|Owner||Port Authority of New York and New Jersey|
|Locale||Newark/Hudson County, New Jersey and Manhattan, New York|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||4|
|Number of stations||13|
|Daily ridership||280,859 (2018; weekdays)|
|Annual ridership||81,733,402 (2018)|
|Headquarters|| PATH Plaza |
130 Magnolia Avenue
Jersey City, NJ 07306
|Began operation||February 25, 1908 (as H&M Railroad)|
September 1, 1962 (as PATH)
|Operator(s)||Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation|
|Number of vehicles||350 PA5 cars|
|System length||13.8 mi (22.2 km)|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge|
|Electrification||600 V (DC) third rail|
Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) is a 13.8-mile (22.2 km) rapid transit system connecting the northeastern New Jersey cities of Newark, Harrison, Hoboken, and Jersey City with Lower and Midtown Manhattan in New York City. It is operated as a wholly owned subsidiary of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. PATH trains run around the clock year round; four routes serving 13 stations operate during the daytime on weekdays, while two routes operate during weekends, late nights, and holidays. Its tracks cross the Hudson River through century-old cast iron tubes that rest on the river bottom under a thin layer of silt. It operates as a deep-level subway in Manhattan and the Jersey City/Hoboken riverfront; from Newark to Grove Street in Jersey City, trains run in open cuts, at grade level, and on elevated track.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas. Unlike buses or trams, rapid transit systems are electric railways that operate on an exclusive right-of-way, which cannot be accessed by pedestrians or other vehicles of any sort, and which is often grade separated in tunnels or on elevated railways.
The Gateway Region is the primary urbanized area of the northeastern section of New Jersey, United States. It is anchored by Newark, the state's most populous city, and is often also known as the Newark metropolitan area.
Newark is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. As one of the nation's major air, shipping, and rail hubs, the city had a population of 282,090 in 2018, making it the nation's 73rd-most populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000.
The routes of the PATH system were originally operated by the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad (H&M), built to link New Jersey's Hudson Waterfront with New York City. The system began operations in 1908 and was fully built out in 1911, with three additional stations that have been closed. From the 1920s, the rise of automobile travel and the concurrent construction of bridges and tunnels across the river sent the H&M into a financial decline from which it never recovered, and it was forced into bankruptcy in 1954. As part of the deal that cleared the way for the construction of the original World Trade Center, the Port Authority bought the H&M out of receivership in 1962 and renamed it PATH. In the 2000s and 2010s the system has suffered considerably from some of the disasters that have affected New York, most notably the September 11 attacks and Hurricane Sandy. Both private and public owners have proposed expanding PATH service in New Jersey; construction on an extension to Newark Liberty International Airport is projected to start in 2020.
The Hudson Waterfront is an urban area of northeastern New Jersey along the lower reaches of the Hudson River, the Upper New York Bay and the Kill van Kull. Though the term can specifically mean the shoreline, it often used to mean the contiguous urban area between the Bayonne Bridge and the George Washington Bridge that is approximately 19 miles (31 km) long. Historically, the region has been known as Bergen Neck, the lower peninsula, and Bergen Hill, lower Hudson Palisades. It has sometimes been called the Gold Coast.
In the United States, bankruptcy is governed by federal law, commonly referred to as the "Bankruptcy Code" ("Code"). The United States Constitution authorizes Congress to enact "uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States". Congress has exercised this authority several times since 1801, including through adoption of the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978, as amended, codified in Title 11 of the United States Code and the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 (BAPCPA).
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,977 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people have died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks.
Unlike most other urban mass transit systems, PATH is under the jurisdiction of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), since it operates in close proximity to Northeast Corridor trackage and shares the Newark Dock Bridge with intercity and commuter trains. All PATH train operators must therefore be licensed railroad engineers, and extra inspections are required, making PATH very expensive for the Port Authority to operate. PATH currently uses one class of rolling stock, the PA5, which was delivered in 2009–2011.
The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) is an agency in the United States Department of Transportation (DOT). The agency was created by the Department of Transportation Act of 1966. The purpose of FRA is to promulgate and enforce rail safety regulations, administer railroad assistance programs, conduct research and development in support of improved railroad safety and national rail transportation policy, provide for the rehabilitation of Northeast Corridor rail passenger service, and consolidate government support of rail transportation activities.
The Northeast Corridor (NEC) is an electrified railroad line in the Northeast megalopolis of the United States. Owned primarily by Amtrak, it runs from Boston through Providence, New Haven, New York City, Philadelphia through Wilmington, and Baltimore to Washington, D.C. The NEC closely parallels Interstate 95 for most of its length, and is the busiest passenger rail line in the United States by ridership and service frequency as of 2013. The NEC carries more than 2,200 trains daily. Branches to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Springfield, Massachusetts, and various points in Virginia are not considered part of the Northeast Corridor, despite frequent service from routes that run largely on the corridor.
Dock Bridge is a pair of vertical lift bridges crossing the Passaic River at Newark, Essex County and Harrison, Hudson County, New Jersey, United States, used exclusively for railroad traffic. It is the seventh crossing from the river's mouth at Newark Bay and is 5.0 miles (8.0 km) upstream from it. Also known as the Amtrak Dock Vertical Lift, it carries Amtrak, NJ Transit, and PATH trains. It is listed on the state and federal registers of historic places.
The PATH system predates the New York City Subway's first underground line, operated by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. The Hudson & Manhattan Railroad (H&M) was planned in 1874, but it was not possible at that time to safely tunnel under the Hudson River. Construction began on the existing tunnels in 1890, but soon stopped when funding ran out. It resumed in 1900 under the direction of William Gibbs McAdoo, an ambitious young lawyer who had moved to New York from Chattanooga, Tennessee, and later became president of the H&M.The railroad became so closely associated with McAdoo that, in its early years, its lines were called the McAdoo Tubes or McAdoo Tunnels.
The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). Opened in 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the world's oldest public transit systems, one of the world's most-used rapid transit systems, and the rapid transit system with the most stations. It offers service 24 hours per day on every day of the year, though some routes may operate only part-time.
The first regularly operated subway in New York City was built by the city, and upon the completion of the subway's first segment in 1904, it was leased to the Interborough Rapid Transit Company for operation under Contracts 1 and 2, along with contract 3 of the Dual Contracts. For fourteen years, it consisted of a single trunk line below 96th Street with several northern branches. In 1918, a new "H" system was placed in service, with separate East Side and West Side lines; these lines still operate as part of the New York City Subway.
The Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) was the private operator of the original underground New York City Subway line that opened in 1904, as well as earlier elevated railways and additional rapid transit lines in New York City. The IRT was purchased by the city in June 1940. The former IRT lines are now the A Division or IRT Division of the Subway.
Construction started on the first tunnel, now called the Uptown Hudson Tubes, in 1873. 14 Chief engineer Dewitt Haskin built the tunnel by using compressed air to open a space in the mud and then lining it with brick. The railroad got 1,200 feet (366 m) from Jersey City this way :12 until a lawsuit stopped work; accidents, including a particularly serious one in 1880 that killed 20 workers, caused additional delays. The project was abandoned in 1883 due to a lack of funds. :67 :12 An effort by a British company, between 1888 and 1892, also failed.:
The Uptown Hudson Tubes are a pair of tunnels that carry PATH trains between Manhattan, New York City, to the east and Jersey City, New Jersey, to the west. The tubes originate at a junction of two PATH lines on the New Jersey shore and cross eastward under the Hudson River. On the Manhattan side, the tubes run mostly underneath Christopher Street and Sixth Avenue, making four intermediate stops before terminating at 33rd Street station. Despite their name, the tubes do not enter Uptown Manhattan, but are so named because they are located to the north of the Downtown Hudson Tubes, which connect Jersey City and the World Trade Center.
Compressed air is air kept under a pressure that is greater than atmospheric pressure. Compressed air is an important medium for transfer of energy in industrial processes. Compressed air is used for power tools such as air hammers, drills, wrenches and others. Compressed air is used to atomize paint, to operate air cylinders for automation, and can also be used to propel vehicles. Brakes applied by compressed air made large railway trains safer and more efficient to operate. Compressed air brakes are also found on large highway vehicles.
When the New York and New Jersey Railroad Company resumed construction on the uptown tubes in 1902, its chief engineer, Charles M. Jacobs, used a different method. He had workers push a shield through the mud and then place tubular cast iron plating around the tube.The northern tube of the uptown tunnel was completed this way shortly after work resumed and the southern tube was built the same way. The uptown tubes were completed in 1906.
By the end of 1904, the New York City Board of Rapid Transit Commissioners had given the company permission to build a new subway line through Midtown Manhattan to connect with the Uptown Hudson Tubes, along with 26 years of exclusive rights to the line. The Midtown Manhattan line would travel eastward under Christopher Street before turning northeastward under Sixth Avenue, then continue underneath Sixth Avenue to a terminus at 33rd Street.
In January 1905, the Hudson Companies, with $21 million in capital, were incorporated to complete the Uptown Hudson Tubes and building the Sixth Avenue line as well as construct the Uptown Hudson Tubes' subway connections on both sides of the river.The H&M was incorporated in December 1906 to operate a passenger railroad system between New York and New Jersey via the Uptown and Downtown Tubes.
A second pair of tunnels, the current Downtown Hudson Tubes, was built about 1 1⁄4 miles (2.0 km) south of the first one. Three years of construction using the tubular cast iron method finished in 1909. :18 The uptown and downtown tunnels had two tubes with a single unidirectional track. The eastern sections of the tunnels, in Manhattan, were built with the cut and cover method.
Test runs of empty trains started in late 1907. 21 This became part of the current Hoboken–33rd Street line. :2 The H&M system was powered by a 650-volt direct current third rail, which in turn drew power from an 11,000-volt transmission system with three substations. The substations were the Jersey City Powerhouse, as well as two smaller substations at the Christopher Street and Hudson Terminal stations.Revenue service started between Hoboken Terminal and 19th Street at midnight on February 26, 1908, when President Theodore Roosevelt pressed a button at the White House that turned on the electric lines in the uptown tubes (the first train carrying passengers, all selected officials, had run the previous day). :
An extension of H&M from 19th Street to 23rd Street opened in June 1908. 3 A new line running between 23rd Street and Hudson Terminal was created in September. :3 Almost a year after that, the H&M was extended from Exchange Place west to Grove Street, and the 23rd Street–Hudson Terminal line was rerouted to Grove Street, becoming part of the current Journal Square–33rd Street line. A fourth line, Grove Street–Hudson Terminal (now the Newark–World Trade Center line), was also created. :3 In November 1910, the Hoboken-23rd Street and Grove Street-23rd Street lines were extended from 23rd Street to 33rd Street.In July 1909, service began between the Hudson Terminal in Lower Manhattan and Exchange Place in Jersey City, through the downtown tubes. The connection between Exchange Place and the junction near Hoboken Terminal opened two weeks later, forming the basic route for the Hoboken-Hudson Terminal (now Hoboken–World Trade Center) line. :
The Grove Street–Hudson Terminal line was extended west from Grove Street to Manhattan Transfer in October 1911, 7 The final cost was estimated at $55–$60 million. A stop at Summit Avenue (now Journal Square), located between Grove Street and Manhattan Transfer, opened in April 1912 as an infill station on the Newark-Hudson Terminal line, though only one platform was in use at the time. The station was completed by February 1913, allowing service from 33rd Street to terminate there. :7 The last station, at Harrison, opened a month later.and then to Park Place in Newark on November 26 of that year. After completion of the uptown Manhattan extension to 33rd Street and the westward extension to the now-defunct Manhattan Transfer and Park Place Newark terminus in 1911, the H&M was complete. :
Originally, the Hudson Tubes were designed to link three major railroad terminals on the Hudson River in New Jersey—the Erie Railroad (Erie) and Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) in Jersey City and the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad (DL&W) in Hoboken—with New York City. While PATH still connects to train stations in Hoboken and Newark, the Erie's Pavonia Terminal at what is now Newport and the PRR terminal at Exchange Place station have been closed and demolished. There were early negotiations for New York Penn Station to also be shared by the two railroads.In 1908, McAdoo proposed to build a branch of the H&M southward to the Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal at Communipaw.
When the rapid transit commissioners approved construction of the H&M's Sixth Avenue line in 1904, they left open the option of digging an east-west crosstown line. The New York and New Jersey Railroad Company received perpetual rights to dig under Christopher and Ninth Streets eastward to either Second Avenue or Astor Place. 22 The project was started but soon abandoned; about 250 feet (76 m) of the tube that was dug still exists. :22:
In February 1900 the H&M announced plans to extend its Uptown Tubes northeast to Grand Central Terminal, located at Park Avenue and 42nd Street.The openings of the 28th and 33rd Street stations were delayed because of planning for the Grand Central extension. The New York Times speculated that the downtown tunnels would see more passenger use than the uptown tunnels because they better served the city's financial district.
The Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT), a competitor to the H&M, proposed to connect its Lexington Avenue line to the H&M at Grand Central, Astor Place, and Fulton Street–Hudson Terminal once the planned system was complete.Its terminus at Grand Central was supposed to be located directly below the IRT's 42nd Street line but above the IRT's Steinway Tunnel to Queens. However, the IRT constructed an unauthorized ventilation shaft between its two levels in an effort to force the H&M to build its station very deeply, making it less accessible. As an alternative, it was proposed to connect the Uptown Tubes to the Steinway Tunnel. A franchise to extend the Uptown Tubes to Grand Central was awarded in June 1909.
By 1914, the H&M had not yet started construction of the Grand Central extension, and requested a delay. 55 Six years later, the H&M had submitted 17 applications for delays; in all of them, the railroad said it was not the best time for construction. The Rapid Transit Commissioners declined the last one, effectively ending the H&M's rights to a Grand Central extension. :55–56:
In September 1910, McAdoo proposed another expansion, consisting of a second north-south line through midtown. It would run 4 miles (6.4 km) from Hudson Terminal to 33rd Street and Sixth Avenue, underneath Herald Square and near the H&M's existing 33rd Street station. The new line would run mainly under Broadway, with a small section of the line in the south under Church Street. Under McAdoo's plan, the city could take ownership of this line within 25 years of completion.
That November, McAdoo also proposed that the two-track Broadway line be tied into the IRT's original subway line in Lower Manhattan. The Broadway line, going southbound, would merge with the local tracks of the IRT's Lexington Avenue line in the southbound direction at 10th Street. A spur off the Lexington Avenue line in Lower Manhattan, in the back of Trinity Church, would split eastward under Wall Street, cross the East River to Brooklyn, then head down Fourth Avenue in Brooklyn, with another spur underneath Lafayette Avenue. McAdoo wanted not only to operate what was then called the "Triborough System", but also the chance to bid on the Fourth Avenue line in the future.The franchise for the Broadway line was ultimately awarded to the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT) in 1913, as part of the Dual Contracts.
In 1909, McAdoo considered extending the H&M in New Jersey, building a branch north to Montclair, in Essex County. A route extending north from Newark would continue straight to East Orange. From there, branches would split to South Orange in the south and Montclair in the north.
A record 113 million people rode the H&M in 1927. 55 Ridership declined after the opening of the Holland Tunnel late that year and fell further once the Depression began. :55 The opening of the George Washington Bridge in 1931 and the Lincoln Tunnel in 1937 drew more riders out of trains and into their cars. :56 The Summit Avenue station was renovated and rededicated as "Journal Square" in 1929; the railroad's powerhouse in Jersey City shut down later that year, as its system could now draw energy from the greater power grid. :7:
In the 1930s, service to the Uptown Hudson Tubes in Manhattan was affected by the construction of the Independent Subway System (IND)'s Sixth Avenue Line. The 33rd Street terminal closed in late 1937; service on the H&M was cut back to 28th Street to allow for subway construction.The 33rd Street terminal was moved south to 32nd Street and reopened in 1939. The city had to pay the railroad $800,000 to build the new 33rd Street station; it reimbursed H&M $300,000 more for lost revenue. The 28th Street station was closed at this time as unnecessary since the southern entrances to the 33rd Street terminal were only two blocks away; it was later demolished to make room for the IND tracks below.
The Manhattan Transfer station was closed in mid-1937, and the H&M realigned to Newark Penn Station from the Park Place terminus a quarter-mile (400 m) north; the Harrison station across the Passaic River was moved several blocks south as a result. The upper level of the Centre Street Bridge to Park Place later became Route 158.
Promotions and other advertising failed to stem the financial decline of the H&M. The 19th Street station in Manhattan was closed in 1954.That year year, the H&M entered receivership due to its constant losses. It operated under bankruptcy protection; in 1956 the two states agreed to settle its unpaid back taxes for $1.9 million. That year, the H&M saw 37 million annual passengers, and transportation experts called for subsidies. One expert proposed a "rail loop", with the Uptown Hudson Tubes connecting to the IND Sixth Avenue Line, then continuing up Sixth Avenue and west via a new tunnel to Weehawken, New Jersey. By 1958, ridership had dropped to 30.46 million annual passengers. Two years later, creditors approved a reorganization plan. During this time, H&M workers went on strike twice over wages: for two days in 1953, and for a month in 1957.
Plans for the World Trade Center in the early 1960s entailed a compromise between the Port Authority and the state governments of New York and New Jersey. The Port Authority agreed to purchase and maintain the Tubes in return for the rights to build the World Trade Center on the land occupied by H&M's Hudson Terminal, which was the Lower Manhattan terminus of the Tubes.A formal agreement was made in January 1962; four months later, the Port Authority set up two wholly owned subsidiaries: the Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation (PATH) to operate the H&M lines, as well as another subsidiary to operate the World Trade Center. All of the Port Authority's operations would have been subjected to federal Interstate Commerce Commission rules if it ran the trains directly, but with the creation of the PATH Corporation, only the subsidiary's operations would be federally regulated.
In September, the Port Authority formally took over the H&M Railroad and the Tubes, rebranding the system as Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH). 58 Upon taking over the H&M, the PANYNJ spent $70 million to modernize its infrastructure. The PANYNJ also repainted H&M stations into the new PATH livery. In 1964, the authority ordered 162 PA1 railway cars to replace the H&M rolling stock, much of which dated to 1909. The first PA1 cars were delivered in 1965. Subsequently, the agency ordered 44 PA2 cars in 1967 and 46 PA3 cars in 1972.:
As part of the World Trade Center's construction, the Port Authority decided to demolish the Hudson Terminal and construct a new World Trade Center Terminal on the site.Groundbreaking on the World Trade Center took place in 1966. During excavation and construction, the original Downtown Hudson Tubes remained in service as elevated tunnels. The new World Trade Center Terminal was opened in 1971 at a different location from the original Hudson Terminal. It cost $35 million to build, and saw 85,000 daily passengers at the time of its opening. The Hudson Terminal was then shut down.
In January 1973, the Port Authority released plans to double the route mileage of the PATH system. 15-mile (24 km) extension of the Newark–World Trade Center line from Newark Penn Station to Plainfield, New Jersey. A stop at Elizabeth would allow PATH to serve Newark Airport as well. At the Newark Airport stop, there would be a transfer to a people mover serving the terminals themselves. Preliminary studies of the right-of-way, as well as a design contract, were conducted that year. The extension was approved in 1975.The plan called for a
The Federal Urban Mass Transit Administration was less enthusiastic about the proposed extension's efficacy and reluctant to give the Port Authority the $322 million it had requested for the project, about 80% of the projected cost.Eventually, the administration agreed to back it. But in 1977 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the two state legislatures had violated the U.S. Constitution's Contract Clause by repealing a covenant in the 1962 bond agreements in order to make the extension possible, significantly setting the project back. In June 1978, the extension, by then estimated to cost $600 million, was canceled in favor of improving bus service in New Jersey.
Labor problems also beset PATH during this time.After a January 1973 strike over salary increases was averted, talks failed and workers walked out in April. A month into the strike, negotiations broke down again; the union returned to work in June.
The 1980 New York City transit strike suspended service on the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA)'s bus and subway routes for 10 days. A special PATH route ran from 33rd Street to World Trade Center via Midtown Manhattan, Pavonia–Newport, and Exchange Place during the NYCTA strike.PATH motormen also threatened to go on strike during this time for different reasons. The special service was suspended in April after some workers refused overtime.
In June, PATH workers again went on strike for higher pay, their first such action since 1973.During the strike, moisture built up in the tunnels and rust accumulated on the tracks; pumps in the underwater tunnels remained in operation, preventing the tubes from flooding. Alternative service across the Hudson River was provided by "inadequate" shuttle buses through the Holland Tunnel. The 81-day strike was the longest in PATH's history.
Substantial growth in PATH ridership during the 1980s required expansion and improvement of the railroad's infrastructure. The Port Authority announced a plan in 1988 that would allow stations on the Newark–WTC line to accommodate longer eight-car trains while seven-car trains could operate between Journal Square and 33rd Street.Two years later, it announced a $1 billion plan to renovate the PATH stations and add new cars. Video monitors were installed in stations to make money from advertising. PATH also sought a fare hike, even though that would reduce its per passenger subsidy, to reduce its $135 million annual deficit. By 1992, the Port Authority had spent $900 million on infrastructure improvements, including repairing tracks, modernizing communications and signaling, replacing ventilation equipment, and installing elevators at seven stations per the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA).
A $225 million car maintenance facility was opened in Harrison in 1990. It replaced PATH's old Henderson Street Yard—a below-grade, open-air train storage yard at the northeast corner of Marin Boulevard and Christopher Columbus Drive just east of the Grove Street station.
High tides from the December 1992 nor'easter flooded the PATH tunnels, including a 2,500–3,000-foot (760–910 m) section between Hoboken and Pavonia. Most trains were stopped before reaching the floods, but one became stalled near Hoboken Terminal. Some water pumps within the system were overwhelmed. The Newark–World Trade Center service was not disrupted afterwards, but the Journal Square–33rd Street service was slowed because several spots along the route needed to be pumped out. Service to Hoboken was suspended for 10 days, the longest disruption since the summer 1980 strike.
A section of ceiling in the World Trade Center PATH station collapsed and trapped dozens during the 1993 World Trade Center bombing;the station itself did not suffer any structural damage. Within three days, PATH service to the station resumed.
In the summer of 1993, the Port Authority banned tobacco advertisements in all trains and stations. A new wash for cars opened in mid-September 1993 in Jersey City, replacing the one at the 33rd Street terminal. 1⁄2 minutes. Weekend Hoboken–World Trade Center service began in October 1996 on a six-month trial basis, and the express Newark–World Trade Center service was made permanent on the same day.In April 1994, an ADA-compliant entrance to the Exchange Place station was opened. Two years later, three trains began running express on the Newark–World Trade Center service for six months, cutting running time by 3
The World Trade Center station in Lower Manhattan, under the World Trade Center, one of PATH's two New York terminals, was destroyed during the September 11 attacks, when the Twin Towers above it collapsed. Just prior to the collapse, the station was closed and any passengers in it were evacuated. 107:
Service to Lower Manhattan was suspended indefinitely.Exchange Place, the next-to-last station before World Trade Center, had to be closed as well because it could not operate as a terminal station; trains could not turn around there; the station had also suffered severe water damage during the attacks. A temporary PATH terminal at the World Trade Center was approved in December 2001 and was set to open within two years of that date.
Shortly after the September 11 attacks, the Port Authority started operating two uptown services (Newark–33rd Street, colored red on the map, and Hoboken–33rd Street, colored blue), 108and one intrastate New Jersey service (Hoboken–Journal Square, colored green). One nighttime service was instituted: Newark–33rd Street (via Hoboken), colored red-and-blue. In the meantime, modifications were made to a stub end tunnel to allow trains from Newark to reach the Hoboken bound tunnel and vice versa. The modifications required PATH to bore through the bedrock dividing the stub tunnel and the tunnels to and from Newark. This tunnel was known as the Penn Pocket, originally built for short turn World Trade Center to Exchange Place runs to handle PRR commuters from Harborside Terminal. The new Exchange Place station opened on June 29, 2003. Because of the original alignment of the tracks, trains to or from Hoboken used separate tunnels from the Newark service. Eastbound trains from Newark crossed over to the westbound track just west of Exchange Place. Trains then reversed direction and used a crossover switch to go to Hoboken. Eastbound trains from Hoboken entered on the eastbound track at Exchange Place. The train then reversed direction and used the same crossover switch to go to the westbound track to Newark before entering Grove Street. :
PATH service to Lower Manhattan was restored when a new, $323 million second station opened in November 2003; the inaugural train was the same one that had been used for the evacuation. 108–110 The second, temporary station contained portions of the original station, but did not have heating or air conditioning systems. The temporary entrance was closed in July 2007, and demolished to make way for the third, permanent station; around the same time, the Church Street entrance opened. A new entrance on Vesey Street opened in March 2008; the entrance on Church Street was demolished.:
In the early morning hours of October 29, 2012, PATH service was suspended system-wide in advance of Hurricane Sandy. The following day, New Jersey Governor Chris Christie announced that PATH service would be out for 7–10 days as a result of the storm damage. Storm surge from the hurricane caused significant flooding to the Hoboken and Jersey City stations, as well as at the World Trade Center. An image captured by a PATH security camera showing the ingress of water at Hoboken during the storm quickly spread across the Internet and became one of several representative images of the hurricane.
The first PATH trains after the hurricane were the Journal Square–33rd Street service, which resumed on November 6 and ran only during the daytime.Service was extended west to Harrison and Newark on November 12, in place of the Newark–World Trade Center service. Christopher Street and 9th Street were reopened during the weekend of November 17–18, but remained closed for five days afterward. Normal weekday service on the Newark–World Trade Center and Journal Square–33rd Street lines resumed on November 26. On weekends, trains operated using the Newark–33rd Street service pattern.
The PATH station at Hoboken Terminal suffered major damage after flooding as high as eight feet (2.4 m) submerged the tunnels; it was closed for several weeks so $300 million worth of repairs could be done. The Newark–33rd Street route was suspended for two weekends in mid-December, with the Newark–World Trade Center running in its place, in order to expedite the return of Hoboken service. Hoboken Terminal reopened in December for weekday daytime Hoboken–33rd Street service, followed by the resumption of weekday 24-hour PATH service in early 2013. The Hoboken–World Trade Center trains resumed in late January, and the pre-hurricane service patterns were restored by March.
The Downtown Hudson Tubes were severely damaged by Sandy. As a result, to accommodate repairs, service on the Newark–World Trade Center line between Exchange Place and World Trade Center was to be suspended during almost all weekends, except for holidays, in 2019 and 2020.
The construction of the permanent four-platform World Trade Center Transportation Hub started in July 2008, when the first prefabricated "ribs" for the pedestrian walkway under Fulton Street were installed.Platform A, the first part of the permanent station, opened in February 2014, serving Hoboken-bound riders. Platform B and the remaining half of Platform A opened in May 2015. The Oculus headhouse partially opened to the public in March 2016, marking the formal opening of the hub. Platforms C and D, the last two, were opened that September.
The Port Authority also began rebuilding the Harrison station in New Jersey in 2009.The station has longer and wider platforms to allow 10-car trains; street-level-to-platform elevators within the platform extensions, in compliance with the ADA, and architectural modifications to its appearance. The westbound platform of the new Harrison station opened to the public in October 2018 and the eastbound platform opened the following June.
In January 2010, PATH announced that it would be spending $321 million to upgrade its signal system to use communications-based train control (CBTC), using Siemens' Trainguard MT CBTC, to accommodate anticipated growth in ridership.The CBTC system would replace a fixed-block signaling system, which involved signals placed beside the track and was four decades old at the time. It would reduce the headway time between trains, so that more trains could run during rush hours. In conjunction with the project, the entire PATH fleet was replaced by a fleet of 340 CBTC-equipped PA5 cars, constructed by Kawasaki Railcar; though the original contract was completed in 2011, additional cars were delivered in subsequent years. By implementing CBTC, PATH's goal was to increase passenger capacity from the current 240,000 passengers a day to 290,000. The entire system was originally expected to become operational in 2017. In conjunction with the CBTC upgrade, the Port Authority spent $659 million to upgrade 13 platforms on the Newark–World Trade Center line so that they could accommodate 10-car trains; prior to the upgrade, the line could only run eight-car-long trains.
Along with CBTC, PATH began installing positive train control (PTC), another safety system, during the 2010s, per a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) mandate that all American railroads have it by the end of 2018; PATH was ahead of schedule by 2017.The Newark–World Trade Center line west of Journal Square was converted to PTC operation in April 2018, followed by the segments of track east and west of Journal Square the following month. This caused delays across the entire system when train operators had to slow down and manually adjust their trains to switch between the two signaling systems. PTC was tested on the Uptown Hudson Tubes from July to October 2018, forcing weekend closures. The positive train control upgrade for the PATH system was finished at the end of November 2018, a month ahead of schedule; and the entire system was converted by December.
The Port Authority also installed two amenities in all PATH stations. Cellphone service at the nine underground stations was added for AT&T and T-Mobile customers in November 2018, followed by corresponding service for Verizon and Sprint customers in early 2019.Additionally, "countdown clocks", which display the duration until the next train arrives, were installed in all PATH stations in 2019.
Subsequently, in June 2019, the Port Authority released the PATH Improvement Plan, calling for over $1 billion in investments, including $80 million to extend Newark–World Trade Center platforms, as well as funding for two ongoing projects: $752.6 million to complete the CBTC system by 2022 and $215.7 million on the new PA5 cars by 2022. The projects would increase train frequencies on the Newark-World Trade Center line by 40% and on other lines by 20% during rush hours.Every train on the Newark–World Trade Center line would consist of 9-car trains. In addition, the platform at Grove Street would be extended eastward, at the Marin Boulevard end of the station, and two additional cross-corridors would be added at Exchange Place. The Port Authority would also allocate funds to study the implementation of 10-car trains. In September 2019, service on the Newark–World Trade Center and Journal Square–33rd Street lines would be increased by 10% during rush hours, reducing the headway between trains from 4 to 3 minutes. These changes were made possible by the improved signal system. The implementation of CBTC would be complete in 2022.
In the mid-2000s, a Newark Airport extension was again considered as the Port Authority allocated $31 million to conduct a feasibility study of extending PATH two miles (3.2 km) from Newark Penn Station, estimated at that time to cost $500 million; the study began in 2012. The following September, Crain's reported that New Jersey Governor Chris Christie would publicly support the PATH extension; its estimated cost had grown to $1 billion. The governor asked that the airport's largest operator, United Airlines, consider flying to Atlantic City International Airport as an enticement to further the project.
In February 2014, the Port Authority's Board of Commissioners approved a 10-year capital plan that included the PATH extension to NJ Transit's Newark Liberty International Airport Station. km) further south to the Newark Airport station, where a connection to AirTrain Newark is available. At the time, construction was expected to begin in 2018 and last five years.The alignment would follow the existing Northeast Corridor approximately one mile (1.6
In late 2014, there were calls for reconsideration of Port Authority funding priorities. The PATH extension followed the route of existing Manhattan-to-Newark Airport train service (on NJ Transit's Northeast Corridor Line and North Jersey Coast Line as well as Amtrak's Keystone Service and Northeast Regional ). On the other hand, there was no funding for either the Gateway Tunnel, a pair of commuter train tunnels that would supplement the North River Tunnels under the Hudson River, or the replacement of the aging and overcrowded Port Authority Bus Terminal.In December 2014, the PANYNJ awarded a three-year, $6 million contract to HNTB to perform cost analysis on the Newark Airport extension.
Three years later, the PANYNJ released its 10-year capital plan that included $1.7 billion for the extension; construction was projected to start in 2020, with service in 2025.Two public meetings on the project were held in early December 2017. A presentation at those meetings showed the new PATH station would include a park-and-ride lot as well as a new entrance to the station from the nearby Dayton neighborhood.
Port Authority Trans-Hudson
Weekends, late nights, and holidays
PATH operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week. During weekday hours, PATH operates four train services, using three terminals in New Jersey and two in Manhattan. These services are direct descendants of the four original services operated by the H&M. During late nights, weekends and holidays, PATH operates two services from two terminals in New Jersey and two in Manhattan.
Each line is represented by a unique color on timetables and service maps, which also corresponds to the color of the marker lights on the front of the trains. The Journal Square–33rd Street (via Hoboken) service is the only line represented by two colors (yellow and blue), since it is a late-night/weekend/holiday combination of PATH's two midtown services, Journal Square–33rd Street and Hoboken–33rd Street. During peak hours, trains operate every four to eight minutes on each service. Every PATH station except Newark and Harrison is served by a train every two to three minutes, for a peak-hour service of 20 to 30 trains per hour.
PATH management has two principal passenger outreach initiatives: the "PATHways" newsletter, distributed for free at terminals, as well as the Patron Advisory Committee.
In 2018 [update] , PATH saw 81,733,402 passengers. On average, the system was used by 280,859 passengers per weekday; 112,768 per Saturday; 83,100 per Sunday; and 121,227 per holiday. The busiest station was World Trade Center, while the least busy station was 9th Street. The 2018 ridership was down by around one million compared to 2017, but ridership was still nearly a record for PATH operation, having increased 10 million from 2013. PATH loses about $400 million per year, and is subsidized by the Port Authority from surpluses at its other operations, such as airports and seaports.
The PATH system has 13.8 miles (22.2 km) of route mileage, counting route overlaps only once. During the daytime on weekdays, four services operate:
Between 11:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. Monday to Friday, and all-day Saturday, Sunday, and holidays, PATH operates two train services:
Prior to 2006, Hoboken–World Trade Center and Journal Square–33rd Street services were offered on Saturday, Sunday, and holidays between 9:00 a.m. and 7:30 p.m. In April 2006, these services were indefinitely discontinued at those times and replaced with the Journal Square–33rd Street (via Hoboken) service. During off-peak hours, passengers wanting to travel from Hoboken to Lower Manhattan were told to take the Journal Square–33rd Street (via Hoboken) service to Grove Street and transfer to the Newark–World Trade Center train.
PATH does not normally operate directly from Newark to Midtown Manhattan. Passengers wanting to travel from Newark to Midtown via PATH are told to transfer to the Journal Square-33rd Street service at Journal Square or Grove Street.However, after both the September 11 attacks and Hurricane Sandy, special Newark–33rd Street services were operated to compensate for the complete loss of service to Lower Manhattan. An intrastate Journal Square–Hoboken service was also operated after the attacks. The Journal Square–Hoboken and Newark–33rd Street services instituted after the attacks were canceled by 2003. From July to October 2018, because of PTC installation on the Uptown Hudson Tubes, the Journal Square–33rd Street (via Hoboken) service was suspended on most weekends. In the meantime, it was replaced by the Journal Square–World Trade Center (via Hoboken) and the restored Journal Square–Hoboken services, since all stations between Christopher and 33rd Streets were closed during the weekends.
Lengths of trains on all lines except the Newark–World Trade Center line are limited to seven cars, since the platforms at Hoboken, Christopher Street, 9th Street, and 33rd Street can only accommodate that many and cannot be extended.The Newark–World Trade Center line can accommodate eight-car trains. In 2009, the Port Authority started upgrading platforms along that line so that it could accommodate 10-car trains.
There are currently 13 active PATH stations:
|NY||New York||33rd Street||HOB–33 |
|November 10, 1910|| NJ Transit, Long Island Rail Road, Amtrak (at New York Penn Station)|
NYC Subway: B , D , F , <F> , M , N , Q , R , and W trains
|28th Street||Closed||November 10, 1910||Closed September 24, 1939 when the 33rd Street station was extended southward.|
|23rd Street||HOB–33 |
|June 15, 1908|| NYC Subway: F , <F> , and M trains|
|19th Street||Closed||February 25, 1908||Closed in 1954 after the southbound platform lost its only exit, in order to accelerate service|
|14th Street||HOB–33 |
|February 25, 1908|| NYC Subway: 1 , 2 , 3 , F and <F> , L , and M trains|
|9th Street||HOB–33 |
|February 25, 1908|| NYC Subway: A , B , C , D , E , F , <F> , and M trains|
|Christopher Street||HOB–33 |
|February 25, 1908|| NYC Subway: 1 and 2 trains|
|Hudson Terminal||Closed||July 19, 1909||Closed in 1971 when service opened to World Trade Center.|
|World Trade Center||NWK–WTC |
|July 6, 1971|| NYC Subway: 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , A , C , E , J , N , R , W , Z , 1 , and E trains|
NYCT Bus, MTA Bus
|Closed from September 11, 2001 to November 23, 2003. |
Closed on most weekends (except holidays) in 2019 and 2020 due to repair work; NWK-WTC service curtailed to Exchange Place during closures
|February 25, 1908|| NJ Transit, Metro-North |
Hudson-Bergen Light Rail
|Jersey City||Newport||HOB–WTC |
|August 2, 1909|| Hudson-Bergen Light Rail |
NJT Bus, Academy Bus
|Originally a station for the Erie Railroad. Formerly known as Pavonia/Newport until 2011|
|Exchange Place||NWK–WTC |
|July 19, 1909|| Hudson-Bergen Light Rail |
NJT Bus, A&C Bus
|Will serve as eastern terminus of NWK-WTC services on most weekends through 2020 due to repair work in Downtown Hudson Tubes|
|Grove Street||NWK–WTC |
|September 6, 1910||NJT Bus, R&T Bus, A&C Bus||Originally Grove-Henderson Streets|
|Journal Square||NWK–WTC |
|April 14, 1912 :2||NJT Bus, R&T Bus, A&C Bus||Originally Summit Avenue :2|
|Harrison||Harrison||NWK–WTC||June 20, 1937||NJT Bus||Originally one and a half blocks north (opened March 6, 1913 :3)|
|Manhattan Transfer||Closed||October 1, 1911||Closed in 1937 when the H&M was realigned to Newark Penn Station|
|Newark||Newark||NWK–WTC||June 20, 1937|| Amtrak, NJ Transit, Newark Light Rail |
NJT Bus, ONE Bus
|Replacement for Park Place and Manhattan Transfer stations|
|Park Place||Closed||November 26, 1911||Closed in 1937 when the H&M was realigned to Newark Penn Station|
All terminals (33rd Street, Hoboken, World Trade Center, Journal Square and Newark) are compliant with the ADA, as are Harrison, Exchange Place, Grove Street, and Pavonia/Newport. Harrison was made fully accessible in 2019.The only non-accessible stations are the four intermediate stations on the Manhattan side of the Uptown Tubes–Christopher Street, 9th Street, 14th Street and 23rd Street.
The Port Authority charges a single flat fee to ride the PATH system, regardless of distance traveled. As of October 1,2014 [update] , a single PATH ride is $2.75; two-trip tickets are $5.50; 10-trip, 20-trip, and 40-trip cards charge $2.10 per trip; a seven-day unlimited, $29; and a 30-day unlimited, $89. A senior SmartLink costs $1. Single ride tickets are valid for two hours from time of purchase. While some PATH stations are adjacent to or connected to New York City Subway, Newark Light Rail, Hudson-Bergen Light Rail, and NJ Transit commuter rail stations, there are no free transfers between these different, independently run transit systems.
The H&M used a tier-based fare system where a different fare was paid based on where the passenger was traveling. For instance, prior to September 1961, an interstate fare to or from all stations except Newark Penn Station was 25 cents, while an intrastate fare was 15 cents. That month, the interstate fare was increased to 30 cents, and the intrastate fare to 20 cents. A fare to or from Newark Penn, regardless of the origin or destination point, was 40 cents because the station's operations were shared with the Pennsylvania Railroad at the time.Under Port Authority operation, the PATH fare to and from Newark was lowered in 1966, standardizing the interstate fare to 30 cents. The intrastate fare of 15 cents was doubled in 1970, resulting in a flat rate for the entire system.
PATH fares were paid with brass tokens starting in 1965. The Port Authority ordered 1 million tokens in 1962 and bought a half-million more in 1967. The Port Authority discontinued the sale of tokens in 1971 as a cost-cutting measure, since it cost $900,000 a year to maintain the token fare system. The agency replaced the turnstiles in its stations with new ones that accepted the 30-cent fare in exact change.
A paper ticket called the QuickCard, introduced in June 1990,was valid only on the PATH system. It stored fare information on a magnetic stripe.
The QuickCard was replaced by the SmartLink card in 2008as sales were phased out across the system and at NJ Transit ticket machines. By late 2008, PATH had deactivated all turnstiles that accepted cash; they continued to accept the various cards.
The QuickCard was replaced by SmartLink Gray, a non-refillable, disposable version of the SmartLink card. This card was sold at selected newsstand vendors and was available in 10–, 20– and 40–trip increments. Unlike regular SmartLink cards, SmartLink Gray cards had expiration dates. SmartLink Gray was itself discontinued in January 2016.
PATH's official method of fare payment is a smart card known as SmartLink. The SmartLink was developed at a cost of $73 million, and initially was intended as a regional smart card that could be deployed on transit systems throughout the New York metropolitan area.It was first made available in July 2007 at the World Trade Center. The SmartLink can be connected to an online web account system allowing a cardholder to register the card and monitor its usage; it allows for an automatic replenishment system linked to a credit card account, wherein the card balance is automatically refilled when five trips remain (for multiple-trip cards) or five days (for unlimited-ride cards).
PATH fare payment may also be made using single-ride, two-trip, and pay-per-ride MetroCards, the standard farecard of New York's Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA).The MetroCard is a magnetic stripe card, like the QuickCard. PATH riders paying their fare using MetroCard insert the card into a slot at the front of the turnstile, which reads the card and presents the MetroCard to the rider at a slot on the top of the same turnstile. Other types of MetroCards, including unlimited-ride MetroCards, are not accepted on PATH.
Plans for using the MetroCard on PATH date to 1996, when the Port Authority and MTA first considered a unified fare system. At the time, the MetroCard was still being rolled out on the MTA system, and more than 80% of PATH riders transferred to other modes of transportation at some point in their trip.In November 2003, the Port Authority announced that the MetroCard would be allowed for use on PATH starting the following year. The Port Authority started implementing the MetroCard on PATH in 2005, installing new fare collection turnstiles at all PATH stations. These turnstiles allowed passengers to pay their fare with a PATH QuickCard or an MTA Pay-Per-Ride MetroCard. MetroCard vending machines are located at all PATH stations. The machines sell Pay-Per-Ride MetroCards; allow riders to refill SmartLink cards; and sell Single Ride PATH tickets for use only on the PATH system. There are two types of MetroCard vending machines: large machines, which sell both MetroCards and SmartLinks and accept cash, credit cards, and transit benefits cards; and small machines, which do not accept cash or sell PATH single-ride tickets but otherwise perform the same functions as the large vending machines.
In 2010, PATH introduced a $4 two-trip card using the standard MetroCard form. All PATH stations, except for the uptown platforms at 14th and 23rd Streets, contain blue vending machines which sell this card. The front of the card is the standard MetroCard (gold and blue) but on the reverse it has the text "PATH 2-Trip Card", "Valid for two (2) PATH trips only" and "No refills on this card". The user must dispose of the card after the trips are used up because the turnstiles do not keep (or capture) the card as was done with the discontinued QuickCard.
In June 2019, the Port Authority announced it was in talks with the MTA to implement the new OMNY fare payment system on PATH. Under the announced plan, OMNY would be available to PATH riders by 2022, with both SmartLink and MetroCard being phased out by 2023.
As of 2011 [update] , there is only one model, the PA5. The cars are 51 feet (16 m) long by 9.2 feet (2.8 m) wide, a smaller loading gauge compared to similar vehicles in the US, due to the restricted structure gauge through the tunnels under the Hudson River. They can reach 55 mph (89 km/h) in regular service. Each car seats 35 passengers, in longitudinal "bucket" seating, and can fit a larger number of standees in each car. PA5 cars have stainless steel bodies and three doors on each side. LCD displays above the windows (between the doors) display the destination of that particular train. The PA5 cars are coupled and linked into consists up to 10 cars long, with conductors' cabs on all cars and operators' cabs on the "A" (driving) cars.
In 2005, the Port Authority awarded a $499 million contract to Kawasaki to design and build 340 new PATH cars under the PA5 order to replace the system's entire existing fleet. With an average age of 42 years and some cars dating back as far as 1964, the fleet was the oldest of any operating heavy rail line in the United States. The Port Authority announced that the new cars would be updated versions of the MTA's R142A cars. The first of these new cars entered revenue service in 2009; all of them were delivered over the next two years. The Port Authority exercised a subsequent contract for 10 additional PA5 cars, bringing the total to 350.
As part of the fleet expansion program and signal system upgrade, the Port Authority has the option to order a total of 119 additional PA5 cars as the option order; 44 would be used to expand the NWK–WTC line to 10-car operation while the remaining 75 would be used to increase service frequencies once communication-based train control (CBTC) is implemented throughout the system by the end of 2018. In December 2017, the Port Authority exercised an option to buy 50 extra PA5 cars for $150 million, for an ultimate total of 400 PA5 cars. Subsequently, in July 2018, Kawasaki was awarded a $240 million contract to refurbish the 350 existing PA5 cars between 2018 and 2024. The contract also called for Kawasaki to build and deliver 72 new PA5 cars starting in 2021, for a total of 422 cars.
The trains are stored and maintained at the Harrison Car Maintenance Facility in New Jersey, located east of the Harrison station. Another train storage yard exists east of the Journal Square Station.If the Newark Airport extension is built, a third train storage yard would be built at the airport.
|Rolling stock||Year built||Builder||Car body||Car numbers||Total built||Notes|
|PA5||2008–2012||Kawasaki||Stainless steel||5600–5864 (A cars)|
5100–5219 (C cars)
|340 base order|
119 in fleet expansion option (10 A cars exercised so far; 72 A and C cars in progress. )
|"A" cars have cab units, "C" cars have no cabs |
Siemens SITRAC AC propulsion system, upgradable to CBTC signalling compatibility, 3 doors per side, prerecorded station announcements
Before the Port Authority takeover, the H&M system used rolling stock series that were given letters from A to J. All of these cars, except for the D and H series, were known as "black cars" for their color. 6 There were a total of 325 cars in series A through J, of which 255 were black cars. :6 The first 190 cars, in classes A through C, were ordered for the initial H&M service and delivered in 1909–1911. The cars, which were built in seven modular segments, measured 48.25 feet (14.71 m) long with a loading gauge of 8.83 feet (2.69 m) and a height of 12 feet (3.7 m), with longitudinal seating and three doors on each side. They were ordered to the narrow specifications of the Hudson Tubes, and were light enough that they could be tested on the Second Avenue elevated in Manhattan, which could only support lightweight trains. :2:
Seventy-five cars in classes E through G were added in 1921–1923, allowing the H&M to lengthen train consists from six to seven cars each to eight. Although classes E-G had similar exterior dimensions to classes A-C, the E-G series had higher capacity, were heavier, and had substantially different window designs compared to the A-C series. 6 The last order of black cars, the 20 cars in series J, was delivered in 1928. :6–7 Many of the black cars remained in service from their inception until the H&M's bankruptcy in 1954. By that time, they required considerable maintenance.:
The PRR and H&M joint service comprised 40 cars in classes D and H, which were owned by the H&M, as well as 72 cars from the MP38 class, which were owned by the PRR. 43 In 1927, an additional 12 MP38 cars were ordered under the MP38A classification, as well as four Class H cars. :6 As a result of the different manufacturers and the long duration between the two pairs of orders, the Class D and MP38 cars' designs were noticeably different from the Class H and MP38A cars' designs. :6–7 The red cars were branded with the names of both companies to signify the partnership. The red cars suffered from corrosion and design defects, and were unusable by 1954. All of the red and black car series were designed to be operationally compatible.Sixty MP38s and 36 Class D cars were delivered in 1911, when the service first operated. :
The MP52 and K-class, which replaced the D-class and the 60 MP38s ordered in 1911, comprised an order of 50 cars. The 30 MP52s and 20 K-classes were purchased by the PRR and H&M respectively and delivered in 1958 in order to save money on maintenance.
After the Port Authority took over operation of the H&M Railroad in 1962, it started ordering new rolling stock to replace the old H&M cars. 101 St. Louis also built the PA2, a supplementary order of 44 cars, in 1966–1967. :101 Hawker Siddeley built 46 PA3 cars in 1972. :101 The 95 PA4s were built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries in 1986–1987, replacing the K-class and MP52 series. :101St. Louis Car built 162 PA1 cars in 1964–1965. :
PA1, PA2, and PA3 cars had painted aluminum bodies, and two doors on each side. Back-lit panels above the doors displayed the destination of that particular train: HOB for Hoboken, JSQ for Journal Square, NWK for Newark, 33 for 33rd Street, and WTC for World Trade Center. 81 In the mid-1980s, Kawasaki overhauled 248 of the 252 PA1-PA3 cars at their factory in Yonkers, New York, and repainted them white to match the PA4 cars then being delivered. :81 PA4 cars had stainless steel bodies, and three doors on each side. Back-lit displays above the windows (between the doors) displayed the destination of that particular train. :81 All four series were designed to be operationally compatible. Although all four orders contained "A" cars with cabs at one end, the PA1 and PA2 orders also contained some "C" cars. Trains could comprise three to eight cars, but in order to operate, there had to be an even number of "A" cars in the consist, including one "A" car at each end. All PA1-PA4 equipment was retired from passenger service by 2011.:
|Rolling stock||Year built||Year retired||Builder||Car body||Car numbers||Total built||Notes :101|
|A||1908||1955||Pressed Steel and American Car & Foundry||painted steel (black)||200–249||50||Pressed Steel built 10 cars numbered 200–209. American Car & Foundry built the remaining 40 cars numbered 210–249.|
|B||1909||1964–1967||Pressed Steel||painted steel (black)||250–339||90|
|C||1910||1964–1967||American Car & Foundry||painted steel (black)||340–389||50|
|D||1911||1958||Pressed Steel||painted steel (red)||701–736||36|
|MP38||1911||1964–1967||Pressed Steel||painted steel (red)||1901–1960||60||"Red cars" used in the H&M/PRR joint service and owned by the PRR.|
|E||1921||1966–1967||American Car & Foundry||painted steel (black)||401–425||25|
|F||1922||1966–1967||American Car & Foundry||painted steel (black)||426–450||25|
|G||1923||1966–1967||American Car & Foundry||painted steel (black)||451–475||25|
|H||1927||1966–1967||American Car & Foundry||painted steel (red)||801–804||4||"Red cars" used in the H&M/PRR joint service and owned by the H&M.|
|MP38A||1927||1966–1967||American Car & Foundry||painted steel (red)||1961–1972||12||"Red cars" used in the H&M/PRR joint service and owned by the PRR.|
|J||1928||1966–1967||American Car & Foundry||painted steel (black)||501–520||20||503 at Shore Line Trolley Museum. 510 and 513 at Trolley Museum of New York.|
|MP52||1958||1987||St. Louis Car Company||aluminum||1200–1229||30|
|K||1958||1987||St. Louis Car Company||aluminum||1230–1249||20|
|PA1||1964–1965||2009–2011||St. Louis Car Company||painted aluminum||100–151 ("C" cars)|
600–709 ("A" cars)
|162 (110 cab units, 52 trailers)|
|PA2||1966–1967||2009–2011||St. Louis Car Company||painted aluminum||152–181 ("C" cars)|
710–723 ("A" cars)
|44 (14 cab units, 30 trailers)|
An eight-car PATH train was left under the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001; though six of the cars were destroyed, cars 745 and 143 were not positioned directly beneath the tower and survived the collapse relatively intact. These two cars were cleaned and placed in storage following the collapse while the remains of the rest of the train had been stripped of usable parts and scrapped. The cars were intended to be displayed in the National September 11 Memorial & Museum.However, they were deemed too large to be displayed there; as a result, car 745 was instead donated to the Shore Line Trolley Museum, while car 143 was donated to the Trolley Museum of New York.
While PATH operates as a typical intraurban heavy rail rapid transit system, it is legally a commuter railroad under the jurisdiction of the FRA, which oversees railroads that are part of the national rail network. 43–44 Though there is no longer any through-running of mainline intercity trains into PATH tunnels, FRA regulations still apply to PATH because PATH's right-of-way between Newark and Jersey City is very close to the Northeast Corridor. PATH also uses one bridge operated by Amtrak, the Dock Bridge near Newark Penn Station.PATH's predecessor, the H&M, used to share trackage with the Pennsylvania Railroad between the Hudson interlocking near Harrison and Journal Square. The line also connected to the Northeast Corridor near Harrison station and also near Hudson tower. :
While PATH operates under several grandfather waivers, it still must meet requirements not applied to other American rapid transit systems, such as the proper fitting of grab irons to all PATH rolling stock, installation of PTC, and compliance with the federal railroad hours of service regulations. Additionally, all PATH train operators must be federally certified locomotive engineers, and the agency must conduct more detailed safety inspections than other rapid transit systems. These requirements increase PATH's per-hour operating costs relative to other rapid transit systems in the New York City and Philadelphia areas; for instance, it is three times more expensive to operate than the New York City Subway. The PANYNJ has sought to switch its regulator to the Federal Transit Administration, which oversees rapid transit, but the FRA has insisted that safety concerns require PATH to remain under its purview; alternatively, it has considered transferring PATH to NJ Transit.
As of December 2015 [update] , PATH regulations state that all photography, filmmaking, videotaping, or creations of drawings or other visual depictions within the PATH system is prohibited without a permit and supervision by a PATH representative. :17 According to the rules, photographers, filmmakers, and other individuals must obtain permits through an application process. :18 Although it has been suggested that the restriction was put in place due to terrorism concerns, the restriction predates the September 11 attacks.
According to New Jersey newspaper Hudson Reporter, this ban excludes members of the general public who want to take pictures, and the photography and filmography ban only applies for commercial or professional purposes. The general public is allowed to take pictures of PATH stations and all other Port Authority facilities except in secure and off-limits areas.There have been decisions from the United States Supreme Court stating that casual photography is covered by the First Amendment; the case law is mixed. Under the law PATH employees may not force a casual photographer to destroy or surrender their film or images, but confiscations and arrests have occurred. Litigation following such confiscations or arrests have generally, but not always, resulted in charges being dropped and/or damages awarded.
On trains bound for Newark or Hoboken from World Trade Center, a short, zoetrope-like advertisement was formerly visible in the tunnel before entering Exchange Place. There was another similar advertisement, visible from 33rd Street-bound trains between 14th and 23rd Streets near the abandoned 19th Street station.
Every year, around Thanksgiving, PATH employees light a decorated Christmas tree at the switching station adjacent to the tunnel used by trains entering the Pavonia/Newport station. This tradition started in the 1950s when a signal operator hung a string of Christmas lights in the tunnel. While PATH officials were initially concerned about putting up decorations in the tunnel, they later acquiesced and the tradition continued. After the September 11 attacks, a backlit U.S. flag was put up beside the tree as a tribute to the victims.
PATH trains and stations have occasionally been the setting for music videos, commercials, movies, and TV programs. For instance, the White Stripes's video for "The Hardest Button to Button" was filmed at 33rd Street.Additionally, the premiere for season 19 of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit was filmed in the World Trade Center station. The PATH system is also often used as a stand-in for the New York City Subway.
The Lincoln Tunnel is an approximately 1.5-mile-long (2.4 km) tunnel under the Hudson River, connecting Weehawken, New Jersey on the west bank with Midtown Manhattan in New York City on the east bank. It was designed by Ole Singstad and named after Abraham Lincoln. The tunnel consists of three vehicular tubes of varying lengths, with two traffic lanes in each tube. The center tube contains reversible lanes, while the northern and southern tubes exclusively carry westbound and eastbound traffic, respectively.
The Holland Tunnel is a vehicular tunnel under the Hudson River. It connects Manhattan in New York City, New York, to the east, and Jersey City, New Jersey, to the west. An integral conduit within the New York metropolitan area, the Holland Tunnel is operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). The tunnel carries Interstate 78; the New Jersey side is also designated the eastern terminus of Route 139.
Hoboken Terminal is a commuter-oriented intermodal passenger station in Hoboken, Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. One of the New York metropolitan area's major transportation hubs, it is served by nine NJ Transit (NJT) commuter rail lines, one Metro-North Railroad line, various NJT buses and private bus lines, the Hudson–Bergen Light Rail, the Port Authority Trans Hudson (PATH) rapid transit system, and NY Waterway-operated ferries. More than 50,000 people use the terminal daily, making it the ninth-busiest railroad station in the country and the sixth-busiest in the New York area. It is also the second-busiest railroad station in New Jersey, behind only Newark Penn Station, and its third-busiest transportation facility, after Newark Liberty International Airport and Newark Penn. Hoboken Terminal is wheelchair accessible, with high-level platforms for light rail and PATH services and portable lifts for commuter rail services.
The New York Tunnel Extension was a major project of the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) at the beginning of the 20th century, to improve railroad access throughout the greater New York City area. The project comprised tunnels and approaches from New Jersey and Long Island to Midtown Manhattan, leading to the PRR's massive new station, New York Penn Station.
Manhattan Transfer was a passenger transfer station in Harrison, New Jersey, east of Newark, 8.8 miles (14.2 km) west of New York Penn Station on the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) main line, now Amtrak's Northeast Corridor. It operated from 1910 to 1937 and consisted of two 1,100 feet (340 m) car-floor-level platforms, one on each side of the PRR line. It was also served by the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad. There were no pedestrian entrances or exits to the station, as its sole purpose was for passengers to change trains.
Newport is a station on the PATH system. Located on Town Square Place at the corner of Washington Boulevard in the Newport neighborhood of Jersey City, New Jersey, it is served by the Hoboken–World Trade Center and Journal Square–33rd Street lines on weekdays, and by the Journal Square–33rd Street line on weekends. As of 2017 its estimated weekday use was nearly 20,000 passengers, up from the 17,000-18,000 average weekday passengers seen in 2010.
Exchange Place is a station on the PATH system. Located at Exchange Place near the Hudson River waterfront in the Paulus Hook neighborhood of Jersey City, New Jersey, it is served by the Newark–World Trade Center line at all times and by the Hoboken–World Trade Center line on weekdays. The Hudson-Bergen Light Rail has a stop outside the PATH station, which is also called Exchange Place.
World Trade Center is a terminal station on the PATH system. It is located in the World Trade Center complex, within the Financial District neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City. It is served by the Newark–World Trade Center line on weekdays and holiday weekends, as well as by the Hoboken–World Trade Center line on weekdays, and is the eastern terminus of both.
Christopher Street is a station on the PATH system. Located on Christopher Street between Greenwich and Hudson Streets in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, it is served by the Hoboken–33rd Street and Journal Square–33rd Street lines on weekdays, and by the Journal Square–33rd Street line on weekends.
9th Street is a station on the PATH system. Located at the intersection of 9th Street and Sixth Avenue in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, it is served by the Hoboken–33rd Street and Journal Square–33rd Street lines on weekdays, and by the Journal Square–33rd Street line on weekends.
Journal Square–33rd Street is a rapid transit service operated by the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH). It is colored yellow on the PATH service map and trains on this service display yellow marker lights. This service operates from Journal Square in Jersey City, New Jersey by way of the Uptown Hudson Tubes to 33rd Street in Midtown Manhattan, New York. The 5.7-mile (9.2 km) trip takes 22 minutes to complete.
The Hoboken–World Trade Center is a rapid transit service operated by the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH). It is colored green on the PATH service map and trains on this service display green marker lights. This service operates from the Hoboken Terminal in Hoboken, New Jersey, by way of the Downtown Hudson Tubes to the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York. The 3-mile (4.8 km) trip takes 11 minutes to complete, and is the shortest route in the PATH system.
Hoboken–33rd Street is a rapid transit service operated by the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH). It is colored blue on the PATH service map and trains on this service display blue marker lights. This service operates from the Hoboken Terminal in Hoboken, New Jersey by way of the Uptown Hudson Tubes to 33rd Street in Midtown Manhattan, New York. The 3.5-mile (5.6 km) trip takes 14 minutes to complete.
Newark–World Trade Center is a rapid transit service operated by the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH). It is colored red on the PATH service map and trains on this service display red marker lights. This service operates from Pennsylvania Station in Newark, New Jersey, by way of the Downtown Hudson Tubes to the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. Operating 24 hours a day, the 8.9-mile (14.3 km) trip takes 22.5 minutes to complete.
Journal Square–33rd Street via Hoboken is a rapid transit service operated by the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) railroad. It is colored yellow and blue on the PATH service map, and trains on this service display both yellow and blue marker lights. This service operates from Journal Square in Jersey City, New Jersey by way of the Uptown Hudson Tubes to 33rd Street in Midtown Manhattan, New York, with trains reversing direction mid-route at Hoboken Terminal. The 6.7-mile (10.8 km) trip takes 26 minutes to complete.
33rd Street is a terminal station on the PATH system. Located at the intersection of 32nd Street and Sixth Avenue in the Herald Square neighborhood of Midtown Manhattan, New York City, it is served by the Hoboken–33rd Street and Journal Square–33rd Street lines on weekdays, and by the Journal Square–33rd Street line on late nights, weekends and holidays. 33rd Street serves as the northern terminus of all three lines.
The North River Tunnels are a pair of tunnels that carry Amtrak and New Jersey Transit rail lines under the Hudson River between Weehawken, New Jersey and Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan, New York City. Built between 1904 and 1908 by the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) to allow its trains to reach Manhattan, they opened for passenger service in late 1910.
The Downtown Hudson Tubes are a pair of tunnels that carry PATH trains under the Hudson River in the United States, between New York City to the east and Jersey City, New Jersey, to the west. The tunnels runs between the World Trade Center station on the New York side and the Exchange Place station on the New Jersey side.
Hudson Terminal was a rapid transit station on the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad (H&M) in Manhattan, New York City. The terminal, which contained five tracks and three platforms, was located in the Lower Manhattan neighborhood of Radio Row. The two 22-story office skyscrapers above the terminal, built to serve the H&M station, were among the world's largest when the H&M terminal opened in 1909.
The natural barrier which has separated New York from New Jersey since those States came into existence was, figuratively speaking, wiped away at 3:40½ o'clock yesterday afternoon when the first of the two twin tubes of the McAdoo tunnel system was formally opened, thus linking Manhattan with Hoboken, and establishing a rapid transit service beneath the Hudson River.
The Hudson Terminal opened in 1909. Inbound trains from New Jersey approached the terminal from the south, looped along Church Street and ran outbound through a northern tube.
Five years ago, the Port of New York Authority took over the bankrupt and antiquated Hudson Tubes. Yesterday the management, employees and commuters appeared reasonably pleased with the improvements made under the Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation.
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The Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation (PATH) was established in 1962 as a subsidiary of The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The heavy rail transit system serves as the primary transit link between Manhattan and neighboring New Jersey urban communities and suburban railroads. PATH presently carries 280,000 passengers each weekday. This volume is expected to continue to increase with the anticipated growth in regional residential, commercial and business development.Cite uses deprecated parameter