P

Last updated

P
P p
(See below)
Writing cursive forms of P
Usage
Writing system Latin script
Type Alphabet ic and Logographic
Language of origin Latin language
Phonetic usage[ p ]
[ ]
[( p ) f ]
[ ]
[ b ]
/p/
Unicode valueU+0050, U+0070
Alphabetical position16
History
Development
D21
Time period~-700 to present
Descendants 
 
 
 
 
 
  𐍀
Sisters Π π

П
פּ
פ
ף
ف
ܦ

پ

𐎔



Պ պ
Variations(See below)
Other
Other letters commonly used with p(x), ph

P (named pee /p/ [1] ) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Contents

History

Phoenician
P
Archaic Greek
Pi
Greek
Pi
Cyrillic
Pe
Etruscan
P
Latin
P

Use in writing systems

In English orthography and most other European languages, p represents the sound /p/ .

A common digraph in English is ph, which represents the sound /f/ , and can be used to transliterate φ phi in loanwords from Greek. In German, the digraph pf is common, representing a labial affricate /pf/.

Most English words beginning with p are of foreign origin, primarily French, Latin, Greek, and Slavic;[ citation needed ] these languages preserve Proto-Indo-European initial *p. Native English cognates of such words often start with f, since English is a Germanic language and thus has undergone Grimm's law; a native English word with initial /p/ would reflect Proto-Indo-European initial *b, which is so rare that its existence as a phoneme is disputed.

However, native English words with non-initial p are quite common; such words can come from either Kluge's law or the consonant cluster /sp/ (PIE *p has been preserved after s).

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /p/ is used to represent the voiceless bilabial plosive.

Ancestors, descendants and siblings

The Latin letter P represents the same sound as the Greek letter Pi, but it looks like the Greek letter Rho.

Derived ligatures, abbreviations, signs and symbols

Computing codes

CharacterPp
Unicode nameLATIN CAPITAL LETTER P   LATIN SMALL LETTER P
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode 80U+0050112U+0070
UTF-8 805011270
Numeric character reference PPpp
EBCDIC family215D715197
ASCII 1805011270
1Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations

NATO phonetic Morse code
Papa ·––·
Signal flag Flag semaphore American manual alphabet (ASL fingerspelling) Braille

See also

References

  1. "P", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "pee," op. cit.
  2. Constable, Peter (2003-09-30). "L2/03-174R2: Proposal to Encode Phonetic Symbols with Middle Tilde in the UCS" (PDF).
  3. Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
  4. Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF).
  5. Ruppel, Klaas; Aalto, Tero; Everson, Michael (2009-01-27). "L2/09-028: Proposal to encode additional characters for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet" (PDF).
  6. Perry, David J. (2006-08-01). "L2/06-269: Proposal to Add Additional Ancient Roman Characters to UCS" (PDF).
  7. Everson, Michael; Baker, Peter; Emiliano, António; Grammel, Florian; Haugen, Odd Einar; Luft, Diana; Pedro, Susana; Schumacher, Gerd; Stötzner, Andreas (2006-01-30). "L2/06-027: Proposal to add Medievalist characters to the UCS" (PDF).