Overthrow of Slobodan Milošević

Last updated
Overthrow of Slobodan Milošević
Date29 September – 5 October 2000 (2000-09-29 2000-10-05)
(6 days)
Location
Caused by
Goals
Methods Demonstrations, riot, civil disobedience, civil resistance, occupation of administrative buildings
Resulted inDOS victory;
Parties to the civil conflict

Anti-government protesters

Opposition parties:

Others:

Lead figures
Number
Hundreds of thousands [9]
Unknown number of policemen
Casualties
Death(s)2 (non-violent) [9]
Injuries65 [9]

The overthrow of Slobodan Milošević occurred on 5 October 2000, in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, following the presidential election on 24 September, and culminating in the downfall of Slobodan Milošević's government on 5 October 2000. It is sometimes referred to as the 5 October Overthrow (Serbian : Петооктобарска револуција, Petooktobarska revolucija, "The October 5 Revolution") and sometimes colloquially called the Bager revolucija, translated into English as Bulldozer Revolution, after one of the most memorable episodes from the day-long protest in which an engineering vehicle operator charged the RTS building, which was considered to be symbolic of the Milošević regime's propaganda.

Belgrade City in Serbia

Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkan Peninsula. The urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within its administrative limits.

Serbia and Montenegro former European state from 2003 to 2006 (named Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until February 2003)

Serbia and Montenegro, also known as the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, and also known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1992 to 2003, was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992. The republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation in 1992 as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or Yugoslavia for short.

Slobodan Milošević Yugoslavian and Serbian politician

Slobodan Milošević was a Yugoslav politician who served as the President of Serbia from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000. He led the Socialist Party of Serbia from its foundation in 1990 and rose to power as Serbian President during efforts to reform the 1974 Constitution of Yugoslavia in response to the marginalization of Serbia and its political incapacity to deter Albanian separatist unrest in the Serbian province of Kosovo.

Contents

Prelude

Milošević's overthrow was reported as a spontaneous revolution. However, there had been a year-long battle involving thousands of Serbs in a strategy to strip the leader of his legitimacy, turn his security forces against him, and force him to call for elections, the result of which he would not acknowledge. [10]

In 1998, a dozen students met to form Otpor! (Serbian for "resistance"). Analysing the mistakes of the 1996–97 protests, they realised they needed a more effective organisation (strategy, planning, recruiting) and all else necessary for a sustained fight. Galvanised by outrage over new laws that imposed political control of their universities and harassment of independent media, the Otpor students called for the removal of Milošević and the establishment of democracy and the rule of law. [10]

Otpor! former Serbian civic movement and political party

Otpor! was a political organization in Serbia from 1998 until 2004.

1996–97 protests in Serbia late–1996 and early–1997 unrest in Serbia, Yugoslavia

In the winter of 1996-1997, university students and Serbian opposition parties organized a series of peaceful protests in the Republic of Serbia in response to electoral fraud attempted by the Socialist Party of Serbia of President Slobodan Milošević after the 1996 local elections.

Prior to this, Milošević was cracking down on opposition, non-government organisations and independent media. From 1991 onwards there were campaigns of civil resistance against his administration that were to culminate in the largely non-violent revolution of October 2000. [11] As the end of his first term in office of the president of Yugoslavia approached (previously, he had been elected president of Serbia, in two terms, from 1989 to 1997), on 6 July 2000, the rules of the election of the president were changed. Whilst the president of Yugoslavia had previously been chosen for one term only by the legislature, in the Yugoslav parliament, it was now to be directly elected via the two-round voting system of presidential elections with a maximum of two terms. Many onlookers believed that Milošević's intentions for supporting such reforms had more to do with holding power than with improving democracy. [12] On 27 July 2000, the authorities announced that the early elections were to be held 24 September 2000, although Milošević's term wouldn't expire until June 2001. The elections for the upper house of the federal parliament, Council of Citizens (Veće građana), as well as the local elections were also scheduled to be held on the same date.

Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime. Civil resistance operates through appeals to the adversary, pressure and coercion: it can involve systematic attempts to undermine the adversary's sources of power, both domestic and international. Forms of action have included demonstrations, vigils and petitions; strikes, go-slows, boycotts and emigration movements; and sit-ins, occupations, and the creation of parallel institutions of government. Civil resistance movements' motivations for avoiding violence are generally related to context, including a society's values and its experience of war and violence, rather than to any absolute ethical principle. Cases of civil resistance can be found throughout history and in many modern struggles, against both tyrannical rulers and democratically elected governments. The phenomenon of civil resistance is often associated with the advancement of democracy.

President of Serbia head of state of the Republic of Serbia

The President of Serbia, officially styled as the President of the Republic, is the head of state of Serbia.

Two-round system voting system used to elect a single winner where a second round of voting is used if no candidate wins an absolute majority in the first round

The two-round system is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate. However, if no candidate receives the required number of votes, then those candidates having less than a certain proportion of the votes, or all but the two candidates receiving the most votes, are eliminated, and a second round of voting is held.

On 25 August 2000, Ivan Stambolić, a former mentor and big political ally of Milošević, was mysteriously kidnapped and detained from his home and was summarily executed in Fruška Gora. The hit was believed to have been initiated by Milošević so he could prevent Stambolić from being a potential electoral opponent. His decomposed body was found three years later in March 2003. [13] [14] The four officers who had kidnapped him were sentenced. Milošević was charged for initiating the assassination. [15] [16]

Ivan Stambolić President of Serbia

Ivan Stambolić was a Serbian politician. He was a prominent official of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia and the President of the Presidency of Serbia in the 1980s.

Fruška Gora

Fruška Gora is a mountain in north Srem. Most of it is in Syrmia, Serbia, but a small part on its western side overlaps into Croatia. Sometimes it is also referred to as jewel of Serbia due to its beautiful landscape protection area, nature and its picturesque countryside.

Soon after the announcement, the anti-government youth movement Otpor! led the campaign to topple the administration and introduce a transparent democracy. To unify opposition, eighteen parties in Serbia formed the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition, with Vojislav Koštunica as the candidate to confront Milošević. Apart from this, two major opposition parties, Serbian Radical Party and Serbian Renewal Movement also had candidates (Tomislav Nikolić and Vojislav Mihailović, respectively), but the main battle of the elections was the one between Milošević and Koštunica. The election campaign lasted for about two months and was extremely tense, with numerous incidents, accusations of treason, independent media shutdowns and even murders.

Democratic Opposition of Serbia political party

The Democratic Opposition of Serbia, commonly referred to as DOS, was a wide alliance of political parties in Serbia, intent on ousting the ruling Socialist Party and its leader, Slobodan Milošević. Its presidential candidate, Vojislav Koštunica, defeated Milošević in the 2000 general election, while the DOS secured a majority of seats in the National Assembly. The coalition was able to form a government and selected Zoran Đinđić for Prime Minister.

Vojislav Koštunica Serbian politician

Vojislav Koštunica is a former Serbian politician. He was the last president of Yugoslavia from 2000 to 2003, and the prime minister of Serbia in two terms.

Serbian Radical Party Serbian political party

The Serbian Radical Party is a nationalist political party in Serbia. The party was founded in 1991 by paramilitary leader Vojislav Šešelj. In 2018, Šešelj was convicted of crimes against humanity by the International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY).

For a year leading up to the elections, the United States funded consultants played a crucial role in the anti-Milošević campaign. [17] The key symbol of the campaign was the slogan Gotov je! (Serbian Cyrillic : Готов је!, meaning "He is finished!"), created by Otpor!. Part of the U.S. funding of the opposition (a reported $41 million) included 2.5 million stickers with the slogan and 5,000 spray cans for anti-Milošević graffiti. [17] Material was channeled by the U.S. Department of State through QUANGOs. [18] [19] [20]

Elections

The vote took place on 24 September 2000. The DOS coalition reported that Vojislav Koštunica won over half of the votes, enough to defeat Milošević in a single round. The government-controlled Federal Electoral Committee claimed that no candidate won over 50% of the votes and that a second round between Koštunica and Milošević would take place. The vote was largely boycotted in Montenegro and by Kosovo Albanians. Yet, Milošević officially won by a large margin in these parts of the country. These unexpected results provoked stronger accusations of election fraud and led DOS to call for peaceful protests to topple the government.

Some obvious irregularities could be found in the Federal Electoral Committee official results. For example, the sum of the numbers of valid and invalid votes was not equal to the number of voters; the sum of the numbers of the voters voting at the polling stations and the voters voting at home exceeded the total number of voters; the sum of the numbers of the used and the unused ballot papers was short by 117,244 in comparison to the number of eligible voters, the number of eligible voters was different from the one announced before the elections and has differed in the presidential, federal and local elections results, etc. [21] [ specify ]

All of these discrepancies provoked massive outrage. The results were declared false immediately after Milošević was removed, and revised official results were released shortly afterwards. The new results were practically the same, except for the number of total votes and the votes for Milošević, both of which were lower by 125,000–130,000 votes, thus giving Koštunica an absolute, if narrow, first-round victory; Koštunica finished with just a few thousand votes over the threshold to avoid a runoff.

Differences between the official results proclaimed by Federal Electoral Committee before and after 5 October
Official results (28 September 2000) [22] Official results (10 October 2000) [23]
CandidateNominatorVotes%Votes%
Vojislav Koštunica Democratic Opposition of Serbia 2,474,39248.962,470,30450.24
Slobodan Milošević Socialist Party of Serbia 1,951,76138.621,826,79937.15
Tomislav Nikolić Serbian Radical Party 292,7595.79289,0135.88
Vojislav Mihailović Serbian Renewal Movement 146,5852.90145,0192.95
Miodrag VidojkovićAffirmative Party46,4210.9245,9640.93
Total valid votes (percentage of total votes)4,911,91897.204,778,92997.19
Invalid votes (percentage of total votes)135,3712.68137,9912.81
Total votes (turnout)5,053,42869.704,916,92071.55
Eligible voters7,249,831/6,871,595/

Protests and the overthrow

Map of significant buildings during the protests 5. oktobar mapa.png
Map of significant buildings during the protests

The protest initially started with strikers at the Kolubara mines on 29 September, which produced most of Serbia's electricity [24] . The protest reached its height on 5 October 2000. Several hundred thousand protesters from all over Serbia arrived in Belgrade to protest, chanting "He's finished! He's finished!" [25] [26] [27] Unlike previous protests, there was no large scale police crackdown. The parliament was partially burned during the protests.[ citation needed ]

The protest is frequently named the "Bulldozer Revolution" after one of the most memorable episodes from the day-long protest in which an engineering vehicle operator Ljubisav Đokić nicknamed Joe fired up his engine (actually neither an excavator nor bulldozer but a wheel loader, the event name is inaccurate out of convenience) and used it to charge a Belgrade building. [a] Its tenant, Serbian state television RTS, had for a decade been a symbol and bastion of Milošević's rule. When their studios were taken over, the station was quickly renamed Novi RTS ("New RTS") as a sign that the regime had lost power.[ citation needed ]

Although the protest was mostly peaceful, without a larger escalation of violence, two people died. Jasmina Jovanović fell under a wheel loader [28] or, according to other sources, a truck, [9] and Momčilo Stakić succumbed to a fatal heart attack. [29] 65 persons were injured in the riots. [9]

In the time between elections and the protest, Milošević said that he would gladly resign but only when his term expired in June 2001. Due to pressure caused by the protests, Milošević resigned on 7 October 2000.[ citation needed ]

Aftermath

A DOS victory was guaranteed in parliamentary elections in December, where they achieved a two-thirds majority. On 1 April 2001, Milošević was detained by Serbian police and later transferred to The Hague to be prosecuted by the ICTY. He died in his cell on 11 March 2006, a few months before the conclusion of his four-year trial. [30] [31]

See also

Annotations

  1. ^ Ljubisav Đokić (Serbian Cyrillic: Љубисав Ђокић; nicknamed "Džo" ("Џо"), the Serbian phonetical translation of Joe; born November 27, 1943) is a wheel loader operator who became the main symbol of the overthrow. [32] Đokić has a spinal deformity and at the time he was a timber yard and construction material warehouse owner. Soon after the overthrow, he started opposing the new government, saying it had done almost nothing to improve the standard of the war-torn country. He even said that during Milošević's regime he was an owner of a company which operated with success, but that post-Milošević politicians made such unhealthy economic conditions, that his business failed and himself went bankrupt, even selling his iconic wheel loader and living on 180 euro social benefit. [33]

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References

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