| P-500 Bazalt / P-1000 Vulkan|
(NATO reporting name: SS-N-12 'Sandbox')
Submarine-launched cruise missile
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|In service||Since 1975|
|Used by||Soviet Union, Russia|
|Designer||OKB-52/NPO Mashinostroyeniya Chelomey|
|Produced||1970–1987 (P-500) 1985–1992 (P-1000)|
|Mass||4,800 kg (10,600 lb)|
|Warhead||High explosive or nuclear|
|Warhead weight||1,000 kg (2,205 lb) (P-500)|
|Blast yield||350 kt|
|550 km (300 nmi) (P-500)|
|Flight altitude||50–5,000 meters|
|Maximum speed||Mach 2.5|
|Semi-active radar homing, terminal active radar homing|
| Echo II & Juliett-class submarines|
Kiev-class aircraft carrier & Slava-class cruiser
The P-500 Bazalt (Russian : П-500 «Базальт»; English: basalt ) is a turbojet-powered, supersonic cruise missile used by the Soviet and Russian navies. Its GRAU designation is 4K80 and its NATO reporting name is SS-N-12 Sandbox, its modern version being the P-1000 Vulkan AShM SLCM.
Developed by OKB-52 MAP (later NPO Mashinostroyeniye), it entered service to replace the SS-N-3 Shaddock. The P-500 Bazalt was first deployed in 1975 on the Soviet aircraft carrier Kiev, and was later added to both the Echo II class submarine and the Juliett class submarine. A version of the P-500 Bazalt with improved guidance and engines is used on the Slava class cruiser. The sixteen launchers dominate the decks of the class.
The P-500 Bazalt has a 550 km range and a payload of 1,000 kg, which allows it to carry a 350 kt nuclear or a 950 kg semi-armor-piercing high-explosive warhead. The P-500 Bazalt uses active radar homing for terminal guidance, and can receive mid-course correction from the Tupolev Tu-95RTs Bear D, the Kamov Ka-25K Hormone B and the Kamov Ka-31.
The missiles were intended to be used in salvos; a submarine could launch eight in rapid succession, maintaining control of each through a separate datalink. In flight the group could co-ordinate their actions; one would fly to a higher altitude and use its active radar to search for targets, forwarding this data to the other missiles which remained at low altitude. The missiles were programmed so that half of a salvo would head for a carrier target, with the rest dividing between other ships. If the high-flying missile was shot down, another from the salvo would automatically pop up to take its place. All of the missiles would switch to active radar for the terminal phase of the attack.
An improved version of the P-500 was installed on three Echo II submarines towards the end of the Cold War. km ). The missile weight was increased by 1–2 tons. The missile has a turbojet engine and a starting powder accelerator. High-altitude flight regimes are presumably the same as that of P-500.The P-1000 Vulkan (GRAU 3M70) presumably has the same firing range and maximum speed with the P-500 Bazalt (range 800
The P-1000 was ordered on 15 May 1979from NPO Mashinostroyeniya Chelomey; it first flew in July 1982 and was accepted for service on 18 December 1987. It was installed on three Echo II submarines of the Northern Fleet between 1987 and 1993; the conversion of two units of the Pacific Fleet, the K-10 and K-34, was abandoned due to lack of funds. Of the submarines that did receive the P-1000, the K-1 was decommissioned after a reactor accident in 1989, the K-35 was stricken in 1993 and the K-22 in 1995. The P-1000 has been installed on the Slava class cruiser Varyag, and some sources report P-1000 missiles on her sister ship Moskva.
The P-700 Granit (NATO reporting name SS-N-19 Shipwreck) was partially based on the SS-N-12, but with a significantly modified airframe. The avionics, however, are very similar.
The Project 651, known in the West by its NATO reporting name Juliett class, was a class of Soviet diesel-electric submarines armed with cruise missiles. They were designed in the late 1950s to provide the Soviet Navy with a nuclear strike capability against targets along the east coast of the United States and enemy combatants. The head of the design team was Abram Samuilovich Kassatsier. They carried four nuclear-capable cruise missiles with a range of approximately 300 miles, which could be launched while the submarine was surfaced and moving less than four knots (7 km/h). Once surfaced, the first missile could be launched in about five minutes; subsequent missiles would follow within about ten seconds each. Initially, the missiles were the inertially-guided P-5. When submarine-launched ballistic missiles rendered the P-5s obsolescent, they were replaced with the P-6 designed to attack aircraft carriers. A special 10 m2 target guidance radar was built into the forward edge of the sail structure, which opened by rotating. One boat was eventually fitted with the Kasatka satellite downlink for targeting information to support P-500 4K-80 "Bazalt" anti-ship cruise missiles.
The P-15 Termit is an anti-ship missile developed by the Soviet Union's Raduga design bureau in the 1950s. Its GRAU designation was 4K40, its NATO reporting name was Styx or SS-N-2. China acquired the design in 1958 and created at least four versions: the CSS-N-1 Scrubbrush and CSS-N-2 versions were developed for ship-launched operation, while the CSS-C-2 Silkworm and CSS-C-3 Seersucker were used for coastal defence. Other names for this basic type of missile include: HY-1, SY-1, and FL-1 Flying Dragon. North Korean local produced KN-1 or KN-01, derived from both Silkworm variants and Russian & USSR P-15, Rubezh, P-20 P-22.
The P-700 Granit is a Soviet and Russian naval anti-ship cruise missile. Its GRAU designation is 3M45, its NATO reporting name SS-N-19 Shipwreck. It comes in surface-to-surface and submarine-launched variants, and can also be used against ground targets.
A submarine-launched cruise missile (SLCM) is a cruise missile that is launched from a submarine. Current versions are typically standoff weapons known as land-attack cruise missiles (LACMs), which are used to attack predetermined land targets with conventional or nuclear payloads. Anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs) are also used, and some submarine-launched cruise missiles have variants for both functions.
The Echo class were nuclear cruise missile submarines of the Soviet Navy built during the 1960s. Their Soviet designation was Project 659 for the first five vessels, and Project 675 for the following twenty-nine. Their NATO reporting names were Echo I and Echo II. All were decommissioned by 1994.
The P-120 Malakhit is a Russian medium range anti-ship missile used by corvettes and submarines. Introduced in 1972, it remains in service but has been superseded by the SS-N-22 Sunburn.
The Kresta I class, Soviet designation Project 1134 Berkut, was a class of guided missile cruiser built in the Soviet Union for the Soviet Navy. The ships were designed for a surface warfare role, but Soviet priorities were changed to an anti-submarine role and only four ships were built in this configuration. They were followed by the Kresta II class, an anti-submarine warfare variant.
The Slava class, Soviet designation Project 1164 Atlant, is a class of guided missile cruisers designed and constructed in the Soviet Union for the Soviet Navy, and currently operated by the Russian Navy.
The Kresta II class, Soviet designation Project 1134A Berkut A, was a class of guided missile cruiser built by the Soviet Union for the Soviet Navy. The NATO lists the class as "cruisers" mainly due to the Metel anti-ship missile system capable to strike not only submarines but also surface vessels.
The P-800 Oniks, also known in export markets as Yakhont, is a Soviet / Russian supersonic anti-ship cruise missile developed by NPO Mashinostroyeniya as a ramjet version of P-80 Zubr. Its GRAU designation is 3M55, the air launched Kh-61 variant also exists. The missile has the NATO codename SS-N-26 "Strobile". Development officially started in 1983, and in the 1990s the anti-ship missile was tested on the Project 1234.7 ship. In 2002 the missile passed the whole range of trials and was commissioned. It is reportedly a replacement of the P-270 Moskit, but possibly also of the P-700 Granit. The P-800 was used as the basis for the joint Russian-Indian supersonic missile BrahMos.
The Russian cruiser Marshal Ustinov, is a Slava-class cruiser of the Russian Navy. The Russian name for the ship type is Gvardeysky Raketnyy Kreyser (GRKR), meaning "Guards Missile Cruiser". The ship is named after Dmitriy Ustinov, a former Soviet Minister of Defence. Marshal Ustinov was assigned to the 43rd Missile Ship Division of the Russian Northern Fleet, whose homeport is in Severomorsk. From 2012 to 2016, the cruiser underwent a major overhaul. The vessel returned to service in 2017 and has since been deployed to the Mediterranean Sea.
The P-5 "Pyatyorka", also known by the NATO codename SS-N-3C Shaddock, is a Cold War era turbojet-powered cruise missile of the Soviet Union, designed by the Chelomey design bureau. The missile entered service in 1959. Pyatyorka is a common name for the missile as the "digit 5", corresponding to the R-7 Semyorka, the digit 7.
The P-70 Ametist was an anti-ship missile carried by Soviet and Indian Project 670 submarines, as well as the Soviet Project 661 Anchar. It was soon succeeded by the P-120 Malakhit (SS-N-9 'Siren').
Russian cruiser Varyag, is the third ship of the Slava-class of guided missile cruisers built for the Soviet Navy now serving the Russian Navy.
The Novator RK-55 Relief is a Russian land-based and submarine-launched cruise missile with a nuclear warhead developed in the Soviet Union. It was about to enter service in 1987, when such weapons were banned under the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. A version launched from submarine torpedo tubes, the S-10 Granat, has apparently been converted to carry conventional warheads and continues in service to this day. The Russian Federation was reported to have deployed the derivative SS-CX-7/SS-CX-8 systems on February 14, 2017.
The P-900 Alfa П-900 3М51 Альфа Alfa AFM-L, GRAU designation 3M51, is an anti-ship missile developed from SS-N-30 (3M14), P-800 Oniks and P-700 Granit.
Admiral Zozulya was the lead ship of the Soviet Navy Project 1134 Admiral Zozulya-class Large Anti-submarine Ship also known as the Kresta I Class guided missile cruisers. Launched in 1965, the ship was reclassified a Large Rocket Ship in 1977. Admiral Zozulya served primarily in the Northern Fleet during the Cold War, transferring to the Russian Navy at the dissolution of the Soviet Navy, and was decommissioned in 1994 after nearly thirty years of service.
Vitse-Admiral Drozd was the third ship of the Project 1134 Berkut Large Anti-submarine Ships built for the Soviet Navy, also known as the Kresta I-class or Admiral Zozulya-class guided missile cruisers. The vessel was launched on 18 November 1966 and served with the Baltic Fleet through the 1970s and 1980s. As well as taking part in naval exercises in the Atlantic, the ship assisted in the rescue of the crew of the stricken submarine K-19 in March 1972. Subsequently, the ship was visited by Sergey Gorshkov, commander of the Soviet Navy. The vessel was reclassified a Large Rocket Ship in 1977 to reflect its multi-purpose capability. After an upgrade in 1981, Vitse-Admiral Drozd continued to operate in the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean until being decommissioned in 1 July 1990. The ship was sent to India to be scrapped in March 1992 but sank en route.
Vladivostok was the second Soviet Navy Project 1134 Admiral Zozulya-class Large Anti-submarine Ship also known as a Kresta I guided missile cruiser. Launched on 1 August 1966, the ship was reclassified a Large Rocket Ship on 3 August 1978 to reflect the wide-ranging capability of the vessel. Serving primarily in the Pacific Fleet during the Cold War, Vladivostok took part in exercises and tours that demonstrated Soviet naval power in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The ship played a part at a number of points of potential escalation in the Cold War, including the Indo-Pakistani War of December 1971 and the collision between the aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk and the submarine K-314 in March 1984. Vladivostok was taken out of service to be modernised and updated on 28 September 1988 but there were insufficient funds to complete the work. Instead the ship was decommissioned on 19 April 1990 and, the following January, sold to an Australian company to be broken up.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to P-500 Bazalt .|