P-700 Granit

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P-700 Granit
(NATO reporting name: SS-N-19 'Shipwreck')
P-700-Granit sketch.svg
TypeLong-range cruise missile
Submarine-launched cruise missile, anti-ship missile
Place of origin Soviet Union/Russia
Service history
In serviceSince 1983
Used bySoviet Union, Russia
Production history
DesignerOKB-52/NPO Mashinostroyeniya, Vladimir Chelomey
Designed1970s
Produced1985–1992
Specifications
Mass7,000 kg (15,400 lb)
Length10 m (33 ft)
Diameter0.85 m (33 in)
Warhead High explosive or nuclear
Warhead weight750 kg (1,653 lb)
Blast yield500  kt

Engine turbojet and ramjet probable
Operational
range
625 km (388 mi) [1]
Maximum speed Mach 1.6 (low altitude)
Mach 2.5+ (high altitude)
Guidance
system
Inertial guidance, active radar homing with home-on-jam, and Legenda satellite targeting system (believed to be nonfunctional after the fall of the USSR)
Launch
platform
Oscar-class submarines
Kirov-class battlecruiser & Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier

The P-700 Granit (Russian : П-700 "Гранит"; English: granite ) is a Soviet and Russian naval anti-ship cruise missile. Its GRAU designation is 3M45, its NATO reporting name SS-N-19 Shipwreck. It comes in surface-to-surface and submarine-launched variants, and can also be used against ground targets. [2] [3]

Contents

Design and building

The P-700 was designed in the 1970s to replace the P-70 Ametist and P-120 Malakhit, both effective missiles but with too short a range in the face of improving weapons of U.S. Navy carrier battle groups. The missile was partially derived from the P-500 Bazalt.

Built by Chelomei/NPO Mashinostroenia, the bulging 10 m missile has swept-back wings and tail, weighs around 7,000 kilograms and can be fitted with either a 750 kg HE warhead, a FAE warhead, or a 500 kt thermonuclear warhead. A stubby cylindrical solid-fuel rocket is fitted to the rear for launch; this booster stage is released when the missile enters sustained flight. For many years it was believed that this missile used a turbojet engine during the sustained flight; after the Russian and the Western media gained access to its performance characteristics, it was understood that its propulsion system was a ramjet. [4] [5]

The P-700 has a distinctive annular air intake in the nose. Maximum speed is believed to be between Mach 1.6 and Mach 2.5. [6] Range has been estimated at 400 km, [7] 500 km, [3] and 550–625 km. [8] The guidance system is mixed-mode, with inertial guidance, terminal active radar homing guidance and also anti-radar homing. Mid-course correction is probable.

The missile, when fired in a swarm (group of 4–8) has a unique guidance mode. One of the weapons climbs to a higher altitude and designates targets while the others attack. The missile responsible for target designation climbs in short pop-ups, so as to be harder to intercept. The missiles are linked by data connections, forming a network. If the designating missile is destroyed the next missile will rise to assume its purpose. Missiles are able to differentiate targets, detect groups and prioritize targets automatically using information gathered during flight and types of ships and battle formations pre-programmed in an onboard computer. They will attack targets in order of priority, highest to lowest: after destroying the first target, any remaining missiles will attack the next prioritized target. [9] [10] Such description received some doubts. [11] The missile has a means of countering the attacking anti-missiles. Also, the on-board computer carries data designed to counter an enemy's electronic warfare and to evade counter-measures. [12] [13]

The P-700 was derived from the P-500 Bazalt missile with a turbojet. [14] The P-700 was in turn developed into the P-800 Oniks, which uses ramjet propulsion, and the BrahMos missile, a joint Indian/Russian modernization of the P-800.

Deployment

SS-N-19 launchers on the Kirov-class battlecruiser Frunze. SS-N-19.jpg
SS-N-19 launchers on the Kirov-class battlecruiser Frunze.

Initial deployment was aboard the cruiser Kirov (now the Admiral Ushakov) in 1980 and the missile entered service on 19 July 1983. [12]

Unusually for an aircraft carrier, the Kuznetsov-class also carried 12 Granit launchers. This gave the Admiral Kuznetsov an additional primary attack capability, [15] but also had the political advantage of classing the vessel as an aircraft cruiser instead. [lower-roman 1] Unconfirmed reports say that the missiles were removed in 2000, to provide more aircraft hangar space.

It is currently in service with the Russian Northern Fleet on the Kirov-class battlecruisers Admiral Nakhimov and Pyotr Velikyi , and with the Russian Northern and Pacific fleets as part of the armoury for the Oscar-class cruise missile submarines.

The Kursk carried 24 missiles when it sank following a torpedo explosion during an exercise on 12 August 2000. The Russian navy was extremely concerned about possible NATO attempts to recover a missile and guarded the site of the wreck throughout the recovery effort. The missiles were recovered intact following a $65 million salvage operation. [16] [17] [18] [19]

The size of the missile limits the platforms on which it can operate and be launched from. [20] It has only been deployed from Oscar-class submarines, Kirov-class battlecruisers, and the Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier. Ships of all three types will have their Granit missiles replaced with new launch cells to carry smaller Oniks and Kalibr [21] cruise missiles in greater numbers.

P-1000 Vulkan deployment

The P-1000 missile was partially derived from the P-500 and P-700. [22] [23] [24] Its maximum speed is claimed to be between Mach 1.5 - Mach 2.5 depending on altitude, and its range is claimed to be between 700 and 1000 km (800). [25] Warhead: 500 kg. Years of production 1985–1992. [26] The body of the missile resembles that of the P-500, but it has the ability of the P-700 to overcome defensive countermeasures. Long range missile can achieve the target only at low altitudes (up to 25 meters or lower) approximation (in which case the maximum range is less than 500 km).

Substitution in 2018

Officially - are being replaced by the Zircon (missile). [27]

Former operators

Current operators

See also

Related Research Articles

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Russian submarine <i>Kursk</i> (K-141)

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Oscar-class submarine

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<i>Kuznetsov</i>-class aircraft carrier ship class

The Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier, Soviet designation Project 11435, is a class of fixed-wing aircraft carriers operated by the Russian and Chinese navies. Originally designed for the Soviet Navy, the Kuznetsov-class ships use a ski-jump to launch high-performance conventional aircraft in a STOBAR configuration. The design represented a major advance in Soviet fleet aviation over the Kiev-class carriers, which could only launch VSTOL aircraft. The Soviet Union's classification for the class was as a heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser, which permits the ships to transit the Turkish Straits without violating the Montreux Convention, however the Chinese variants are classified as aircraft carriers.

The Type 65 is a torpedo manufactured in the Soviet Union/Russia. It was developed for use against US Navy aircraft carrier battle groups, as well as large merchant targets such as supertankers and advanced enemy submarines. It is now typically fitted to newer Russian vessels, though often the 650 mm torpedo bay is fitted with a 533 mm converter to enable firing of SS-N-15 missiles or Type 53 torpedoes.

Submarine-launched cruise missile

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Kh-55 Family of air-launched cruise missiles

The Kh-55 is a Soviet/Russian subsonic air-launched cruise missile, designed by MKB Raduga. It has a range of up to 2,500 km (1,350 nmi) and can carry nuclear warheads. Kh-55 is launched exclusively from bomber aircraft and has spawned a number of conventionally armed variants mainly for tactical use, such as the Kh-65SE and Kh-SD, but only the Kh-101 and Kh-555 appear to have made it into service. Contrary to popular belief, the Kh-55 was not the basis of the submarine- and ground-launched S-10 Granat or RK-55 Relief designed by NPO Novator. The RK-55 is very similar to the air-launched Kh-55 but the Kh-55 has a drop-down turbofan engine and was designed by MKB Raduga. Both have formed the basis of post-Cold-War missiles, in particular the Sizzler which has a supersonic approach phase.

The Kh-22 is a large, long-range anti-ship missile developed by MKB Raduga in the Soviet Union. It was intended for use against US Navy aircraft carriers and carrier battle groups, with either a conventional or nuclear warhead.

P-270 Moskit Type of Anti-ship missile

The P-270 Moskit is a Soviet supersonic ramjet powered anti-ship cruise missile. Its GRAU designation is 3M80, air launched variant is the Kh-41 and its NATO reporting name is SS-N-22 Sunburn. The missile system was designed by the Raduga Design Bureau during the 1970s as a follow up to the P-120 Malakhit. The Moskit was originally designed to be ship-launched, but variants have been adapted to be launched from land, underwater (submarines) and air, as well as on the Lun-class ekranoplan. The missile can carry conventional and nuclear warheads. The exact classification of the missile is unknown, with varying types reported. This uncertainty is due to the secrecy surrounding an active military weapon. The missile has been purchased and exported to the People's Liberation Army Navy (China) and Indian Navy (India).

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Burya

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SS-N-3 Shaddock

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3M-54 Kalibr Type of missile

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The 3M22 Zircon also spelled as 3M22 Tsirkon is a scramjet powered maneuvering anti-ship hypersonic cruise missile currently in testing by Russia.

References

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  3. 1 2 Video: Russia’s Oscar-II SSN Tomsk launches cruise missile against coastal target - Navyrecognition.com, 13 July 2017 (erroneous citation)
  4. Scott, Richard Russia's 'Shipwreck' missile enigma solved Jane's Naval Forces News. 10 September 2001
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  6. Antiship cruise missile "Granit" Archived 15 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  7. Kuznetsov Class (Type 1143.5) Aircraft Carrier, Russia - Naval-Technology.com
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  9. "[7.0] Soviet-Russian Naval Cruise Missiles / Chinese Cruise Missiles". Vectorsite.net. 13 August 2000. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
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  11. NAVAL&MERCHANT SHIPS 2012 May issue
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  14. Archived 15 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
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