P

Last updated

P
P p
(See below)
P cursive.gif
Usage
Writing system Latin script
Type Alphabet ic and Logographic
Language of origin Latin language
Phonetic usage[ p ]
[ ]
[( p ) f ]
[ ]
[ b ]
/p/
Unicode valueU+0050, U+0070
Alphabetical position16
History
Development
P
Time period~-700 to present
Descendants 
 
 
 
 
 
  𐍀
Sisters Π π

П
פּ
פ
ף
ف
ܦ

پ

𐎔



Պ պ
Variations(See below)
Other
Other letters commonly used with p(x), ph

P (named pee /p/ [1] ) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Letter (alphabet) grapheme in an alphabetic system of writing

A letter is a grapheme in an alphabetic system of writing. It is a visual representation of the smallest unit of spoken sound. Letters broadly correspond to phonemes in the spoken form of the language, although there is rarely a consistent, exact correspondence between letters and phonemes.

English alphabet Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form

The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an upper- and lower-case form. The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet. The alphabet's current form originated in about the 7th century from the Latin script. Since then, various letters have been added, or removed, to give the current Modern English alphabet of 26 letters:

The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication. They are the same letters that comprise the English alphabet.

Contents

History

Phoenician
P
Archaic Greek
Pi
Greek
Pi
Cyrillic
Pe
Etruscan
P
Latin
P
PhoenicianP-01.svg GreekP-02.svg Pi uc lc.svg Cyrillic letter Pe - uppercase and lowercase.svg EtruscanP-01.svg Roman P.svg

Use in writing systems

In English orthography and most other European languages, p represents the sound /p/ .

English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.

A common digraph in English is ph, which represents the sound /f/ , and can be used to transliterate φ phi in loanwords from Greek. In German, the digraph pf is common, representing a labial affricate /pf/.

Digraph (orthography) pair of characters used to write one phoneme

A digraph or digram is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme, or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

Phi is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet.

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Most English words beginning with p are of foreign origin, primarily French, Latin, Greek, and Slavic;[ citation needed ] these languages preserve Proto-Indo-European initial *p. Native English cognates of such words often start with f, since English is a Germanic language and thus has undergone Grimm's law; a native English word with initial /p/ would reflect Proto-Indo-European initial *b, which is so rare that its existence as a phoneme is disputed.

Grimm's law is a set of statements named after Jacob Grimm and Rasmus Rask describing the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic in the 1st millennium BC. It establishes a set of regular correspondences between early Germanic stops and fricatives and the stop consonants of certain other centum Indo-European languages.

A phoneme is one of the units of sound that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

However, native English words with non-initial p are quite common; such words can come from either Kluge's law or the consonant cluster /sp/ (PIE *p has been preserved after s).

Kluge's law is a controversial Proto-Germanic sound law formulated by Friedrich Kluge. It purports to explain the origin of the Proto-Germanic long consonants *kk, *tt, and *pp as originating in the assimilation of *n to a preceding voiced plosive consonant, under the condition that the *n was part of a suffix which was stressed in the ancestral Proto-Indo-European (PIE). The name "Kluge's law" was coined by Kauffmann (1887) and revived by Frederik Kortlandt (1991). As of 2006, this law has not been generally accepted by historical linguists.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /p/ is used to represent the voiceless bilabial plosive.

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech-language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators and translators.

Ancestors, descendants and siblings

The Latin letter P represents the same sound as the Greek letter Pi, but it looks like the Greek letter Rho.

Derived ligatures, abbreviations, signs and symbols

Computing codes

CharacterPp
Unicode nameLATIN CAPITAL LETTER P   LATIN SMALL LETTER P
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode 80U+0050112U+0070
UTF-8 805011270
Numeric character reference PPpp
EBCDIC family215D715197
ASCII 1805011270
1Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations

NATO phonetic Morse code
Papa ·––·
ICS Papa.svg Semaphore Papa.svg Sign language P.svg Braille P.svg
Signal flag Flag semaphore American manual alphabet (ASL fingerspelling) Braille

See also

Related Research Articles

A First letter of the Latin alphabet

A is the first letter and the first vowel of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is similar to the Ancient Greek letter alpha, from which it derives. The uppercase version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The lowercase version can be written in two forms: the double-storey a and single-storey ɑ. The latter is commonly used in handwriting and fonts based on it, especially fonts intended to be read by children, and is also found in italic type.

F letter in the Latin alphabet

F is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

H letter of the Latin alphabet

H is the eighth letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

M letter in Latin alphabet

M is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

N Letter of the Latin Alphabet

N is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

O letter of the Latin Alphabet

O is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

R letter in the Latin alphabet

R is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

S 19th letter in the English alphabet

S is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

T letter of the Latin alphabet

T is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is derived from the Semitic letter taw via the Greek letter tau. In English, it is most commonly used to represent the voiceless alveolar plosive, a sound it also denotes in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is the most commonly used consonant and the second most common letter in English-language texts.

U Letter in the Latin alphabet

U is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is preceded by T, and is followed by V.

V letter of Latin-based alphabets

V is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Z Last letter of the Latin alphabet

Z is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Eng (letter) letter

Eng or engma is a letter of the Latin alphabet, used to represent a velar nasal in the written form of some languages and in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

C Letter of the Latin alphabet

C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet. It is also the third letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is named cee in English.

B letter in the Latin alphabet

B or b is the second letter of the Latin-script alphabet. It represents the voiced bilabial stop in many languages, including English. In some other languages, it is used to represent other bilabial consonants.

References

  1. "P", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "pee," op. cit.
  2. Constable, Peter (2003-09-30). "L2/03-174R2: Proposal to Encode Phonetic Symbols with Middle Tilde in the UCS" (PDF).
  3. Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
  4. Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF).
  5. Ruppel, Klaas; Aalto, Tero; Everson, Michael (2009-01-27). "L2/09-028: Proposal to encode additional characters for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet" (PDF).
  6. Perry, David J. (2006-08-01). "L2/06-269: Proposal to Add Additional Ancient Roman Characters to UCS" (PDF).
  7. Everson, Michael; Baker, Peter; Emiliano, António; Grammel, Florian; Haugen, Odd Einar; Luft, Diana; Pedro, Susana; Schumacher, Gerd; Stötzner, Andreas (2006-01-30). "L2/06-027: Proposal to add Medievalist characters to the UCS" (PDF).