|Part of a series on|
|The twelve volumes of Tamil Śaiva hymns of the sixty-three Nayanars|
|8|| Tiruvacakam &|
|9|| Tiruvisaippa &|
|Paadal Petra Sthalam|
|Paadal Petra Sthalam|
The Paadal Petra Thalam are 275temples that are revered in the verses of Saiva Nayanars in the 6th-9th century CE and are amongst the greatest Shiva temples of the continent. The Divya Desams by comparison are the 108 Vishnu temples glorified in the poems of the contemporary Vaishnava Alvars of Tamil Nadu, India
Shaivism is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being. The followers of Shaivism are called "Shaivites" or "Saivites". It is one of the largest sects that believe Shiva, worshipped as a creator and destroyer of worlds, is the supreme god over all. The Shaiva have many sub-traditions ranging from devotional dualistic theism such as Shaiva Siddhanta to yoga-oriented monistic non-theism such as Kashmiri Shaivism. It considers both the Vedas and the Agama texts as important sources of theology. The origin of Shaivism may be traced to the conception of Rudra in the Rig Veda.
The Nayanmars were a group of 63 saints in the 6th to 8th century who were devoted to the Hindu god Shiva in Tamil Nadu. They, along with the Alwars, their contemporaries who were devoted to Vishnu, influenced the Bhakti movement in Tamil. The names of the Nayanars were first compiled by Sundarar. The list was expanded by Nambiyandar Nambi during his compilation of material by the poets for the Tirumurai collection, and would include Sundarar himself and Sundarar's parents.
Lord Shiva has innumerable temples dedicated to him throughout the length and breadth of India. The most temples are most likely in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, where there are 2,500 Shiva temples of importance. There are several kinds of temples in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Thevaram literally means "garland of divine songs and refers to the collection of verses sung praising Shiva, the primary god of the Shaivite sect of Hindu religion, by three Tamil poets known as Saiva Kuruvars - Thirugnana Sambanthar, Tirunavukkarasar (aka Appar) and Sundaramoorthy Nayanar (aka Sundarar).The three are considered the primary three among the sixty three Nayanmars of the Saivite sect of Hinduism. The former two lived during the 7th century AD while the latter around 8th century AD. All songs in Thevaram are believed to be in sets of ten songs, called pathikam in Tamil. Some musical experts consider Thevaram as a divine musical form. There is a common view that Sanskritization of names of the temples are carried out in later period that superseded the names mentioned in Thevaram - some of the common examples are Chidambaram as against Tillai in Thevaram and Kumbakonam as against Kudanthai.
Tamil is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Chindians, and Douglas. Tamil is an official language in three countries: India, Sri Lanka and Singapore. In India, it is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry. Furthermore, Tamil is used as one of the languages of education in Malaysia, along with English, Malay and Mandarin. Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, and flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India.
The 275 temples that are mentioned in Thevaram are referred as Paadal Petra Thalam, meaning the temples that were sung in the verses. On the contrary, Vaippu Thalam are temples that were mentioned casually in the songs in Thevaram and lacking a mention of those temples. In modern times, the verses of Tevaram are sung daily and during the festive occasions in most Shiva temples in Tamil Nadu by musicians called Odhuvars.
Manikkavacakar is considered the 4th in the line of Saiva Kuravars, whose verses are classified as Thiruvasagam. There is a saying that "Thiruvasagathuku urugar, oru vasagathukum orugar" meaning the person who does not budge for thiruvasagam won't budge for anything else.
Manikkavacakar or MaanikkaVaasagar was a 9th-century Tamil poet who wrote Tiruvasakam, a book of Shaiva hymns. He was one of the main authors of Saivite Tirumurai, his work forms volume eight of the Tirumurai, the key religious text of Tamil language Shaiva Siddhanta. A minister to the Pandya king Varagunavarman II, he lived in Madurai. His work is a poetic expression of the joy of God-experience, the anguish of being separated from God. Although he is a prominent saint in Southern India, he is not counted among the sixty-three nayanars.
Thiruvasagam is a volume of Tamil hymns composed by the ninth century Shaivite bhakti poet Manikkavasagar. It contains 51 compositions and constitutes the eighth volume of the Tirumurai, the sacred anthology of the Tamil Shaiva Siddhanta.
There are around 275 temples that are revered by the verses of Saiva Nayanars and are amongst the greatest Shiva Temples of Tamil Nadu.In Tamil Nadu there are 265 temples, 2 temples in Andhra pradesh, 1 temple in kerala, 1 temple in karnataka, 2 temples in Uttarakhand, 2 temples in Sri Lanka, 1 temple in Nepal, and Tirukayilaayam in Mount Kailash. The list is as shown below.
|Chola Nadu - North of Kaveri||Chola Nadu - South of Kaveri||Eezha Nadu||Pandya Nadu||Malai Nadu|
Tiruvetkalam Pasupatheswarar Temple is a Hindu temple located at Chidambaram in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, India. The presiding deity is Shiva. He is called as Pasupatheswarar. His consort is known as Satgunambal and Nalla Nayaki. The temple is located inside the Annamalai University complex.
Sivapuri Uchinathar Temple is a Hindu temple located at Sivapuri in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, India. The place is also known as Thirunelvayil. The presiding deity is Shiva. He is called as Uchinathar. His consort is known as Uchinayagi.
Tirukkazhippalai Palvannanathar Temple is a Hindu temple located at Chidambaram in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, India. The presiding deity is Shiva in the form of Palvannanathar and his consort is known as Vedanayaki. The presiding deity is revered in the 7th century Tamil Saiva canonical work, the Tevaram, written by Tamil saint poets known as the nayanmars and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.
1. Aalavaai (Madurai)
|Kongu Nadu||Nadu Nadu||Tondai Nadu||Erumai Nadu||Vada Nadu|
1. Tirunelvayil Aratturai
1. Kachi Ekambam
This refers to the temples that are the manifestation of the five elements - land, water, air, sky, fire.
|Air||Sri Kalahastheeswara Swami Temple||Kalahasthi, Andhra Pradesh|
Pancha Bhoota stalam Map
The temples where Lord Shiva is believed to have performed the Cosmic Dance.
|Rathinachabai||Vada aaranyeswarar Temple||Thiruvalangadu, Chennai||Emerald|
|Vellichabai||Meenakshi Amman Temple||Madurai||Silver|
Pancha Sabhai Map
The temples where Lord Shiva is believed to have performed with fury. The eight temples are in 1. Thiruvadhikai 2. Thirukoyilur 3. Thirukkadayur 4. Vazhoovur 5. Thirukkurakaval ( kurukkai ) 6. Thiruppaliyalur 7. Thirukandiyur 8. Thiruvirkudi.
|Tiruvadigai Veerattaaneswarar Temple||Tiruvadigai, Panruti||Cuddalore district|
|Korukkai Veeratteswarar Temple||Tirukurukkai||Nagapattinam district|
|Tirukkovilur Veerateshwarar Temple||Tirukoilur||Tiruvannamalai district|
|Amirtagateswarar Temple||Thirukadaiyur||Nagapattinam district|
|Vazhuvur Verateswarar Temple||Vazhuvoor, Mayiladuthurai||Nagapattinam district|
|Keelaparasalur Veerateswarar Temple||Tirupariyalur||Nagapattinam district|
|Kandeeswarar Temple||Thirukkandiyur||Thanjavur district|
|Tiruvirkudi Veerataneswarar Temple||Thiruvirkudi||Thiruvarur district|
The Thyagarajar Temple at Tiruvarur is famous for the ajapa natanam (dance without chanting), that is executed by the deity itself. According to legend, a Chola king named Mucukunta obtained a boon from Indra (a celestial deity) and wished to receive an image of Thyagaraja Swamy (presiding deity, Shiva in the temple) reposing on the chest of reclining Lord Vishnu. Indra tried to misguide the king and had six other images made, but the king chose the right image at Tiruvarur.The other six images were installed in ThiruNallaaru, Nagapattinam, Tirukarayil, Tirukolili, Thiruvaaimur and Tirumaraikadu. All the seven places are villages situated in the river Cauvery delta. All seven Thyagaraja images are said to dance when taken in procession(it is the bearers of the processional deity who actually dance). The temples with dance styles are regarded as Saptha Vidangam (seven dance moves) and the related temples are as under:
|Temple||Vidangar Temple||Dance pose||Meaning|
|Thyagarajar Temple, Tiruvarur||Vidhividangar||Ajaba Natanam||Dance without chanting, resembling the dance of Sri Thyagaraja resting on Lord Vishnu's chest|
|Dharbaranyeswarar Temple, Tirunallar||Nagaravidangar||Unmatha natanam||Dance of an intoxicated person|
|Kayarohanaswamy Temple, Nagapattinam||Sundaravidangar||Vilathi natanam||Dancing like waves of sea|
|Kannayariamudayar Temple, Thirukarayil||Adhividangar||Kukuda natanam||Dancing like a cock|
|Brahmapureeswarar Temple, Thirukkuvalai||Avanividangar||Brunga natanam||Dancing like a bee that hovers over a flower|
|Vaimoornaathar Temple, Tiruvaimur||Nallavidangar||Kamala natanam||Dance like lotus that moves in a breeze|
|Vedaranyeswarar Temple, Vedaranyam||Bhuvanivividangar||Hamsapatha natanam||Dancing with the gait of a swan|
The sapthasthanam festival is conducted at Tiruvaiyaru during April every year. Hundreds of people witness the convergence of seven glass palanquins carrying principal deities of respective temples from seven places at Tiruvaiyaru. The palanquins are paraded near the car stand, the crowd witnessed the Poochorithal(flower festival) in which a doll offers flowers to the principal deities in the palanquins. After the Poochorithal, the palanquins left for their respective places.The seven temples are
The seven temples are
|Chakravageshwarar Temple||Chakravageshwarar/Devanayagi||Chakramangai||Chakkarapalli, Thanjavur|
|Arimutheeswarar Temple||Arimutheeswarar/Gnambikai||Harimangai||Ariyamangai, Thanjavur|
|Krithivageswarar temple||Krithivageswarar/Alangaravalli||Soolamangai||Soolamangalam, Thanjavur|
|Jambugeswarar Temple||Jambugeswarar/Akilandeswari||Nandimangai||Tirupullamangai, Thanjavur|
|Pasumangai Temple||Pasupatiswarar/Palvalainayagi||Pasumangai||Thirukkandiyur, Thanjavur|
|Chandramouleeswarar Temple||Chandramouleeswarar/Rajarajeswari||Thazhamangai||Thazhamangai, Thanjavur|
|Tirupullamangai Temple||Alandurainathar/Soundaranayagi||Pullamangai||Pullamangai, Thanjavur|
Aathara Stalam indicates the places which are considered to be diving impersonification of Tantric chakras associated with human anatomy. Annamalaiyar temple is called the Manipooraga stalamassociated with Manipooraga the human anatomical cause for spiritual ignorance, thirst, jealousy, treachery, shame, fear, disgust, delusion, foolishness and sadness. 4 temples are located in Tamil Nadu, one in Andhra Pradesh, and one at Varanasi.
| Anthagam |
(Sanskrit: आज्ञा, ājñā [aːɟɲaː] )
|Brain directly behind eyebrow||Natarajar Temple||Chidambaram|
| Visuthi |
(Sanskrit: विशुद्ध, Viśuddha)
|Neck region near spine||Sri Kalahastheeswara Swami Temple||Kalahasthi|
| Anahata |
(Sanskrit: अनाहत, Anāhata)
|Central channel behind spine||Kashi Vishwanath Temple||Varanasi|
| Manipooragam |
(Sanskrit: मणिपूर, Maṇipūra)
|Spine directly behind the navel||Arunachaleshwarar Temple||Thiruvannamalai|
| Swathistanam |
(Sanskrit: स्वाधिष्ठान, Svādhiṣṭhāna)
|One's own abode||Thiruvanaikaval||Trichy|
| Moolatharam |
(Sanskrit: मूलाधार, Mūlādhāra)
|Basal end of the spinal||Thyagaraja Swamy Temple||Tiruvarur|
The Thevaram denotes the first seven volumes of the Tirumurai, the twelve-volume collection of Śaiva devotional poetry. All seven volumes are dedicated to the works of the three most prominent Tamil poets of the 7th century, the Nayanars - Sambandar, Tirunavukkarasar and Sundarar. The singing of Thevaram is continued as a hereditary practise in many Shiva temples in Tamil Nadu.
Thyagaraja Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Hindu god Shiva. It is located in Tiruvottiyur in the northern part of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is revered by the Tevaram hymns of Saiva nayanars, the 7th century Tamil saint poets and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam. The temple is closely associated with the saint poet Sundarar and Pattinathar. The temple has been in vogue from the Pallava times of the 7th century and widely expanded by Chola kings during the 11th century. The temple has a seven tiered gateway tower, a tank, with the overall temple area covering 1 acre. The temple is administered by the Hindu Religious and Endowment Board of the Government of Tamil Nadu. The temple draws parallel with the Thygaraja temple in Tiruvarur as both the temples were expanded by Rajendra Chola I and both have the same dance poses of Shiva. The temple is one of the 51 Sakthi Peetams in the country.
ThiruvanchikulamSivaTemple is a Hindu temple situated in Kodungallur in Thrissur district in the South Indian state of Kerala in India. Constructed in the Kerala style of architecture, the temple is believed to have been built during the Chera period in the 8th century. Shiva is worshipped as Mahadeva and his consort Parvathi as Umadevi.
Thyagaraja Temple is a Shiva temple, located in the town of Thiruvarur in Tamil Nadu, India. Shiva is worshiped as Vanmiganathar, and is represented by the lingam. Daily poojas are offered to his idol referred to as Maragatha lingam. The main idol of worship is Lord Thiyagarajar, depicted as a Somaskanda form.His consort Parvathi is depicted as Kondi. The presiding deity is revered in the 7th century Saiva canonical work, the Tevaram, written in Tamil by saint poets known as the nayanars and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.
Kandeeswarar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the god Shiva located in Kandiyur also known as Thirukkandiyur or Tirukkandiyur, near Tiruvaiyaru, Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is incarnated by the hymns of Tirugnana Sambandar and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.
Aiyarappar temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located in the village of Tiruvaiyaru, Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is incarnated by the hymns of Thevaram and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam. Thiruvaiyaru means Five Rivers around the city. The Five Rivers are Arisilaaru, Vennaaru, Vettaaru, Kudamuruttiyaaru and Kaaviriyaaru.
Kalyanasundaresar Temple, Nallur or Thirunallur is a Hindu temple dedicated to the deity Shiva, located in Nallur, in the outskirts of Kumbakonam in Tamil Nadu, India. Shiva is worshiped as Kalyansundaresar, and is represented by the lingam. His consort Parvati is depicted as Girisundari. The presiding deity is revered in the 7th century Tamil Saiva canonical work, the Tevaram, written by Tamil saint poets known as the nayanars and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam. The legend of the temple is associated with sage Agastya and Amaraneethi Nayanar, one of the 63 nayanars, the Tamil Saiva saints. The lingam in the temple is believed to change colours five times during the day time.
The Vaippu Sthalam also Called Tevara Vaippu Sthalam are places in South India that were mentioned casually in the songs in Tevaram, hymns composed in praise of Lord Shiva during 7th-8th century.
Pushpavananathar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located near Tiruvarur, Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is incarnated by the hymns of Appar and is. classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.
Vedapuriswarar Temple, Thiruvedhikudi or Vazhaimadunathar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located in Thiruvedhikudi near Tiruvaiyaru, Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is incarnated by the hymns of Appar and Campantar and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.
Apathsahayar Temple, Thirupazhanam is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located in Thirupazhanam near Tiruvaiyaru, Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is incarnated by the hymns of Appar and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.
Tirunallar Saniswaran Temple or Dharbaranyeswarar Temple(திருநள்ளாறு தர்ப்பாரண்யேசுவரர் கோயில் is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shani located in Tirunallar in Karaikal district of Pondicherry, India. The presiding deity is Lord Siva, Dharbaranyeswar and the place Tirunallar was historically called Dharbaranyam. The temple is revered by the hymns of 7th century Tamil saivite poets, Appar, Sundarar and Sambandhar and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.
Vaimoornathar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located in Tiruvaimur in Tiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is revered in the hymns of 7th century Tamil saivite poets, Appar and Campantar and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.
Brahmapureeswarar Temple or Tiurkolili is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located in Thirukkuvalai in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is revered by the hymns of 7th century Tamil saivite poets, Appar, Sundarar and Campantar and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.
Kannayariamudayar Temple, Thirukarayil is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located in Thirukkuvalai in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is revered by the hymns of 7th century Tamil saivite poet, Campantar and is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.
Padikasu Nathar Temple is a Hindu temple located at Azhagaputhur, a village in the Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu, India. Shiva is worshiped as Padikasunathar, and is represented by the lingam. His consort Parvati is depicted as Soundaranayagi. The presiding deity is revered in the 7th century Tamil Saiva canonical work, the Tevaram, written by Tamil saint poets known as the nayanars and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam. The 8th century Saiva saint poet Sundarar has sung praise about the temple in his works.
Tiruneelakkudi Neelakandeswarar Temple is a Hindu temple located at Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu, India. The historical name of Tiruneelakkudi is Thennalakudi. The presiding deity is Shiva. He is called as Neelakandeswarar. His consort is Oppilamulaiyal. சதாசிவ குருக்கள் 8489391675
Tirumanancheri Udhvaganathar Temple is a Hindu temple at Thirumanancheri in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu, India. The presiding deity is Shiva. He is called Udhvaganathar. His consort is known as Kokhila. Sri Kalyanasundareswarar Swamy Temple is another name for this temple.
Araneri Achaleswarar Temple is a Hindu temple located in the premises of Thyagaraja Temple in Tiruvarur of Tiruvarur district, Tamil Nadu, India. Historical name of this place is Arur Araneri. The temple is dedicated to Shiva, as the moolavar presiding deity, in his manifestation as Araneriyappar. His consort, Parvati, is known as Vandarakuzhali.
Kachabeswarar Temple, Thirukachur is a Hindu temple dedicated to the deity Shiva, located in Thirukachur, a village in Kanchipuram district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Shiva is worshipped as Kachabeswarar, and is represented by the lingam. His consort Parvati is depicted as Antanatchi and Kanniyumaiyal. The presiding deity is revered in the 7th century Tamil Saiva canonical work, the Tevaram, written by Tamil saint poets known as the Nayanars and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam. The temple is counted as a twin temple along with Marundeeswarar Temple located in the same village.