Overseas province

Last updated

Overseas province (Portuguese : província ultramarina) was a designation used by Portugal to describe its non-continental holdings.

Contents

History

In the early the 19th century, Portuguese overseas territories were referred to as "overseas dominions", but administrative reforms made the term "overseas provinces" begin to be used. That was in keeping with the idea of pluricontinentalism, or the idea that Portugal existed as a transcontinental country and that its territories were integral to the Portuguese state. Overseas possessions had already been seen as an element of Portuguese identity.

By the 20th century, most of these territories were referred to as "colonies", but the term "overseas province" continued to be used as well.

The name was made official in 1951 by António de Oliveira Salazar during his Estado Novo regime to retain the remaining colonies and to appease anticolonial demands from the United Nations. [1] The following territories were then reclassified:

The classification lasted until the 1974 Carnation Revolution, which lead to the fall of the Estado Novo regime, the rapid decolonisation of Portuguese Africa and the annexation of Portuguese Timor by Indonesia. [2] [3] The remaining overseas provinces of the Azores and Madeira later had their constitutional status changed to autonomous regions.

In 1976, the territory of Macau became known as a "Chinese territory under Portuguese administration" and was granted more administrative, financial and economic autonomy. Three years later, Portugal and China agreed rename Macau once again to as "a Chinese territory under (temporary) Portuguese administration. That classification lasted until the Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau and transfer of sovereignty of Macau from Portugal to the People's Republic of China in 1999.

See also

Related Research Articles

Colony Territory governed by another country

In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the metropolitan state . This administrative colonial separation makes colonies neither incorporated territories, nor client states. Some colonies have been organized either as dependent territories that are not sufficiently self-governed, or as self-governed colonies controlled by colonial settlers.

Portuguese Mozambique 1498–1975 Portuguese possession in East Africa

Portuguese Mozambique or Portuguese East Africa was the common terms by which Mozambique was designated during the historic period when it was a Portuguese colony. Portuguese Mozambique originally constituted a string of Portuguese possessions along the south-east African coast, and later became a unified colony, which now forms the Republic of Mozambique.

A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, governor may be the title of a politician who governs a constituent state and may be either appointed or elected. The power of the individual governor can vary dramatically between political systems, with some governors having only nominal or largely ceremonial power, with others having complete control over the entire government.

Portuguese Empire Colonial empire of Portugal (1415-1999)

The Portuguese Empire, also known as the Portuguese Overseas or the Portuguese Colonial Empire, was composed of the overseas colonies and territories governed by Portugal. One of the longest-lived empires in world history, it existed for almost six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415, to the handover of Portuguese Macau to China in 1999. The empire began in the 15th century, and from the early 16th century it stretched across the globe, with bases in North and South America, Africa, and various regions of Asia and Oceania.

Carnation Revolution Revolution in Portugal and its colonies

The Carnation Revolution, also known as the 25 April, was initially a 25 April 1974 military coup in Lisbon which overthrew the authoritarian Estado Novo regime. The revolution began as a coup organised by the Armed Forces Movement, composed of military officers who opposed the regime, but it was soon coupled with an unanticipated, popular civil resistance campaign. The revolution led to the fall of the Estado Novo, terminated the Portuguese Colonial War, and started a revolutionary process that would result in a democratic Portugal.

Administrative divisions of Portugal Overview of the administrative divisions of Portugal

Administratively, Portugal is de jure unitary and decentralized state. Nonetheless, operationally, it is a highly centralized system with administrative divisions organized into three tiers. The State is organized under the principles of subsidiarity, local government autonomy, and democratic decentralization of the public service.

Marcello Caetano Portuguese politician

Marcello José das Neves Alves Caetano was a Portuguese politician and scholar. He was the last prime minister of the Estado Novo regime in Portugal from 1968 to 1974, when he was overthrown during the Carnation Revolution.

<i>Estado Novo</i> (Portugal) 1933-1974 authoritarian regime in Portugal

The Second Portuguese Republic, or more commonly known as Estado Novo, was the corporatist regime installed in Portugal in 1933. It evolved from the Ditadura Nacional formed after the coup d'état of 28 May 1926 against the democratic and unstable First Republic. Together, the Ditadura Nacional and the Estado Novo are recognised by historians as the Second Portuguese Republic. The Estado Novo, greatly inspired by conservative and autocratic ideologies, was developed by António de Oliveira Salazar, who was President of the Council of Ministers from 1932 until illness forced him out of office in 1968.

Angolan War of Independence 1961-1974 conflict for independence of colonial Angola from Portugal

The Angolan War of Independence, called in Angola the Luta Armada de Libertação Nacional, began as an uprising against forced cultivation of cotton, and it became a multi-faction struggle for the control of Portugal's overseas province of Angola among three nationalist movements and a separatist movement. The war ended when a leftist military coup in Lisbon in April 1974 overthrew Portugal's Estado Novo dictatorship, and the new regime immediately stopped all military action in the African colonies, declaring its intention to grant them independence without delay.

Portuguese Colonial War 1961–1974 armed conflicts in Africa between Portugal and independence movements

The Portuguese Colonial War, also known in Portugal as the Overseas War or in the former colonies as the War of Liberation, and also known as the Angolan, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambican War of Independence, was a thirteen year long conflict fought between Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal's African colonies between 1961 and 1974. The Portuguese ultra-conservative regime at the time, the Estado Novo, was overthrown by a military coup in 1974, and the change in government brought the conflict to an end. The war was a decisive ideological struggle in Lusophone Africa, surrounding nations, and mainland Portugal.

Processo Revolucionário Em Curso period of Portuguese history

The Processo Revolucionário Em Curso (PREC) was the period during the Portuguese transition to democracy, which started after a failed right-wing coup d'état on 11 March 1975, and ended after a failed left-wing coup d'état on 25 November 1975. This far-left politics, labor movement-inspired period was marked by political turmoil, right-wing and left-wing violence, instability, the nationalization of companies and forcible occupation and expropriation of private lands.

Evolution of the Portuguese Empire

This article is a comprehensive list of all the actual possessions of the Portuguese Empire.

Lusotropicalism was first used by Brazilian sociologist Gilberto Freyre to describe the distinctive character of Portuguese imperialism overseas, proposing that the Portuguese were better colonizers than other European nations.

Afro-Portuguese, African-Portuguese, or Black Portuguese are Portuguese citizens or residents of Portugal with total or partial ancestry from any of the Sub-Saharan ethnic groups of Africa. Most of those perceived as Afro-Portuguese trace their ancestry to former Portuguese overseas colonies in Africa.

The provincial organization of volunteers and civil defence or OPVDC was a former militia type force in each of the Portuguese Overseas provinces. There were three such organizations raised by the Portuguese Government in their overseas provinces of Portuguese Angola, Portuguese Mozambique and Portuguese Timor.

Provinces of Portugal Overview of the provinces of Portugal

The term "provinces" has been used throughout history to identify regions of continental Portugal. Current legal subdivisions of Portugal do not coincide with the provinces, but several provinces, in their 19th- and 20th-century versions, still correspond to culturally relevant, strongly self-identifying categories. They include:

The decolonization of Asia was the gradual growth of independence movements in Asia, leading ultimately to the retreat of foreign powers and the creation of a number of nation-states in the region. A number of events were catalysts for this shift, most importantly the Second World War. Prior to World War II, some countries had already proclaimed independence.

Portuguese Angola 1575–1975 Portuguese possession in West Africa

Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa. In the same context, it was known until 1951 as Portuguese West Africa.

Pluricontinentalism idea that the colonial Portuguese Empire was a single transcontinental nation-state

Pluricontinentalism was a geopolitical concept, positing that Portugal was a transcontinental country and a unitary nation-state consisting of continental Portugal and its overseas provinces.

Luso-Asians are people whose ethnicity is partially or wholly Portuguese and ancestrally are based in or hail primarily from Portugal and Asia. They historically came under the cultural and multi-ethnic sway of the Portuguese Empire and retain aspects of the Portuguese language, Roman Catholic faith, and cultural practices, including internal and external architecture, art, and cuisine that reflect this contact. The term Luso comes from the Roman province Lusitania, roughly corresponding to modern Portugal.

References

  1. G. J. Bender (1978), Angola Under the Portuguese: The Myth and the Reality, Berkeley, University of California Press p.xx. ISBN   0-520-03221-7
  2. "1974: Rebels seize control of Portugal", On This Day, 25 April, BBC, 25 April 1974, retrieved 10 March 2018
  3. "1975: Indonesia invades East Timor", This Day in History, History (U.S. TV network), 7 December 2010, retrieved 10 March 2018