labour Emigration and Emigration Pressures in Transitional Vietnam". In Robyn R. Iredale (ed.). Migration in the Asia Pacific: Population, Settlement and Citizenship Issues. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 169–180. ISBN   1840648600.
  121. "Cộng đồng người Việt tại Lào mừng lễ Vu Lan [Vietnamese community in Laos celebrates Ghost Festival]". Voice of Vietnam. 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
  122. "Major Figures on Residents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and Foreigners Covered by 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. April 29, 2011. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
  123. Where are Israel's Vietnamese refugees
  124. "Vietnamese Boat People in the Promised Land". aishcom.
  125. 1 2 Andrew Hardy (2004). "Internal transnationalism and the formation of the Vietnamese diaspora". In Brenda S. A. Yeoh and Katie Willis (ed.). State/nation/transnation: perspectives on transnationalism in the Asia-Pacific. Routeledge. pp. 231–234. ISBN   0-415-30279-X.
  126. 1 2 Ashley Carruthers (2007). "Vietnamese Language and Media Policy in the Service of Deterritorialized Nation-Building". In Hock Guan Lee and Leo Suryadinata (ed.). Language, nation and development in Southeast Asia. ISEAS Publishing. p. 196. ISBN   978-981-230-482-7.
  127. Phan, Peter C. (2000). "Vietnamese Catholics in the United States: Christian Identity between the Old and the New". U.S. Catholic Historian. 18 (1): 19–35. JSTOR   25154702.
  128. https://www.christiancentury.org/article/2013-01/vietnamese-diaspora
  129. Ninh, Thien-Huong T. (2017). Race, Gender, and Religion in the Vietnamese Diaspora. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-57168-3. ISBN   978-3-319-57167-6.
  130. Knoll, Corina (2011-07-24). "Vietnamese Americans have mixed feelings about ex-leader's death". Los Angeles Times.
  131. "History". Highlands Coffee. Archived from the original on 2010-07-27. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
  132. Mike Anton (June 19, 2007). "Rumored visit has Little Saigon abuzz". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 27, 2010. Retrieved 2007-06-20.
  133. Deepa Bharath, Mary Ann Milbourn and Norberto Santana Jr. (June 22, 2007). "Making their voices heard". Orange County Register. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-24.
  134. Jeanette Steele (June 24, 2007). "Vietnam president's visit sparks protest". San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on June 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-24.
  135. https://vietnamnet.vn/vn/tuanvietnam/nguoi-viet-doan-ket-trong-nha-ghet-nhau-ngoai-ngo-279206.html
  136. https://www.voatiengviet.com/a/nguoi-viet-hai-ngoai-phan-ung-truoc-loi-keu-goi-dong-gop-/4911807.html?nocache=1&fbclid=IwAR3bTkfLflHuUI-uraieANCtflErv-y8UytstORPs7JQvro0LUvlGCsO0iA
  137. https://www.duhidoday.com/2019/02/03/nhung-viet-kieu-xau-tinh/
  138. https://basamnguyenhuuvinh.wordpress.com/2020/08/28/1385-mot-cu-tri-my-goc-viet-duoc-melania-trump-cam-hoa/
  139. https://theconversation.com/why-some-vietnamese-americans-support-donald-trump-143978
  140. https://e.vnexpress.net/news/news/skepticism-abounds-as-us-envoy-assures-vietnam-of-trump-administration-s-commitment-3604067.html
  141. http://aapidata.com/blog/2020-fav-caprimary/
  142. Nguyen, Viet Thanh. "Perspective | There's a reason the South Vietnamese flag flew during the Capitol riot". Washington Post. ISSN   0190-8286 . Retrieved 2021-03-11.