Owens Lake

Last updated
Owens Lake
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Image of the Owens Valley from the International Space Station – oriented top = true west.
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Red pog.svg
Owens Lake
Location Sierra Nevada
Inyo County, California,
United States
Coordinates 36°26′00″N117°57′03″W / 36.4332°N 117.9509°W / 36.4332; -117.9509 Coordinates: 36°26′00″N117°57′03″W / 36.4332°N 117.9509°W / 36.4332; -117.9509
Type Flat
Primary inflows Owens River
Natural springs and wells
Basin  countriesUnited States
Max. length17.5 mi (28.2 km)
Max. width10 mi (16 km)
Max. depth3 ft (0.91 m)
Surface elevation3,556 ft (1,084 m) [1]
References GNIS feature ID 272820 [1]

Owens Lake is a mostly dry lake in the Owens Valley on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada in Inyo County, California. It is about 5 miles (8.0 km) south of Lone Pine, California. Unlike most dry lakes in the Basin and Range Province that have been dry for thousands of years, Owens held significant water until 1913, when much of the Owens River was diverted into the Los Angeles Aqueduct, causing Owens Lake to desiccate by 1926. [2] Today, some of the flow of the river has been restored, and the lake now contains some water. Nevertheless, as of 2013, it is the largest single source of dust pollution in the United States. [3]

Contents

History

Map showing the system of once-interconnected Pleistocene lakes in eastern California (USGS) California Pleistocene Lakes USGS.png
Map showing the system of once-interconnected Pleistocene lakes in eastern California (USGS)

Owens Lake was given its present name by the explorer John C. Fremont, in honor of one of his guides, Richard Owens. [4] Richard Owens however never stepped foot in the valley. The lakes original name, given by the Nüümü (Owens Valley Paiute), is Patsiata. [5]

Before the diversion of the Owens River, Owens Lake was up to 12 miles (19 km) long and 8 miles (13 km) wide, covering an area of up to 108 square miles (280 km2). In the last few hundred years the lake had an average depth of 23 to 50 feet (7.0 to 15.2 m), and sometimes overflowed to the south, after which the water would flow into the Mojave Desert. [2] In 1905, the lake's water was thought to be "excessively saline." [6] It is thought that in the late Pleistocene about 11–12,000 years ago Owens Lake was even larger, covering nearly 200 square miles (520 km2) and reaching a depth of 200 feet (61 m). The increased inflow from the Owens River, from melting glaciers of the post-Ice Age Sierra Nevada, caused Owens Lake to overflow south through Rose Valley into another now-dry lakebed China Lake, in the Indian Wells Valley near Ridgecrest, California.[ citation needed ] After the glaciers melted, the lake waters receded. This accelerated with human exploitation of the lake, even before the Los Angeles Aqueduct was built, because Owens Valley farmers had already diverted most of the Owens River's tributaries' flow, causing the lake level to drop slightly each year.

Starting in 1913, the river and streams that fed Owens Lake were diverted by Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) into the Los Angeles Aqueduct, and the lake level started to drop quickly. [7] As the lake dried, soda processing at nearby Keeler, California, switched from relatively cheap chemical methods to more expensive physical ones. The Natural Soda Products Company sued the city of Los Angeles and built a new plant with a $15,000 settlement. A fire destroyed this plant shortly after it was built, but the company rebuilt it on the dry lakebed in the 1920s.

During the unusually wet winter of 1937, LADWP diverted water from the aqueduct into the lakebed, flooding the soda plant. Because of this, the courts ordered the city to pay $154,000. After an unsuccessful appeal to the state supreme court in 1941, LADWP built the Long Valley Dam, which impounded Lake Crowley for flood control. [7]

Conditions

Owens Lake from the Horseshoe Meadows Road Owens-Lake-from-Horseshoe-Meadows-Road.jpg
Owens Lake from the Horseshoe Meadows Road

The lake is currently a large salt flat whose surface is made of a mixture of clay, sand, and a variety of minerals including halite, burkeite, mirabilite, thenardite, and trona. In wet years, these minerals form a chemical soup in the form of a small brine pond within the dry lake. When conditions are right, bright pink halophilic (salt-loving) archaea spread across the salty lakebed. Also, on especially hot summer days when ground temperatures exceed 150° F (66 °C), water is driven out of the hydrates on the lakebed creating a muddy brine. More commonly, periodic winds stir up noxious alkali dust storms that carry away as much as four million tons (3.6 million metric tons) of dust from the lakebed each year, causing respiratory problems in nearby residents. [7] [8] The dust includes carcinogens, such as cadmium, nickel and arsenic. [9]

Management

Alkali dust storm at Owens Lake Blowing-alkali-dust-Owens-Lake.jpg
Alkali dust storm at Owens Lake

The LADWP and the California State Lands Commission own most of the Owens Lake bed, though a few small parcels along the historic western shoreline are privately owned. [10] In 2004, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) acquired a 218-acre (88 ha) parcel at the foot of Owens Lake. Designated the Cartago Wildlife Area in 2007, it is one of the few remaining spring and wetland areas on the shore of Owens Lake. [11] CDFW is using mitigation funds from CalTrans to enhance habitat.[ citation needed ]

As part of an air quality mitigation settlement, LADWP is currently shallow flooding 27 square miles (69.9 km2) of the salt pan to try to help minimize alkali dust storms and further adverse health effects. There is also about 3.5 square miles (9.1 km2) of managed vegetation being used as a dust control measure. The vegetation consists of saltgrass, which is a native perennial grass highly tolerant of the salt and boron levels in the lake sediments. [12] Gravel covers are also used. [13]

Ecology

This astronaut photograph highlights the mostly dry bed of Owens Lake. Owens Lake, California.JPG
This astronaut photograph highlights the mostly dry bed of Owens Lake.

This once-blue saline lake was an important feeding and resting stop for millions of waterfowl each year. During a visit to Owens Lake in 1917 Joseph Grinnell from the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology in Berkeley reported "Great numbers of water birds are in sight along the lake shore--avocets, phalaropes, ducks. Large flocks of shorebirds in flight over the water in the distance, wheeling about show in mass, now silvery now dark, against the gray-blue of the water. There must be literally thousands of birds within sight of this one spot."[ citation needed ]

Owens Lake is still recognized as an Important Bird Area in California by the National Audubon Society. [10] At the shore, a chain of wetlands, fed by springs and artesian wells, keep part of the former Owens Lake ecosystem alive. Snowy plovers nest at Owens along with several thousand snow geese and ducks. As a result of current dust mitigation efforts, shallow flooding of the lakebed has created both shallow and deeper (about 3 feet (0.9 m) deep) habitats on the lakebed. [14] This water, although seasonally applied, is helping to buoy the lake's ecosystem causing hope in conservationists that an expanded shallow flooding program could do even more. There are no serious plans, however, to restore Owens to anything resembling a conventional lake. [7]

On April 19, 2008, the Eastern Sierra Audubon Society, Audubon California, and the Owens Valley Committee held the first lake-wide survey of the bird populations of Owens Lake. Volunteers recorded a total of 112 avian species and 45,650 individual birds — the highest total number of birds ever officially recorded at Owens Lake. Volunteers identified 15 species of waterfowl (ducks and geese) and 22 species of shorebirds. The highest totals for individuals of a species included 13,873 California gulls (an inland nester at Mono Lake and elsewhere); 9,218 American avocets; 1,767 eared grebes; 13,826 peeps or small sandpipers such as dunlin, western and least sandpipers; and 2,882 individual ducks. [12]

Local industry

Cerro Gordo Mines

The remains of the Cottonwood Charcoal Kilns. Cottonwood Charcoal Kilns.jpg
The remains of the Cottonwood Charcoal Kilns.

The town of Cartago, below the Sierra Nevada near present-day Olancha, California, was the western shipping port for the Cerro Gordo Mines production and transported goods across Owens Lake with the northern ports of Swansea and Keeler directly below the mines. From Cartago a barge-like vessel, the Bessie Brady, was launched in 1872, which cut the three-day freight journey around the lake down to three hours. [15]

Much of the freight it carried was silver and lead bullion from the Cerro Gordo mines, which at their height were so productive that the bars of the refined metals waited in large stacks before twenty-mule team teamsters could haul it to Los Angeles. The trying three-week (one way) journey improved after the formation of the Cerro Gordo Freighting Company, run by ancestors of regional historian Remi Nadeau who has written of this period.

The town of Keeler, below the Inyo Mountains on the former north shore, replaced Swansea as the shipping port for the mines after the 1872 Lone Pine earthquake. In the 1870s it had a population of 5,000 people as the center of trade for the Cerro Gordo mines.

The Cottonwood Charcoal Kilns, traditional stone masonry 'beehive' charcoal kilns, were built to transform wood from trees in Cottonwood Canyon above the lake into charcoal, to feed the Cerro Gordo mines' silver and lead smelters across the lake at Swansea. The ruins are located on the southern side of the lakebed near Cartago. They were similar to the nearby Panamint Charcoal Kilns near Death Valley. The kilns are identified as California Historical Landmark #537. [16]

Other enterprises

In 1879 silver mining ended, but Keeler was saved when the Carson and Colorado Railroad built narrow-gauge rail tracks to the town. It then became a soda, salt, and marble shipping center until 1960. The rail line had been sold to Southern Pacific Railroad in 1900. Keeler's current population is around 50 people and continues in decline.

In the 20th century the Clark Chemical Company operated on the northwestern shore at Bartlett, with evaporation ponds for lake brine and a plant to extract its chemicals.

Mineral extraction plants around the lake: [17]

  • Inyo Development Company, 1887-1920
  • Natural Soda Products Company/Michigan Alkali Company/Wyandotte Chemical Corporation, 1912-1953
  • California Alkali Company/Inyo Chemical Company, 1917-1932
  • Pacific Alkali/Columbia-Southern Chemical Corp./Pittsburgh Plate Glass, 1928-1968
  • Permanente Metals Corporation, 1947-1950
  • Morrison and Weatherly Chemical Corporation (M&W)/Lake Minerals Corporation (LMC)/Cominco American Inc./Owens Lake Soda Ash Company (OLSAC)/U.S. Borax/Rio Tinto Minerals, 1962–present. Rio Tinto Minerals has mineral lease renewals through 2048. [18]

Filmography

Numerous Western films have been shot by Owens Lake, including Westward Ho (1935), Maverick (1994), Riders of the Dawn (1937), Across the Plains (1939), Stage to Tucson (1951), From Hell to Texas (1958) and Nevada Smith (1966). [19]

Other films that had scenes shot at Owens Lake or the nearby Alabama Hills where Owens Lake is visible includes Top Gun (1986), and Tremors (1990). [20]

Public access

The Cartago Wildlife Area continues to develop as a wildlife-viewing area for the public. The site is open year-round for viewing numerous bird species attracted to the ponds and wetlands as well as the ruins of a historic soda ash plant from the World War I era and the 1920s. [12]

A view of the Sierra Nevada mountains and surroundings from Earth orbit, taken on the STS-51-F mission in 1985. Owens Lake is in the lower right, with a reddish tint. Isabella lake STS51F-42-34.jpg
A view of the Sierra Nevada mountains and surroundings from Earth orbit, taken on the STS-51-F mission in 1985. Owens Lake is in the lower right, with a reddish tint.

Surroundings from Earth orbit

See also

Related Research Articles

Inyo County, California County in California, United States

Inyo County is a county in the eastern central part of California, located between the Sierra Nevada mountains and the state of Nevada. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,546. The county seat is Independence.

Keeler, California census-designated place in California, United States

Keeler, formerly known as Hawley is a census-designated place (CDP) in Inyo County, California, United States. Keeler is located on the east shore of Owens Lake 11.5 miles (19 km) south-southeast of New York Butte, at an elevation of 3602 feet. The population was 66 people at the 2010 census, unchanged from the 2000 census.

Owens Valley Valley in California, United States

Owens Valley is an arid valley of the Owens River in eastern California in the United States. It is located to the east of the Sierra Nevada, west of the White Mountains and Inyo Mountains, and north of the Mojave Desert. It sits on the west edge of the Great Basin. The mountain peaks on either side reach above 14,000 feet (4,300 m) in elevation, while the floor of the Owens Valley is about 4,000 feet (1,200 m), making the valley the deepest in the United States. The Sierra Nevada casts the valley in a rain shadow, which makes Owens Valley "the Land of Little Rain." The bed of Owens Lake, now a predominantly dry endorheic alkali flat, sits on the southern end of the valley.

California water wars series of political conflicts between the city of Los Angeles and farmers and ranchers in the Owens Valley of Eastern California over water rights

The California water wars were a series of political conflicts between the city of Los Angeles and farmers and ranchers in the Owens Valley of Eastern California over water rights.

William Mulholland engineer and builder of the Los Angeles Aqueduct

William Mulholland was a self-taught Irish American civil engineer who was responsible for building the infrastructure to provide a water supply that allowed Los Angeles to grow into the largest city in California. As the head of a predecessor to the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, Mulholland designed and supervised the building of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, a 233-mile (375 km)-long system to move water from Owens Valley to the San Fernando Valley. The creation and operation of the aqueduct led to the disputes known as the California Water Wars. In March 1928, Mulholland's career came to an end when the St. Francis Dam failed just over 12 hours after he and his assistant gave it a safety inspection.

The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) is the largest municipal utility in the United States, serving over four million residents. It was founded in 1902 to supply water to residents and businesses in Los Angeles and surrounding communities. In 1917, it started to deliver electricity. It has been involved in a number of controversies and media portrayals over the years, including the 1928 St. Francis Dam failure and the books Water and Power and Cadillac Desert.

Los Angeles Aqueduct canal in Los Angeles County, California, United States of America

The Los Angeles Aqueduct system, comprising the Los Angeles Aqueduct and the Second Los Angeles Aqueduct, is a water conveyance system, built and operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. The Owens Valley aqueduct was designed and built by the city's water department, at the time named The Bureau of Los Angeles Aqueduct, under the supervision of the department's Chief Engineer William Mulholland. The system delivers water from the Owens River in the Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains to Los Angeles, California.

Frederick Eaton American mayor

Frederick Eaton, known as Fred Eaton, was a major individual in the transformation and expansion of Los Angeles in the latter 19th century through early 20th century, in California. Eaton was the political mastermind behind the early 20th century Los Angeles Aqueduct project, designed by William Mulholland.

Owens River river in the United States of America in California

The Owens River is a river in eastern California in the United States, approximately 183 miles (295 km) long. It drains into and through the Owens Valley, an arid basin between the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada and the western faces of the Inyo and White Mountains. The river terminates at the endorheic Owens Lake south of Lone Pine, at the bottom of a 2,600 sq mi (6,700 km2) watershed.

Swansea, California Community in California, United States

Swansea is a former settlement and unincorporated community in Inyo County, California. It is located 8.5 miles (14 km) south of New York Butte, at an elevation of 3,661 ft (1,116 m).

Mono Lake Committee non-profit organisation in the USA

The Mono Lake Committee (MLC) is an environmental organization based in Lee Vining, California in the United States. Its mission is to preserve Mono Lake, by reducing diversions of water from the Eastern Sierra watersheds by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP).

Manzanar, California Place in California, United States

Manzanar was a town in Inyo County, California, founded by water engineer and land developer George Chaffey.

Cerro Gordo Mines Place

The Cerro Gordo Mines are a collection of abandoned mines located in the Inyo Mountains, near Lone Pine, California in Inyo County, California. Mining operations were undertaken from 1866 until 1957, producing high grade silver, lead, and zinc ore. Some ore was smelted on site, but larger capacity smelters were eventually constructed along the shore of nearby Owens Lake.

Searles Valley Minerals U.S. mining and chemical company

Searles Valley Minerals Inc. is a raw materials mining and production company based in Overland Park, Kansas. It is owned by the Indian company Nirma. It has major operations in the Searles Valley and in Trona, California where it is the town's largest employer. The company produces borax, boric acid, soda ash, salt cake, and salt. It also owns the Trona Railway.

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References

Notes

  1. 1 2 U.S. Geological Survey (19 January 1981). "Feature Detail Report: Owens Lake". Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
  2. 1 2 Reheis, Marith C. (2006-04-11). "Owens (Dry) Lake, California: A Human-Induced Dust Problem". Impacts of Climate Change and Land Use in the Southwestern United States. U.S. Geological Survey . Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  3. Siegler, Kirk (2013-03-11). "Owens Valley Salty As Los Angeles Water Battle Flows Into Court". NPR.
  4. M. Morgan Estergreen (1962). Kit Carson: A Portrait in Courage. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 126–144. ISBN   978-0758117656.
  5. Indigenous Women Hike. Personal communication. Dec 28, 2019.
  6. Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Owens Lake"  . New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
  7. 1 2 3 4 "Bledsoe Collection 1908-1933, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power". Scenic Views – Owens Valley.
  8. Knudson, Tom (January 5, 2014). "Outrage in Owens Valley a century after L.A. began taking its water". Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  9. Owens Lake Valley PM10 Planning Area Screening Ecological Risk Assessment of Proposed Dust Control Measures (PDF). 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-07-28.
  10. 1 2 "National Audubon Society -> Important Bird Areas -> Site Profile". netapp.audubon.org. 2016-09-12. Retrieved 2015-07-24.
  11. "Cartago Wildlife Area". www.wildlife.ca.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-24.
  12. 1 2 3 Prather, Michael (Winter 2008). "Owens Lake is coming back to wildlife" (PDF). Rainshadow Newsletter. 4 (2). Owens Valley Committee. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2009-02-01.
  13. "History - Owens Valley, California Air Actions | Pacific Southwest | US EPA". www.epa.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-28.
  14. Sahagun, Louis (November 14, 2014) "New dust-busting method ends L.A.'s longtime feud with Owens Valley" Los Angeles Times
  15. Parsons, Dana (March 24, 1988) "Digging Up a Mythtery : Under the Floor of Owens Lake, a Fabled Silver Cache Awaits Discovery, So They Say" Los Angeles Times
  16. "California Historical Landmarks - Inyo County". California State Parks Department. State of California. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  17. "Minerals and Mining". Carson & Colorado Railway. Archived from the original on 2015-07-14.
  18. "U.S. Borax Inc. Owens Lake Operations". Owens Lake Bed Master Project. Archived from the original on 2015-10-18.
  19. Schneider, Jerry L. (2016). Western Filming Locations California Book 6. CP Entertainment Books. Page 80. ISBN   9780692722947.
  20. Lone Pine Film History Museum, http://www.lonepinefilmhistorymuseum.org/film-history

Bibliography