Paadal Petra Sthalam

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Tirumurai
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The twelve volumes of Tamil Śaiva hymns of the sixty-three Nayanars
PartsNameAuthor
1,2,3Tirukadaikkappu Sambandar
4,5,6 Tevaram Tirunavukkarasar
7Tirupaatu Sundarar
8 Tiruvacakam &
Tirukkovaiyar
Manikkavacakar
9 Tiruvisaippa &
Tiruppallaandu
Various
10 Tirumandhiram Tirumular
11Various
12 Periya Puranam Sekkizhar
Paadal Petra Sthalam
Paadal Petra Sthalam
Rajaraja I
Nambiyandar Nambi

The Paadal Petra Thalam are 275 [1] temples that are revered in the verses of Saiva Nayanars in the 6th-9th century CE and are amongst the greatest Shiva temples of the continent. The Divya Desams by comparison are the 108 Vishnu temples glorified in the poems of the contemporary Vaishnava Alvars of Tamil Nadu, India

Shaivism One of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being

Shaivism is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being. The followers of Shaivism are called "Shaivites" or "Saivites". It is one of the largest sects that believe Shiva, worshipped as a creator and destroyer of worlds, is the supreme god over all. The Shaiva have many sub-traditions ranging from devotional dualistic theism such as Shaiva Siddhanta to yoga-oriented monistic non-theism such as Kashmiri Shaivism. It considers both the Vedas and the Agama texts as important sources of theology. The origin of Shaivism may be traced to the conception of Rudra in the Rig Veda.

Nayanars group of 63 Hindu saints

The Nayanmars were a group of 63 saints in the 6th to 8th century who were devoted to the Hindu god Shiva in Tamil Nadu. They, along with the Alwars, their contemporaries who were devoted to Vishnu, influenced the Bhakti movement in Tamil. The names of the Nayanars were first compiled by Sundarar. The list was expanded by Nambiyandar Nambi during his compilation of material by the poets for the Tirumurai collection, and would include Sundarar himself and Sundarar's parents.

Lord Shiva has innumerable temples dedicated to him throughout the length and breadth of India. The most temples are most likely in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, where there are 2,500 Shiva temples of importance. There are several kinds of temples in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Contents

Thevaram

The 3 foremost Nayanars with Manikkavacakar - collectively called the Nalvars: (from left) Sambandar, Appar, Sundarar, Manikkavacakar. Nalvar.JPG
The 3 foremost Nayanars with Manikkavacakar - collectively called the Nalvars: (from left) Sambandar, Appar, Sundarar, Manikkavacakar.

Thevaram literally means "garland of divine songs and refers to the collection of verses sung praising Shiva, the primary god of the Shaivite sect of Hindu religion, by three Tamil poets known as Saiva Kuruvars - Thirugnana Sambanthar, Tirunavukkarasar (aka Appar) and Sundaramoorthy Nayanar (aka Sundarar). [2] The three are considered the primary three among the sixty three Nayanmars of the Saivite sect of Hinduism. The former two lived during the 7th century AD while the latter around 8th century AD. All songs in Thevaram are believed to be in sets of ten songs, called pathikam in Tamil. Some musical experts consider Thevaram as a divine musical form. [3] There is a common view that Sanskritization of names of the temples are carried out in later period that superseded the names mentioned in Thevaram - some of the common examples are Chidambaram as against Tillai in Thevaram and Kumbakonam as against Kudanthai. [4]

Tamil language language

Tamil is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Chindians, and Douglas. Tamil is an official language in three countries: India, Sri Lanka and Singapore. In India, it is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry. Furthermore, Tamil is used as one of the languages of education in Malaysia, along with English, Malay and Mandarin. Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India.

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, and flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India.

The 275 temples that are mentioned in Thevaram are referred as Paadal Petra Thalam, meaning the temples that were sung in the verses. On the contrary, Vaippu Thalam are temples that were mentioned casually in the songs in Thevaram and lacking a mention of those temples. In modern times, the verses of Tevaram are sung daily and during the festive occasions in most Shiva temples in Tamil Nadu by musicians called Odhuvars. [5]

Thiruvasagam

Manikkavacakar is considered the 4th in the line of Saiva Kuravars, whose verses are classified as Thiruvasagam. There is a saying that "Thiruvasagathuku urugar, oru vasagathukum orugar" meaning the person who does not budge for thiruvasagam won't budge for anything else.

Manikkavacakar Tamil poet

Manikkavacakar or MaanikkaVaasagar was a 9th-century Tamil poet who wrote Tiruvasakam, a book of Shaiva hymns. He was one of the main authors of Saivite Tirumurai, his work forms volume eight of the Tirumurai, the key religious text of Tamil language Shaiva Siddhanta. A minister to the Pandya king Varagunavarman II, he lived in Madurai. His work is a poetic expression of the joy of God-experience, the anguish of being separated from God. Although he is a prominent saint in Southern India, he is not counted among the sixty-three nayanars.

<i>Thiruvasagam</i>

Thiruvasagam is a volume of Tamil hymns composed by the ninth century Shaivite bhakti poet Manikkavasagar. It contains 51 compositions and constitutes the eighth volume of the Tirumurai, the sacred anthology of the Tamil Shaiva Siddhanta.

Paadal Petra Thalangal

There are around 275 temples that are revered by the verses of Saiva Nayanars and are amongst the greatest Shiva Temples of Tamil Nadu. [1] In Tamil Nadu there are 265 temples, 2 temples in Andhra pradesh, 1 temple in kerala, 1 temple in karnataka, 2 temples in Uttarakhand, 2 temples in Sri Lanka, 1 temple in Nepal, and Tirukayilaayam in Mount Kailash. The list is as shown below.

Chola Nadu - North of Kaveri Chola Nadu - South of Kaveri Eezha Nadu Pandya Nadu Malai Nadu

1. Kovil(Chidambaram)
2. Tiruvetkalam
3. Tirunelvayil
4. Tirukkazhippalai
5. Tirunallurpperumanam
6. Mahendrapalli
7. Ten Tirumullaivayil
8. Kalikkaamoor
9. Tiruchaaikaadu
10. Pallavaneeswaram
11. Thiruvenkadu
12. Keezhai Tirukkattuppalli
13. Thirukkurugavur
14. Sirkazhi
15. Tirukkolakka
16. Pullirukkuvelur
(Vaideeswaran Koyil)

17. Kannaar Kovil
18. Tirukkadaimudi
19. Tiruninriyur
20. Tiruppunkur
21. Tiruneedur
22. Anniyur
23. Tiruvelvikudi
24. Edirkolpaadi
25. Tirumanancheri
26. Tirukkurukkai
27. Karuppariyalur
28. Kurakkukka
29. Tiruvaalkoliputrur
30. Tirumannippadikkarai
31. Omampuliyur
32. Tirukkaanaattumulloor
33. Tirunaarayur
34. Kadambur
35. Pandanallur
36. Kanjanoor
37. Tirukkodikka
38. Tirumangalakkudi
39. Tiruppanantaal
40. Tiruvaappaadi
41. Tirucheignalur
42. Tirundudevankudi
43. Tiruviyalur
44. Kottaiyur
45. Innambar
46. Thirupirambiyam
47. Vijayamangai
48. Tiruvaikavur
49. Vadakurangaaduturai
50. Tiruppazhanam
51. Thiruvaiyaru
52. Tiruneittanam
53. Tirupperumpuliyur
54. Thirumazhapadi
55. Tiruppazhuvur (Aalanturai)
56. Tirukkaanoor
57. Anbilalanturai
58. Tirumaanturai
59. Tiruppaatrurai
60. Tiru Aanaikkaa
61. Tiruppainneeli
62. Tiruppaachilasramam
63. Tiruveengoimalai

Tiruvetkalam Pasupatheswarar Temple temple in India

Tiruvetkalam Pasupatheswarar Temple is a Hindu temple located at Chidambaram in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, India. The presiding deity is Shiva. He is called as Pasupatheswarar. His consort is known as Satgunambal and Nalla Nayaki. The temple is located inside the Annamalai University complex.

Sivapuri Uchinathar Temple temple in India

Sivapuri Uchinathar Temple is a Hindu temple located at Sivapuri in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, India. The place is also known as Thirunelvayil. The presiding deity is Shiva. He is called as Uchinathar. His consort is known as Uchinayagi.

Tirukkazhippalai Palvannanathar Temple temple in India

Tirukkazhippalai Palvannanathar Temple is a Hindu temple located at Chidambaram in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, India. The presiding deity is Shiva in the form of Palvannanathar and his consort is known as Vedanayaki. The presiding deity is revered in the 7th century Tamil Saiva canonical work, the Tevaram, written by Tamil saint poets known as the nayanmars and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.

1. Vaatpokki
2. Kadambar Kovil
3. Thirupparaithurai
4. Tirukkarkudi
(Uyyakkondan Malai)
5. Thirumukeeswaram
6. Tiruchirappalli
7. Tiruverumbur
8. Nedunkalam
9. Melaittirukkattuppalli
10. Tiruvalampozhil
11. Tiruppoonturutti
12. Thirukkandiyur
13. Tiruchotrutturai
14. Tiruvedikudi
15. Tenkudittittai
16. Tirupullamangai
17. Tiruchakrapalli
18. Thirukkarugavur
19. Tiruppaalaitturai(Papanasam)
20. Tirunallur
21. Aavoor Pasupateeswaram
22. Satthi Mutram
23. Patteswaram
24. Pazhayarai
25. Tiruvalanchuzhi
26. Adi Kumbeswarar Temple
27. Tirukkudandai Keezhkottam
28. Kudandaikkaaronam
29. Tirunageswaram
30. Tiruvidaimarudur
31. Ten Kurangaaduturai
32. Tiruneelakkudi
33. Tiruvaikalmaadakkovil
34. Tirunallam
35. Tirukkozhambam
36. Tiruvavaduturai
37. Tirutturutti
38. Tiruvazhundur
39. Mayiladuturai
40. Viilanagar
41. Tiruppariyalur
42. Tiruchemponpalli
43. Tirunanipalli
44. Tiruvalampuram
45. Tiruttalaichankadu
46. Aakkoor
47. Tirukkadavur
48. Tirukkadavur Mayaanam
49. Tiruvettakkudi
50. Tiruttelicheri
51. Dharumapuram
52. Thirunallar
53. Tirukkottaru
54. Ambar
55. Ambar Maakaalam
56. Tirumeeyachur
57. Tirumeeyachur Ilamkovil
58. Thilataipati
59. Tiruppaampuram
60. Sirukudi
61. Tiruveezhimizhalai
62. Tiruvanniyur
63. Karuvili Kottittai
64. Penu Perunturai
65. Naraiyur
66. Arisirkaraiputtur
67. Sivapuram
68. Kalayanallur
69. Tirukkarukkudi
70. Tiruvanchiyam
71. Nannilam
72. Tirukkondeeswaram
73. Tiruppanaiyur
74. Virkudi
75. Tiruppugalur
76. Tiruppugalur Vardhamaneswaram
77. Ramanadeeswaram
78. Tiruppayatrankudi
79. Tiruchenkattankudi
80. Thirumarugal
81. Tiruchaattamangai
82. Nagaikkaronam
83. Sikkal
84. Keevalur
85. Tiruttevur
86. Palliyin Mukkoodal
87. Achaleswaram
88. Tiruvarur
89. Arurparavaiumandali
90. Vilamar
91. Karaveeram
92. Peruvelur
93. Talaiyalankadu
94. Tirukkudavaayil
95. Tirucherai
96. Tirunalurmayaanam
97. Kaduvaaikaaraiputhur
98. Tiruvirumpoolai
99. Aradaipperumpazhi
100.Avalivanallur
101.Paridiniyamam
102. Tiruvenniyur (Koyil venni)
103. Tiruppoovanur
104. Paadaaleeswaram
105. Tirukkalar
106. Tiruchitremam
107. Tiru Usaattaanam
108. Tiruidumbavanam
109. Kadikkulam
110. Tandalaineeneri
111. Kottur
112. Vanduturai
113. Tirukkollampudur
114. Pereyil
115. Tirukkollikkadu
116. Tenkoor
117. Tirunellikka
118. Tirunatyattankudi
119. Tirukkarayil
120. Kanraappur
121. Valivalam
122. Kaichinam
123. Tirukkolili
124. Tiruvaimur
125. Tirumaraikkadu
126. Tiru Agathiyan Palli
127. Kodikkarai
128. Kiliyanur
129. Tiruvidaivai

1. Tirukkonamalai
2. Tirukketheeswaram

1. Aalavaai (Madurai)
2. Aappudaiyaar Kovil
3. Tirupparankunram
4. Tiruvedakam
5. Tirukkodunkunram
6. Tirupputhur
7. Thiruppunavayil
8. Rameswaram
9. Tiruvadanai
10. Tirukkaanapper
11. Tiruppoovanam
12. Thiruchuzhial
13. Thirukutralam
14. Tirunelveli

1. Thiruvanchikulam

Kongu Nadu Nadu Nadu Tondai Nadu Erumai Nadu Vada Nadu

1. Avinaasi
2. Thirumuruganpoondi
3. Thirunana
4. Kodimadachenkunoor
5. Venchamaakoodal
6. Paandikkodumudi
7. Karuvoor Aanilai

1. Tirunelvayil Aratturai
2. Pennaagadam
3. Goodalaiyatrur
4. Erukkattampuliyur
5. Tiruttinai Nagar
6. Tiruchopuram
7. Tiruvatikai
8. Thirunaavalur
9. Tirumudukunram
10. Tirunelvennei
11. Tirukkovilur
12. Arankandanallur
13. Tiruvidaiyaru
14. Thiruvennainallur
15. Tirutturaiyur
16. Vatukur
17. Tirumaanikkuzhi
18. Thirupathiripuliyur
19. Tirumundeeswaram
20. Puravaar Panankattur
21. Tiruvamathur
22. Tiruvannamalai

1. Kachi Ekambam
2. Kachi Metrali
3. Onakanthan Thali
4. Kachi Anekatangavadam
5. Kachi Nerikkaaraikkadu
6. Kuranganilmuttam
7. Tirumaagaral
8. Tiruvothur
9. Panankattur
10. Tiruvallam
11. Thirumarperu
12. Tiruvooral, Takkolam
13. Ilambayankottur
14. Tiruvirkolam
15. Thiruvalangadu
16. Tiruppaasur
17. Tiruvenpakkam
18. Tirukkallil
19. Sri Kalahasti
20. Thiruvotriyur
21. Tiruvalithayam
22. Vada Tirumullaivayil
23. Thiruverkadu
24. Tirumayilai
25. Tiruvanmyur
26. Tirukkachoor
27. Tiruvidaichuram
28. Tirukkalunkunram
29. Tiru Acharapakkam
30. Tiruvakkarai
31. Arasili
32. Irumbai Maakalam

1. Gokarnam

1.Indraneelaparvatam
(Nepal)

2. Srisailam
3. Anekatangavadam
(Gowrikund)

4. Tirukkedaram
(Kedarnath)

5. Tirukkayilaayam
(Mount Kailash)

Pancha Bootha Thalangal

This refers to the temples that are the manifestation of the five elements - land, water, air, sky, fire.

CategoryTempleLocation
Land Ekambareswarar Temple Kanchipuram
Fire Arunachaleshwarar Temple Thiruvannamalai
Water Thiruvanaikaval Trichy
Sky Chidambaram Temple Chidambaram
Air Sri Kalahastheeswara Swami Temple Kalahasthi, Andhra Pradesh

Pancha Bhoota stalam Map

Pancha Sabhai Thalangal

The temples where Lord Shiva is believed to have performed the Cosmic Dance.

CategoryTempleLocationElement
Rathinachabai Vada aaranyeswarar Temple Thiruvalangadu, Chennai Emerald
Porchabai Natarajar Temple Chidambaram Gold
Vellichabai Meenakshi Amman Temple Madurai Silver
Thamirachabai Nellaiappar Temple Tirunelveli Copper
Chithirachabai Kutralanathar Temple Thirukutralam Art

Pancha Sabhai Map

Ashta Veerattam Thalangal

The temples where Lord Shiva is believed to have performed with fury. The eight temples are in 1. Thiruvadhikai 2. Thirukoyilur 3. Thirukkadayur 4. Vazhoovur 5. Thirukkurakaval ( kurukkai ) 6. Thiruppaliyalur 7. Thirukandiyur 8. Thiruvirkudi.

TempleLocationDistrictImage
Tiruvadigai Veerattaaneswarar Temple Tiruvadigai, Panruti Cuddalore district
Sri Veerattaaneswarar Temple.JPG
Korukkai Veeratteswarar Temple Tirukurukkai Nagapattinam district
Korukkai Veeratteswarar Temple1.jpg
Tirukkovilur Veerateshwarar Temple Tirukoilur Tiruvannamalai district
Thirukovilur Veerateeswarar5.JPG
Amirtagateswarar Temple Thirukadaiyur Nagapattinam district
Thirukadaiyur temple.JPG
Vazhuvur Verateswarar Temple Vazhuvoor, Mayiladuthurai Nagapattinam district
Viratteswara Temple, Vazhuvur.jpg
Keelaparasalur Veerateswarar Temple Tirupariyalur Nagapattinam district
Keelaparasalur veeratesvarar temple2.jpg
Kandeeswarar Temple Thirukkandiyur Thanjavur district
Thirukandeeswarar1.jpg
Tiruvirkudi Veerataneswarar Temple Thiruvirkudi Thiruvarur district
Tiruvirkkudi veeratanesvarar temple2.jpg

Saptha Vidangam

The Thyagarajar Temple at Tiruvarur is famous for the ajapa natanam (dance without chanting), that is executed by the deity itself. According to legend, a Chola king named Mucukunta obtained a boon from Indra (a celestial deity) and wished to receive an image of Thyagaraja Swamy (presiding deity, Shiva in the temple) reposing on the chest of reclining Lord Vishnu. Indra tried to misguide the king and had six other images made, but the king chose the right image at Tiruvarur. [6] The other six images were installed in ThiruNallaaru, Nagapattinam, Tirukarayil, Tirukolili, Thiruvaaimur and Tirumaraikadu. [7] All the seven places are villages situated in the river Cauvery delta. All seven Thyagaraja images are said to dance when taken in procession(it is the bearers of the processional deity who actually dance). The temples with dance styles are regarded as Saptha Vidangam (seven dance moves) [8] and the related temples are as under: [9]

TempleVidangar TempleDance poseMeaning
Thyagarajar Temple, TiruvarurVidhividangarAjaba NatanamDance without chanting, resembling the dance of Sri Thyagaraja resting on Lord Vishnu's chest
Dharbaranyeswarar Temple, TirunallarNagaravidangarUnmatha natanamDance of an intoxicated person
Kayarohanaswamy Temple, NagapattinamSundaravidangarVilathi natanamDancing like waves of sea
Kannayariamudayar Temple, ThirukarayilAdhividangarKukuda natanamDancing like a cock
Brahmapureeswarar Temple, ThirukkuvalaiAvanividangarBrunga natanamDancing like a bee that hovers over a flower
Vaimoornaathar Temple, TiruvaimurNallavidangarKamala natanamDance like lotus that moves in a breeze
Vedaranyeswarar Temple, VedaranyamBhuvanivividangarHamsapatha natanamDancing with the gait of a swan

Saptha Stanam

The sapthasthanam festival is conducted at Tiruvaiyaru during April every year. Hundreds of people witness the convergence of seven glass palanquins carrying principal deities of respective temples from seven places at Tiruvaiyaru. The palanquins are paraded near the car stand, the crowd witnessed the Poochorithal(flower festival) in which a doll offers flowers to the principal deities in the palanquins. After the Poochorithal, the palanquins left for their respective places. [10] The seven temples are

TemplePlaceDistrict
Aiyarappar temple Thiruvaiyaru Thanjavur
Apathsahayar Temple Tirupazhanam Thanjavur
Odhanavaneswarar Temple Tiruchotruthurai Thanjavur
Vedapuriswarar Temple Thiruvedhikudi Thanjavur
Kandeeswarar Temple Thirukkandiyur Thanjavur
Puvananathar Temple Thirupanturuthi Thanjavur
Neyyadiappar Temple Tiruneithaanam Thanjavur

Saptha Mangai Stalangal

The seven temples are

TemplePresiding deity/consortMangaiLocation
Chakravageshwarar Temple Chakravageshwarar/DevanayagiChakramangai Chakkarapalli, Thanjavur
Arimutheeswarar TempleArimutheeswarar/GnambikaiHarimangaiAriyamangai, Thanjavur
Krithivageswarar templeKrithivageswarar/AlangaravalliSoolamangaiSoolamangalam, Thanjavur
Jambugeswarar TempleJambugeswarar/AkilandeswariNandimangai Tirupullamangai, Thanjavur
Pasumangai TemplePasupatiswarar/PalvalainayagiPasumangai Thirukkandiyur, Thanjavur
Chandramouleeswarar TempleChandramouleeswarar/RajarajeswariThazhamangaiThazhamangai, Thanjavur
Tirupullamangai TempleAlandurainathar/SoundaranayagiPullamangaiPullamangai, Thanjavur

Aathara Stalam

Aathara Stalam indicates the places which are considered to be diving impersonification of Tantric chakras associated with human anatomy. Annamalaiyar temple is called the Manipooraga stalam [11] associated with Manipooraga the human anatomical cause for spiritual ignorance, thirst, jealousy, treachery, shame, fear, disgust, delusion, foolishness and sadness. [12] 4 temples are located in Tamil Nadu, one in Andhra Pradesh, and one at Varanasi.

Tantric ChakraDescriptionTempleLocationSymbol
Anthagam
(Sanskrit: आज्ञा, ājñā [aːɟɲaː] )
Brain directly behind eyebrow Natarajar Temple Chidambaram
Visuthi
(Sanskrit: विशुद्ध, Viśuddha)
Neck region near spine Sri Kalahastheeswara Swami Temple Kalahasthi
Anahata
(Sanskrit: अनाहत, Anāhata)
Central channel behind spine Kashi Vishwanath Temple Varanasi Hrit.jpg
Manipooragam
(Sanskrit: मणिपूर, Maṇipūra)
Spine directly behind the navel Arunachaleshwarar Temple Thiruvannamalai Manipura.png
Swathistanam
(Sanskrit: स्वाधिष्ठान, Svādhiṣṭhāna)
One's own abode Thiruvanaikaval Trichy Swadhisthana.png
Moolatharam
(Sanskrit: मूलाधार, Mūlādhāra)
Basal end of the spinal Thyagaraja Swamy Temple Tiruvarur Muladhara.png

See also

External

Notes

  1. 1 2 "A comprehensive description of the 275 Shivastalams glorified by the Tevaram hymns". templenet.com. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  2. "Understanding some aspects of Hinduism". Colombo, Sri Lanka: Daily News. 24 March 2011. Archived from the original on 5 May 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2015 via HighBeam.
  3. SAK, Durga (1 January 2009). "The Oxford Illustrated Companion to South Indian Classical Music". Journal of the Indian Musicological Society. Indian Musicological Society. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2015 via HighBeam.
  4. Scharfe, Hartmut (1 October 1999). "The Doctrine of the Three Humors in Traditional Indian Medicine and the Alleged Antiquity of Tamil Siddha Medicine" . The Journal of the American Oriental Society. Retrieved 26 July 2015 via Questia Online Library.
  5. Shulman, David (1 January 1997). "Tevaram: Ayvuttunai (Tevaram: Etudes et glossaire tamouls)". The Journal of the American Oriental Society. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2015 via HighBeam.
  6. V., Meena (1974). Temples in South India (1st ed.). Kanniyakumari: Harikumar Arts. pp. 33–4.
  7. Glimpses of the history of Karaikkal.Saroja Sundararajan
  8. The Journal of the Music Academy, Madras: Volumes 33-34 .Music Academy (Madras, India) - 1962
  9. Nityasumaṅgalī: devadasi tradition in South India .P.146. Saskia C. Kersenboom-Story
  10. http://www.hindu.com/2011/04/22/stories/2011042255521400.htm .The Hindu
  11. Kamalabaskaran 1994
  12. Spear 2011. p. 121

Related Research Articles

<i>Tevaram</i>

The Thevaram denotes the first seven volumes of the Tirumurai, the twelve-volume collection of Śaiva devotional poetry. All seven volumes are dedicated to the works of the three most prominent Tamil poets of the 7th century, the Nayanars - Sambandar, Tirunavukkarasar and Sundarar. The singing of Thevaram is continued as a hereditary practise in many Shiva temples in Tamil Nadu.

Thyagaraja Temple, Tiruvottiyur temple in India

Thyagaraja Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Hindu god Shiva. It is located in Tiruvottiyur in the northern part of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is revered by the Tevaram hymns of Saiva nayanars, the 7th century Tamil saint poets and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam. The temple is closely associated with the saint poet Sundarar and Pattinathar. The temple has been in vogue from the Pallava times of the 7th century and widely expanded by Chola kings during the 11th century. The temple has a seven tiered gateway tower, a tank, with the overall temple area covering 1 acre. The temple is administered by the Hindu Religious and Endowment Board of the Government of Tamil Nadu. The temple draws parallel with the Thygaraja temple in Tiruvarur as both the temples were expanded by Rajendra Chola I and both have the same dance poses of Shiva. The temple is one of the 51 Sakthi Peetams in the country.

Thiruvanchikulam Temple Temple in Thrissur District, Kerala, India

ThiruvanchikulamSivaTemple is a Hindu temple situated in Kodungallur in Thrissur district in the South Indian state of Kerala in India. Constructed in the Kerala style of architecture, the temple is believed to have been built during the Chera period in the 8th century. Shiva is worshipped as Mahadeva and his consort Parvathi as Umadevi.

Thyagaraja Temple, Tiruvarur temple in India

Thyagaraja Temple is a Shiva temple, located in the town of Thiruvarur in Tamil Nadu, India. Shiva is worshiped as Vanmiganathar, and is represented by the lingam. Daily poojas are offered to his idol referred to as Maragatha lingam. The main idol of worship is Lord Thiyagarajar, depicted as a Somaskanda form.His consort Parvathi is depicted as Kondi. The presiding deity is revered in the 7th century Saiva canonical work, the Tevaram, written in Tamil by saint poets known as the nayanars and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.

Kandeeswarar Temple, Kandiyur

Kandeeswarar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the god Shiva located in Kandiyur also known as Thirukkandiyur or Tirukkandiyur, near Tiruvaiyaru, Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is incarnated by the hymns of Tirugnana Sambandar and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.

Aiyarappar temple temple in India

Aiyarappar temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located in the village of Tiruvaiyaru, Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is incarnated by the hymns of Thevaram and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam. Thiruvaiyaru means Five Rivers around the city. The Five Rivers are Arisilaaru, Vennaaru, Vettaaru, Kudamuruttiyaaru and Kaaviriyaaru.

Kalyanasundaresar Temple, Nallur

Kalyanasundaresar Temple, Nallur or Thirunallur is a Hindu temple dedicated to the deity Shiva, located in Nallur, in the outskirts of Kumbakonam in Tamil Nadu, India. Shiva is worshiped as Kalyansundaresar, and is represented by the lingam. His consort Parvati is depicted as Girisundari. The presiding deity is revered in the 7th century Tamil Saiva canonical work, the Tevaram, written by Tamil saint poets known as the nayanars and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam. The legend of the temple is associated with sage Agastya and Amaraneethi Nayanar, one of the 63 nayanars, the Tamil Saiva saints. The lingam in the temple is believed to change colours five times during the day time.

Vaippu Sthalam temple in India

The Vaippu Sthalam also Called Tevara Vaippu Sthalam are places in South India that were mentioned casually in the songs in Tevaram, hymns composed in praise of Lord Shiva during 7th-8th century.

Pushpavananathar Temple, Tiruppoonturutti

Pushpavananathar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located near Tiruvarur, Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is incarnated by the hymns of Appar and is. classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.

Vedapuriswarar Temple, Thiruvedhikudi

Vedapuriswarar Temple, Thiruvedhikudi or Vazhaimadunathar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located in Thiruvedhikudi near Tiruvaiyaru, Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is incarnated by the hymns of Appar and Campantar and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.

Apathsahayar Temple, Thirupazhanam

Apathsahayar Temple, Thirupazhanam is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located in Thirupazhanam near Tiruvaiyaru, Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is incarnated by the hymns of Appar and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.

Tirunallar Dharbaranyeswarar Temple temple in India

Tirunallar Saniswaran Temple or Dharbaranyeswarar Temple(திருநள்ளாறு தர்ப்பாரண்யேசுவரர் கோயில் is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shani located in Tirunallar in Karaikal district of Pondicherry, India. The presiding deity is Lord Siva, Dharbaranyeswar and the place Tirunallar was historically called Dharbaranyam. The temple is revered by the hymns of 7th century Tamil saivite poets, Appar, Sundarar and Sambandhar and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.

Vaimoornathar Temple, Tiruvaimur temple in India

Vaimoornathar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located in Tiruvaimur in Tiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is revered in the hymns of 7th century Tamil saivite poets, Appar and Campantar and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.

Brahmapureeswarar Temple, Thirukkuvalai temple in India

Brahmapureeswarar Temple or Tiurkolili is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located in Thirukkuvalai in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is revered by the hymns of 7th century Tamil saivite poets, Appar, Sundarar and Campantar and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.

Kannayariamudayar Temple, Thirukkarayil Hindu temple

Kannayariamudayar Temple, Thirukarayil is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located in Thirukkuvalai in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is revered by the hymns of 7th century Tamil saivite poet, Campantar and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.

Padikasu Nathar Temple temple in India

Padikasu Nathar Temple is a Hindu temple located at Azhagaputhur, a village in the Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu, India. Shiva is worshiped as Padikasunathar, and is represented by the lingam. His consort Parvati is depicted as Soundaranayagi. The presiding deity is revered in the 7th century Tamil Saiva canonical work, the Tevaram, written by Tamil saint poets known as the nayanars and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam. The 8th century Saiva saint poet Sundarar has sung praise about the temple in his works.

Tiruneelakkudi Neelakandeswarar Temple

Tiruneelakkudi Neelakandeswarar Temple is a Hindu temple located at Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu, India. The historical name of Tiruneelakkudi is Thennalakudi. The presiding deity is Shiva. He is called as Neelakandeswarar. His consort is Oppilamulaiyal. சதாசிவ குருக்கள் 8489391675

Tirumanancheri Udhvaganathar Temple temple in India

Tirumanancheri Udhvaganathar Temple is a Hindu temple at Thirumanancheri in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu, India. The presiding deity is Shiva. He is called Udhvaganathar. His consort is known as Kokhila. Sri Kalyanasundareswarar Swamy Temple is another name for this temple.

Araneri Achaleswarar Temple temple in India

Araneri Achaleswarar Temple is a Hindu temple located in the premises of Thyagaraja Temple in Tiruvarur of Tiruvarur district, Tamil Nadu, India. Historical name of this place is Arur Araneri. The temple is dedicated to Shiva, as the moolavar presiding deity, in his manifestation as Araneriyappar. His consort, Parvati, is known as Vandarakuzhali.

Kachabeswarar temple, Thirukachur

Kachabeswarar Temple, Thirukachur is a Hindu temple dedicated to the deity Shiva, located in Thirukachur, a village in Kanchipuram district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Shiva is worshipped as Kachabeswarar, and is represented by the lingam. His consort Parvati is depicted as Antanatchi and Kanniyumaiyal. The presiding deity is revered in the 7th century Tamil Saiva canonical work, the Tevaram, written by Tamil saint poets known as the Nayanars and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam. The temple is counted as a twin temple along with Marundeeswarar Temple located in the same village.

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