Pécs

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Pécs

Fünfkirchen  (German)
Pečuh  (Croatian)
Pécs Megyei Jogú Város
Pecs Montage.jpg
Clockwise from top left: Cathedral, Széchenyi Square, Barbican, Yakovalı Hasan Paşa Mosque, Kossuth Square
HUN Pecs flag.svg
Flag
COA Hungary Town Pecs.svg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
"The City of Culture" (A kultúra városa)
Map-of-Baranya.svg
Red pog.svg
Pécs
Location of Pécs
Hungary physical map.svg
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Pécs
Pécs (Hungary)
Europe relief laea location map.jpg
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Pécs
Pécs (Europe)
Coordinates: 46°04′17″N18°13′59″E / 46.07125°N 18.23311°E / 46.07125; 18.23311
CountryFlag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
Region Southern Transdanubia
County Baranya
District Pécs
Established2nd century BC
City status 1777 (renewed)
Government
   Mayor Attila Péterffy (Mindenki Pécsért Egyesület)
   Deputy mayor Szilvia Bognár (DK)
Csaba Ruzsa (Independent)
   Town Notary Dr István Lovász
Area
   City with county rights 162.61 km2 (62.78 sq mi)
Area rank32nd in Hungary
Elevation
153 m (502 ft)
Population
 (1 January 2016)
   City with county rights 145,347 Decrease2.svg
  Rank 5th in Hungary
  Density963.43/km2 (2,495.3/sq mi)
   Urban
251,412 (4th) [1]
Demonym(s) pécsi
Population by ethnicity
[2]
   Hungarians 84.0%
   Germans 4.2%
   Romani 2.0%
   Croats 1.2%
   Romanians 0.2%
   Serbs 0.2%
   Slovaks 0.1%
   Greeks 0.1%
Population by religion
[2]
   Roman Catholic 39.7%
   Greek Catholic 0.3%
   Calvinists 5.2%
   Lutherans 1.3%
   Jews 0.1%
  Other2.4%
   Non-religious 27.8%
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal code
7600 to 7636
Area code (+36) 72
Motorways M60 Motorway
NUTS 3 code HU231
Distance from Budapest238 km (148 mi) Northeast
Airport Pécs (PEV)
MPs
List
Website www.pecs.hu
Official nameEarly Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae)
Criteriaiii, iv
Designated2000

Pécs ( /p/ PAYTCH, Hungarian:  [peːt͡ʃ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); German : Fünfkirchen, pronounced [fʏnfˈkɪʁçn̩] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); known by alternative names ) is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia. It is the administrative and economic centre of Baranya County. Pécs is also the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Pécs.

Contents

A city dating back to the ancient times, settled by the Celts and the Romans, it was made an episcopal see in early medieval Hungary. It features the oldest university in the country, and is one of the major cultural centers. Pécs also has a rich heritage from the age of a 150-year-long Ottoman occupation. Pécs was historically a multi-ethnic city where many cultures intermingled, creating a melting pot of different values, the rich result of 2000 years of history. In recent times, the city has been recognized for its cultural heritate, including by being named as one of the European Capital of Culture cities.

Name

The earliest name for the territory was its Roman name of Sopianæ. The name possibly comes from the plural of the Celtic sop meaning "marsh". Contrary to the popular belief, the name did not signify a single city,[ citation needed ] and there are no traces of an encircling wall from the early Roman era, only from the 4th century.

The medieval city was first mentioned in 871 under the name Quinque Basilicae ("five cathedrals".) The name refers to the fact that when constructing the churches of the city, the builders used material from five old Christian chapels. In later Latin documents the city was mentioned as Quinque Ecclesiae ("five churches", a name identical in meaning to the German name Fünfkirchen and the Slovak name Päťkostolie [3] ).

The name Pécs appears in documents in 1235 in the word Pechyut (with modern spelling: pécsi út, meaning "road to/from Pécs"). In Turkish beş (pronounced  [beʃ] ) means 5. The name is first recorded after the Mongol invasion of Europe. In other languages: in Latin, Quinque Ecclesiae; in Croatian, Pečuh; in Serbian, Печуј (Pečuj); in Slovak, Päťkostolie; in Czech, Pětikostelí; in Dutch, Vijfkerken; in German, Fünfkirchen; and in Turkish, Peçuy.

Geography

Pécs is located in the Carpathian Basin of Central Europe, in the center of the southern Hungarian county of Baranya. It is bordered by the Mecsek hills to the north, and by a rolling plain to the south. Pécs has a significant mining past. Mecsek dolomitic water is famous for its high density of minerals at constant poise.

The city of Pécs is located near to the border of Croatia. Its southern part is rather flat whereas its northern part clings to the slope of the Mecsek mountains. It has a very favorable climate, and is bordered by a flourishing woody area. During hot summer nights a cooling air streams down from Mecsek to clean the air of the city. [4]

Pécs is bordered by plains to the south (elevation 120–130 m), while the Mecsek mountains rise up to elevations of 400–600 meters behind the city. Jakab-hill, located in the western Mecsek, is 592 m (1942 ft) tall, Tubes, straight above Pécs, is 612 m (2008 ft) tall, and Misina is 535 m (1755 ft) tall. [5] Higher parts of the city climb up to 200–250 m (656 to 820 ft), mainly Pécsbánya, Szabolcsfalu, Vasas and Somogy. Woody areas generally start from elevations of about 300 m (984 ft). The Mecsek hills are marked by numerous valleys which play a key role in ameliorating the climate of the city in the absence of lakes and rivers. Waters coming down from the Mecsek hills flow into the Pécsi stream under the east-west rail road leading them eventually to the Danube.

History

Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae)
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Pecs - Early Christian Mausoleum 01.JPG
Remnants of a Paleochristian Church, 4th century AD
Criteria Cultural: iii, iv
Reference 853
Inscription2000 (24th session)
Area3.76 ha
Buffer zone4.87 ha

Ancient Roman city

Early Christian Necropolis of Pecs (Sopianae) Pecs - Early Christian Mausoleum 02.JPG
Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae)

The area has been inhabited since ancient times, with the oldest archaeological findings being 6,000 years old. Before the Roman era the place was inhabited by Celts.

The city of Sopianae was founded by Romans at the beginning of the 2nd century, in an area peopled by Celts and Pannoni tribes. By the 4th century, it became the capital of Valeria province and a significant early Christian center. The early Christian necropolis from that era became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in December 2000. [6] [7]

When Western Hungary was a province of the Roman Empire (named Pannonia ), the Romans founded several wine-producing colonies under the collective name of Sopianae where Pécs now stands, in the early 2nd century.

The centre of Sopianae was where the Bishop's Palace now stands. Some parts of the Roman aqueduct are still visible. When Pannonia province was divided into four administrative divisions, Sopianae was the capital of the division named Valeria.

In the first half of the 4th century, Sopianae became an important Christian city. The first Christian cemeteries, dating back to this age, are inscribed on the World Heritage List. By the end of the century, Roman rule weakened in the area, mostly due to attacks by Barbarians and Huns.

Early medieval city

When Charlemagne arrived in the area, it was ruled by Avars. Charlemagne, after conquering the area, annexed it to the Holy Roman Empire. It belonged to the Diocese of Salzburg.

A document written in Salzburg in 871 is the first document mentioning the early medieval city under the name Quinque Basilicae (see above). During the 9th century, the city was inhabited by Slavic and Avar peoples and was part of the Balaton Principality, a Frankish vassal state.

The Hungarian city in the Middle Ages

The Barbakan Pecs - Castle 01.jpg
The Barbakán
Crypt of the Cathedral from the Middle Ages Crypt. Pecs Cathedral4.jpg
Crypt of the Cathedral from the Middle Ages
Stone shield pattern of Pecs with Old Hungarian script (circa 1250 AD) Shield runic.jpg
Stone shield pattern of Pécs with Old Hungarian script (circa 1250 AD)

According to György Györffy's theory of place names, after the Hungarians conquered the Carpathian Basin, they retained a semi-nomadic lifestyle, changing pastures between winter and summer. Árpád's winter quarters -clearly after his occupation of Pannonia in 900- were perhaps in Pécs. [8] Later, when the Comitatus of Baranya was established, the capital of the comitatus was not Pécs but a nearby castle, Baranyavár ("Baranya Castle".) Pécs, however, became an important religious centre and episcopal seat. In Latin documents, the city was mentioned as Quinque Ecclesiae. Around 1000, the area was inhabited by the Black Magyars. The Deed of Foundation of the Diocese of Pécs was issued in 1009.

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Pécs was founded in 1009 by Stephen I, and the first university in Hungary was founded in Pécs in 1367 by Louis I the Great. (The largest university still resides in Pécs with about 34,000 students). [9]

Peter Orseolo, the second king of Hungary, was buried in the cathedral in 1046. The location of his grave is unknown. This is because in 1064, when King Solomon made peace with his cousin, the later King Géza I, they celebrated Easter in Pécs. Shortly after the cathedral burnt down. The cathedral that stands today was built after this, in the second half of the 11th century.

Several religious orders settled down in Pécs. The Benedictine order was the first in 1076. In 1181, there was already a hospital in the city. The first Dominican monastery of the country was built in Pécs in 1238.

King Louis the Great founded a university in Pécs in 1367 following the advice of William, the bishop of Pécs, who was also the king's chancellor. It was the first university in Hungary. The founding document is almost word for word identical with that of the University of Vienna, stating that the university has the right to teach all arts and sciences, with the exception of theology.

In 1459, Janus Pannonius, the most important medieval poet of Hungary became the bishop of Pécs. He strengthened the cultural importance of the city.

Pécs was formed into one of the cultural and arts center of the country by bishop Janus Pannonius, great humanist poet. [10]

Pécs under Ottoman rule

The mosque of Gazi Kaszim pasa (pasha Qasim the Victorious) Pecs - Mosque Church 01.jpg
The mosque of Gázi Kászim pasa (pasha Qasim the Victorious)
Yakovali Hasan Pasa Mosque Pecs - Yakovali Hassan Mosque 01.jpg
Yakovalı Hasan Paşa Mosque

After the Battle of Mohács (1526) in which the invading Ottoman army defeated the armies of King Louis II, the armies of Suleiman occupied Pécs. Not only was a large part of the country occupied by Ottomans, the public opinion of who should be the king of Hungary was divided, too. One party supported Ferdinand of Habsburg, the other party crowned John Zápolya in Székesfehérvár. The citizens of Pécs supported Emperor Ferdinand, but the rest of Baranya county supported King John. In the summer of 1527 Ferdinand defeated the armies of Szapolyai and was crowned king on November 3. Ferdinand favoured the city because of their support, and exempted Pécs from paying taxes. Pécs was rebuilt and fortified.

In 1529, the Ottomans captured Pécs again, and went on a campaign against Vienna. The Ottomans forced Pécs to accept King John (who was allied with them) as their ruler. John died in 1540. In 1541, the Ottomans occupied the castle of Buda, and ordered Isabella, the widow of John to give Pécs to them, since the city was of strategic importance. The citizens of Pécs defended the city against the Ottomans, and swore loyalty to Ferdinand. The emperor helped the city and defended it from further Ottoman attacks, but his advisers persuaded him into focusing more on the cities of Székesfehérvár and Esztergom instead of Pécs. Pécs was preparing for the siege, but a day before, Flemish and Walloon mercenaries fled from the city, and raided the nearby lands. The next day in June 1543 the Bishop himself went to the Ottomans with the keys of the city.

After occupying the city, the Ottomans fortified it and turned it into a real Ottoman city. The Christian churches were turned into mosques; Turkish baths and minarets were built, Qur'an schools were founded, there was a bazaar in place of the market. For a hundred years the city was an island of peace in a land of war. It was a sanjak centre in Budin Eyalet at first and Kanije Eyalet later as "Peçuy".

The Ottoman era resulted in numerous landmarks, such as the mosque of Pasha Qasim the Victorious on Széchenyi square, the Tomb of İdris Baba, and the Yakovalı Hasan Paşa Mosque.

The Ottoman chronicler İbrahim Peçevi (Ibrahim of Pécs), whose work forms the main body of reference for Ottoman history between 1520-1640, was a native of the city.

In 1664, Croat-Hungarian nobleman Nicholas Zrínyi arrived in Pécs, with his army. Since the city was well into the Ottoman territories, they knew that even if they occupy it, they could not keep it for long, so they planned only to pillage it. They ravaged and burned the city but could not occupy the castle. Mediaeval Pécs was destroyed forever, except the wall encircling the historical city, a single bastion (Barbakán), the network of tunnels and catacombs beneath the city, parts of which are closed down, other parts are in possession of the famous Litke champagne factory, and can be visited today. [ citation needed ] Several Turkish artifacts also survived, namely three mosques, two minarets, remnants of a bath over the ancient Christian tombs near the cathedral, and several houses, one even with a stone cannonball embedded in the wall.

After the castle of Buda was wrested from Ottoman rule in 1686, the armies went to capture the rest of Pécs. The advance guards could break into the city and pillaged it. The Ottomans saw that they could not hold the city, and burnt it, and withdrew into the castle. The army led by Louis of Baden occupied the city on 14 October and destroyed the aqueduct leading to the castle. The Ottomans had no other choice but to surrender, which they did on 22 October (see Siege of Pécs).

The city was under martial law under the command of Karl von Thüngen. The Viennese court wanted to destroy the city first, but later they decided to keep it to counterbalance the importance of Szigetvár, which was still under Ottoman rule. Slowly the city started to prosper again, but in the 1690s two plague epidemics claimed many lives. In 1688 German settlers arrived. Only about one-quarter of the city's population was Hungarian, the others were Germans or Southern Slavs. Census of taxpayers from 1698 lists 637 families for which Janja Živković Mandić concludes that 308 were of Croatian nationality (Catholics Croats, Racs, Šokci, Bunjevci, Illyrians, Slavs, Bosniaks) and the remaining 329 were Hungarians, Germans, Serbs or Greeks. According to same census István Tabo mentions 171 Hungarian, 349 Slavs and 79 Germans while Đuro Šarošac mentions that at that time in the city lived 325 Croats, 139 Hungarians, 92 Germans, 53 Vlachs and 28 Serbs. [11] According to 1698 data, South Slavs comprised more than half of the population of the town. Because Hungarians were only a minority of the population, Pécs did not support the revolution against Habsburg rule led by Francis II Rákóczi, and his armies pillaged the city in 1704.

Pécs in early-modern times

Pecs Main Square before 2009 Hungary-Pecs Main Place.jpg
Pécs Main Square before 2009
County Hall of Baranya Pecs - County Hall 01.jpg
County Hall of Baranya
Vasvary-House Vasvary House Pecs.jpg
Vasváry-House
Szechenyi Square Pecs nattbild BAn.JPG
Széchenyi Square

A more peaceful era started after 1710. Industry, trade and viticulture prospered, manufactures were founded, a new city hall was built. The feudal lord of the city was the Bishop of Pécs, but the city wanted to free itself from episcopal control. Bishop George Klimó, an enlightened man (who founded the first public library of the country) would have agreed to cede his rights to the city, but the Holy See forbade him to do so. When Klimó died in 1777, Queen Maria Theresa quickly elevated Pécs to free royal town status before the new bishop was elected. This cost the city 83,315 forints.

According to the first census (held in 1787 by the order of Joseph II), there were 1,474 houses and 1,834 families in Pécs, a total of 8,853 residents, of which 133 were priests and 117 were noblemen.

In 1785, the Academy of Győr was moved to Pécs. This academy eventually evolved into a law school. The first stonework theatre of the city was built in 1839.

Pécs during the 19th century and later

The industry developed a lot in the second half of the 19th century. By 1848, there were 1,739 industrial workers. Some of the manufactures were nationally famous. The iron and paper factories were among the most modern ones of the age. Coal mining was relevant. A sugar factory and beer manufactures were built, too. The city had 14,616 residents.

During the revolution in 1848–49, Pécs was occupied by Croatian armies for a short time, but it was freed from them by Habsburg armies in January 1849.

After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 Pécs developed, like all the other cities and towns of the country. From 1867, Pécs is connected to the nearby town Barcs by railway, and since 1882 it is also connected to Budapest. In 1913, a tram system has been founded, but it was extinguished in 1960.

At the end of World War I, Baranya county was occupied by Serbian troops, and it was not until August 1921 that Pécs could be sure that it remains part of Hungary. The University of Pressburg (modern-day Bratislava, Slovakia) was moved to Pécs after Hungary lost Pressburg according to the Treaty of Trianon.

During World War II, Pécs was captured by Soviet troops of the 3rd Ukrainian Front on 29 November 1944 in the course of the Budapest Offensive. The city suffered only minor damages, even though a large tank-battle took place 20–25 kilometres (12–16 miles) south of the city, close to the Villány area late in the war, when the advancing Red Army fought its way towards Austria.

After the war, development became fast again, and the city grew, absorbing several nearby towns. In the 1980s, Pécs already had 180,000 inhabitants.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1870 30,821    
1890 43,869+42.3%
1900 53,721+22.5%
1910 60,237+12.1%
1920 58,808−2.4%
1930 74,395+26.5%
1941 88,473+18.9%
1949 88,302−0.2%
1960 114,655+29.8%
1970 149,253+30.2%
1980 168,715+13.0%
1990 170,039+0.8%
2001 162,489−4.4%
2011 156,049−4.0%
2020 141,843−9.1%

After the end of Socialist era (1989–1990), Pécs and its county, like many other areas, were hit hard by the changes, the unemployment rate was high, the mines and several factories were closed, and the war in neighboring Yugoslavia in the 1990s affected the tourism.

Pécs was also the centre of the Nordic Support Group (NSG) consisting of units from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Poland, as part of the IFOR and later SFOR NATO deployments, after the Dayton Agreement and following peace in former Yugoslavia; the first units were deployed to Pécs in late 1995 and early 1996. The NSG handled the relaying of supply, personnel and other logistical tasks between the participating countries and their deployed forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

In 1998 Pécs was given the UNESCO prize "Cities for Peace" for maintaining its cultural minorities, and also for its tolerant and helping attitude toward refugees of the Yugoslav Wars. [12]

In 2007 Pécs was third, and in 2008 it was second "Livable City" (The LivCom Awards) [13] in the category of cities between 75,000 and 200,000 inhabitants. [14]

In 2010, Pécs was selected to be the European Capital of Culture alongside Essen and Istanbul. The city motto is "The Borderless City". After receiving the title major renewal started in the city. [15] [16] Renewed public places, streets, squares and neighbourhoods, new cultural centers, a concert hall, a new library and center and a cultural quarter were designed. [17] [18]

Main sights

Cella Septichora Pecs Cella Septichora.jpg
Cella Septichora
The Barbakan Barbakan colorful.JPG
The Barbakán
The cross at Tettye Tettye Cross.jpg
The cross at Tettye
Zsolnay Museum. The House from the 13th Century. Zsolnay Muzeum epulet.JPG
Zsolnay Museum. The House from the 13th Century.
National Theatre in Pecs. Hungary Pecs 2005 June 068.jpg
National Theatre in Pécs.
Csontvary Museum Csontvary-pecs2.jpg
Csontváry Museum
Lyceum Church in Kiraly Street Pecs, Kiraly Street, 44.jpg
Lyceum Church in Király Street

A good example of the city's history and interesting past can be seen in the main square, where the Gazi Kasim Mosque still stands, and, although consecrated as a church following the retreat of the Ottoman Turks centuries ago, the crescent moon of Islam is still visible on the cupola, surmounted by a cross. Indeed, Pécs is the richest town in Hungary in terms of Turkish architecture, with the ruins of Memi Pasa's Baths and the mausoleum of miracle worker Idris Baba, just two other notable remains. The Yakovalı Hasan Paşa Mosque, dating from the mid-1500s, still functions as an active mosque today. It is open to the public except during Friday services from 2.30 to 3.30 pm.

Demographics

The majority of the citizens with 84.0% are Hungarians according to the 2011 census. The city's Germans are the largest minority with 4.2%. Followed by the Roma (2.0%), the Croats (1.2%) and the Romanians (0.2%). [2]

The largest religious group is the Catholics with 39.7% Roman Catholic and 0.3% Greek Catholic. The second largest denomination is the Calvinists (5.2%), the third the Lutherans (1.3%). 27.8% of the population is non-religious. [2]

Climate

Climate data for Pécs
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)1.6
(34.9)
4.8
(40.6)
10.3
(50.5)
16.0
(60.8)
20.9
(69.6)
24.0
(75.2)
26.3
(79.3)
25.9
(78.6)
22.3
(72.1)
16.6
(61.9)
8.8
(47.8)
3.4
(38.1)
15.1
(59.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)−1.4
(29.5)
1.3
(34.3)
5.6
(42.1)
10.7
(51.3)
15.5
(59.9)
18.6
(65.5)
20.5
(68.9)
20.1
(68.2)
16.6
(61.9)
11.3
(52.3)
5.1
(41.2)
0.6
(33.1)
10.4
(50.7)
Average low °C (°F)−4.0
(24.8)
−1.7
(28.9)
1.6
(34.9)
6.0
(42.8)
10.5
(50.9)
13.6
(56.5)
15.0
(59.0)
14.7
(58.5)
11.7
(53.1)
7.0
(44.6)
2.2
(36.0)
−1.7
(28.9)
6.2
(43.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)39
(1.5)
32
(1.3)
38
(1.5)
55
(2.2)
63
(2.5)
84
(3.3)
61
(2.4)
63
(2.5)
47
(1.9)
37
(1.5)
56
(2.2)
44
(1.7)
619
(24.5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)767891077668889
Average relative humidity (%)90857065657070707580859076.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68.292.4145.7186.0235.6258.0294.5266.6207.0164.381.058.92,058.2
Source: Hong Kong Observatory. [19]

Economy

The most known product of Pecs is the Zsolnay Porcelain - Alhambra vase by Tade Sikorski (1884) Gyugyi zsolnay collection 3.jpg
The most known product of Pécs is the Zsolnay Porcelain - Alhambra vase by Tádé Sikorski (1884)

Historically Pécs was well known in Hungary for its industry with several factories, but after the fall of the Iron Curtain many have not managed the economic transition well and went bankrupt (e.g. Pécsi Kesztyűgyár, Pécsi Bőrgyár, Littke Pezsgőgyár etc.). [20] Until some years ago, it had a coal and uranium mine, now only its sand mine exists and is operated by the Hungarian-owned Quartz [21] mining company.

The nationally (and to a limited extent internationally) famous porcelain factory, the Zsolnay Porcelain is the greatest pride of Pécs. The walls and roofs of several public and private buildings in the city are decorated with the company's porcelains contributing to Pécs's unique cityscape.

The Pécsi Sörfőzde (Pécs Brewery) is one of the four main Hungarian breweries (the others being Dreher Breweries, Borsod Brewery, Heineken Hungária), but the only one of them owned fully by Hungarians. It produces a special beer, that is known for not being strained before bottling. [22]

The Hungarian textilmanufacturer Rovitex Hungária, [23] the American crane manufacturer Terex, [24] the Hungarian scale manufacturer Pécsi Mérlegstúdió, [25] the Hungarian furniture manufacturer Megyeri Bútor, [26] the Hungarian cutting-tool manufacturer FORSZ, [27] the German switchboard manufacturer HB-Kapcsolószekrénygyártó (part of the Bader Gruppe), [28] the Hungarian recycling company Alcufer, [29] the Hungarian agricultural vehiclemanufacturer HIDROT, [30] the Hungarian animal husbandry tool manufacturer Önitató, [31] the tobacco factory Pécsi Dohánygyár (owned by British American Tobacco), the Hungarian automotive spare parts manufacturer Matro, [32] the Hungarian safe manufacturer Strauss Metal, [33] the Hungarian packaging machine manufacturer SOMAPAK, [34] the Hungarian plastics producer Termoplast, [35] the Bocz Printing House, [36] the Hungarian pickles manufacturer Babina, [37] the Hungarian plastic product manufacturer Karsai Pécs, [38] the Hungarian metal manufacturer Riner Metal [39] based there and have their production facilities in the city.

There is a gradual development of modern high-tech industry, with Finnish electronics manufacturing company Elcoteq the largest industrial employer in the city, the Hungarian Z Elektronika [40] electronics manufacturer and the Hungarian TG Netcom [41] IT network manufacturer.

The German transportation company, Dachser has a logistics centre in Pécs. [42]

The Biokom [43] waste management and recycling company (owned by the city) is responsible for the transport and recycling of waste in the whole territory of Pécs and the surrounding areas. The energy used in the settlement is produced mainly by the two biomass power plants of Pannonpower (part of Veolia) which consists of a 49,9 MW woodchip-fired and a 35 MW agricultural by-product-fired powerplants. [44] The country's largest solar cell field is also in Pécs, thanks to the city's southern location and longer sunny hours, which can produce about 10 MW energy a year. The solar power plant is operated by MVM Hungarowind (part of the MVM Group). [45]

The Expo Center Pécs Exhibition and Conference Centre provides place for international exhibitions and conferences. [46]

Education

The University of Pécs was founded by Louis I of Hungary in 1367. It is the oldest university in Hungary, and is among the first European universities. In the recent past it used to be divided in two universities, one for Medicine and Orthodontics (POTE) [47] and a larger one for other studies: JPTE (Janus Pannonius Tudományegyetem). The POTE (Pécs University Medical School, now known as the Medical School) has a large English program for general medicine and dentistry (with students from America, Asia, Africa, and European countries - including many Scandinavians) and a new German program. On 1 January 2000 these universities were combined under the name University of Pécs (acronym: PTE - Pécsi Tudományegyetem - University of Pécs).

Politics

The current mayor of Pécs is Attila Péterffy (Everyone for Pécs).

The local Municipal Assembly, elected at the 2019 local government elections, is made up of 26 members (1 Mayor, 18 Individual constituencies MEPs and 7 Compensation List MEPs) divided into this political parties and alliances: [48] Fidesz policies in Pécs have included a law making homelessness illegal (2014) [49] and an official call to property owners not to make space available for an NGO supported by OSF (2017). [50]

PartySeatsCurrent Municipal Assembly
 Everyone for Pécs [lower-alpha 1] 18M                 
  Fidesz-KDNP-ÖPE7                  
  Politics Can Be Different 1                  

List of mayors

List of City Mayors from 1990:

MemberPartyTerm of office
Zoltán Krippl SZDSZ 1990–1994
Zsolt Páva Fidesz 1994–1998
László Toller MSZP 1998–2006
Péter Tasnádi MSZP2006–2009
Zsolt Páva Fidesz2009–2019
Attila Péterffy Independent [lower-alpha 1] 2019–

Transport

Trains at Pecs Central Station Hungary pecs - allomas1.jpg
Trains at Pécs Central Station
Volvo 7900A bus on Line 2A in downtown Pecsi 2A busz (MOS-218).jpg
Volvo 7900A bus on Line 2A in downtown
International airport. Pogany airport.jpg
International airport.

Vehicular traffic

Although during the last decade connecting main routes inside the city has been an ongoing project, because of their insufficient lengths, this could not free the city from cross traffic. The recently inaugurated M6 motorway may prove to be a solution for this problem. [51] [52]

Railway

Pécs is connected to Budapest through Pusztaszabolcs, and has direct connections to Mohács, Nagykanizsa.

Designed by Ferenc Pfaff, [53] the main railway station was built in 1900 and became a listed building in 2008. [54] The building itself was built in the style of Renaissance Eclecticism, and it features reliefs depicting James Watt and George Stephenson designed by Klein Ármin and made by Zsolnay factory [55] A mass transit hub -including a bus terminal, a bus stop and a cab rank zone- is situated on the square in front of the railway station.

Mass transport

Volvo and Kravtex-Credo buses provide the only form of public transport in Pécs, though a tram line did operate from 1913 to 1960, when it was shut down due to changing transportation policy. Most of the remnants of this older system have been removed, though a few rails may still be seen around the city. In 1965 the manager of the transport company was imprisoned for tearing them up and selling them for scrap. [56]

Airport

A new airport opened in Pécs Pécs-Pogány International Airport in March 2006. Its main traffic is supplied by smaller charter planes.

Sport

Notable people born in Pécs

Zoltan Gera ZoltanGera.JPG
Zoltán Gera
Laszlo Solyom, Hungarian President 2005-2010 Laszlo Solyom.jpg
László Sólyom, Hungarian President 2005-2010

Alfred Forbat, Bauhaus architect

Twin towns – sister cities

Pécs is twinned with: [57] [58]

The city also has an informal friendship link with Peterborough, England.

See also

Related Research Articles

Baranya County County of Hungary

Baranya is a county in southern Hungary. It is part of the Southern Transdanubia statistical region and the historical Baranya region, which was a county (comitatus) in the Kingdom of Hungary dating back to the 11th century. Its current status as one of the 19 counties of Hungary was established in 1950 as part of wider Soviet administrative territorial reform following World War II. It is bordered by Somogy County to the northwest, Tolna County to the north, Bács-Kiskun County and the Danube to the east, and the border with Croatia to the south.

Virovitica County Historic county of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia

Virovitica County was a historic administrative subdivision (županija) of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Croatia-Slavonia was an autonomous kingdom within the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (Transleithania), the Hungarian part of the dual Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its territory is now in eastern Croatia. The name of the county comes from the town of Virovitica. The capital of the county moved from Virovitica to Osijek in the late 18th century.

Baranya (region)

Baranya or Baranja is a geographical and historical region between the Danube and the Drava rivers. Its territory is divided between Hungary and Croatia. In Hungary, the region is included into Baranya county, while in Croatia, it is included into Osijek-Baranja county.

Baranya County (former)

Baranya was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is now divided between present-day Baranya County of Hungary and Osijek-Baranja County of Croatia. The capital of the county was Pécs.

Transdanubia Traditional region of Hungary

Transdanubia is a traditional region of Hungary. It is also referred to as Hungarian Pannonia, or Pannonian Hungary.

University of Pécs

The University of Pécs is an institution of higher education in Hungary. Although the year 1367 appears in the seal of the university, it is not a successor of the medieval university founded in Pécs in 1367 by Louis I of Hungary. More than 20,000 students presently attend the University of Pécs, approximately 4,000 of whom are international students studying in English or German.

Szigetvár Town in Baranya, Hungary

Szigetvár is a town in Baranya County in southern Hungary.

Barcs Town in Southern Transdanubia, Hungary

Barcs is a border town in Somogy County, Hungary and the seat of Barcs District. The Drava River marks the southern boundary of the settlement.

Pécsi MFC

Pécsi Mecsek Football Club, commonly referred to as Pécsi MFC or simply PMFC, is a professional Hungarian football club based in Pécs, Baranya, that currently competes in the Hungarian third division. The club was established on 16 February 1973 by the merger of five other clubs of the city, Pécsi Dózsa, Pécsi Ércbányász SC, Pécsi Helyiipari SK, Pécsi Bányász and Pécsi Építők.

Janus Pannonius

Janus Pannonius was a Croat-Hungarian Latinist, poet, diplomat and Bishop of Pécs. He was the most significant poet of the Renaissance in the Kingdom of Hungary and one of the better-known figures of Humanist poetry in Europe.

Mecsek

Mecsek is a mountain range in southern Hungary. It is situated in the Baranya region, in the north of the city of Pécs.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Pécs

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Pécs is a Diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Hungary. The Cathedral of Pécs is dedicated to Saint Peter and Saint Paul.

Széchenyi square (Pécs)

Széchenyi square is the main square in the historical centre of Pécs, Hungary. In the Middle Ages it served as the market place of the town with the city hall and the parish church. Before the square was named Széchenyi in 1864 it had had several other names like Fórum, Városi piacz, Főtér. The square is one of the central squares of Pécs, full of monuments, mounting gradually northward. Twelve streets fall into the square spoke-wise. Its main attractions are the Mosque of Pasha Qasim, the City Hall, the County Hall, the Nádor hotel, the Zsolnay well, the Fatebenefratelli Church, the Trinity statue and the brass statue of János Hunyadi on horse back. The surface of the square was rebuilt within the scope of the project Pécs2010 European Cultural Capital. Within the annual Pécs days festival, the festival of wine and grape is held on the square. It is celebrated fairs and vintage carnivals wine tasting of the famous wine regions of Pécs and Villány. The Christmas tree of the town is set on Széchenyi square.

2011 Mecsek Rallye

The 2011 Mecsek Rallye, officially Canon 45. Mecsek Rallye, was the eighth round of the 2011 Intercontinental Rally Challenge (IRC) season. The fourteen stage asphalt rally – held as a round of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge for the first time – took place over 10–11 September 2011 with all stages held in daylight.

The 2014–15 season was Pécsi Mecsek FC's 50th competitive season, 4th consecutive season in the OTP Bank Liga, where it finished 11th and 64th year in existence as a football club. Among the championship, the team competed in the Hungarian Cup and the Ligakupa. Both competitions saw Pécs MFC eliminated in the round of 16.

Gábor Rekettye

Gábor Rekettye is a Hungarian marketing author and professor. At present he is a Professor Emeritus at the University of Pécs and Honorary Professor at the University of Szeged.

Pécs Organ Manufactory Ltd. (POM) was found in September, 1992. At the moment POM is the biggest organ building company in Hungary. The manufactory employs around 50 specialist who cover all fields of organbuilding. The webshop of the company was launched in 2009 which through they sell hundreds of organ parts.

Leopold Hirschfeld, was Hungarian Jewish brewer in Pécs, Hungary, Habsburg Empire. He founded in 1848 the Pécsi Sörfőzde.

György Klimó

György Klimó was Bishop of Pécs and founder of the Klimo Library and printing press.

Klimo Library First public library of Hungary

The Klimo Library, Klimo Collection or Episcopal Library established in 1774 is the first public library of Hungary. It was established in Pécs by György Klimó, Bishop of Pécs and it is still operating. Although Klimó could not establish a university in Pécs, he still opened the library for the public. Until the Great War, the library was operating constantly under the episcopal see. After that, the building of the library and its collection were given to the university by Bishop Gyula Zichy for eternal use.

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Notes
  1. 1 2 Supported by Opposition coalition.

Coordinates: 46°04′16″N18°13′59″E / 46.07111°N 18.23306°E / 46.07111; 18.23306