Pacific Highway (Australia)

Last updated

Pacific Highway

Location Pacific Hwy.svg
General information
Type Highway
Length790 km (491 mi) [1] [2] [3] [4]
Route number(s)
Major junctions
Brunswick Heads to Mayfield West
North endNew South Wales alphanumeric route M1.svg Pacific Motorway (M1)
 
South endNew South Wales alphanumeric route A43.svg Industrial Drive (A43)
Newcastle West to Tuggerah then Ourimbah to Wyoming
NE endNew South Wales alphanumeric route A43.svg Stewart Avenue (A43)
 
SW endNSW Small none.svg Mann Street
Kariong to North Sydney
North end
  • New South Wales alphanumeric route M1.svg Pacific Motorway (M1)
  • New South Wales alphanumeric route A49.svg Central Coast Highway (A49)
 
South endNew South Wales alphanumeric route M1.svg Warringah Freeway (M1)
Location(s)
Major settlements Ballina, Grafton, Coffs Harbour, Kempsey, Taree, Newcastle, Gosford, Wahroonga
Highway system

The Pacific Highway is a 790-kilometre-long (490 mi) [1] [2] [3] [4] national highway and major transport route along the central east coast of Australia, with the majority of it being part of Australia's national route 1.

Highways in Australia describes the highways of Australia

Highways in Australia are generally high capacity roads managed by state and territory government agencies, though Australia's federal government contributes funding for important links between capital cities and major regional centres. Prior to European settlement, the earliest needs for trade and travel were met by narrow bush tracks, used by tribes of Indigenous Australians. The formal construction of roads began in 1788, after the founding of the colony of New South Wales, and a network of three major roads across the colony emerged by the 1820s. Similar road networks were established in the other colonies of Australia. Road construction programs in the early 19th century were generally underfunded, as they were dependent on government budgets, loans, and tolls; while there was a huge increase in road usage, due to the Australian gold rushes. Local government authorities, often known as Road Boards, were therefore established to be primarily responsible for funding and undertaking road construction and maintenance. The early 1900s saw both the increasingly widespread use of motorised transportation, and the creation of state road authorities in each state, between 1913 and 1926. These authorities managed each state's road network, with the main arterial roads controlled and maintained by the state, and other roads remaining the responsibility of local governments. The federal government became involved in road funding in the 1920s, distributing funding to the states. The depression of the 1930s slowed the funding and development of the major road network until the onset on World War II. Supply roads leading to the north of the country were considered vital, resulting in the construction of Barkly, Stuart, and Eyre Highways.

Highway 1 (Australia) circumnavigational highway in Australia

Australia's Highway 1 is a network of highways that circumnavigate the country, joining all mainland state capitals. At a total length of approximately 14,500 km (9,000 mi) it is the longest national highway in the world, surpassing the Trans-Siberian Highway and the Trans-Canada Highway. Every day more than a million people travel on a part of it.

Contents

The highway and its adjoining Pacific Motorway between Brisbane and Brunswick Heads and Pacific Motorway between Sydney and Newcastle links the state capitals of Sydney in New South Wales with Brisbane in Queensland, approximately paralleling the Tasman Sea of the South Pacific Ocean coast, via Gosford, Newcastle, Taree, Port Macquarie, Kempsey, Coffs Harbour, Grafton, and Ballina. The highway stops short of the Queensland Gold Coast where the highway has been diverted as a motorway and the former highway subsequently renamed as the Gold Coast Highway.

Pacific Motorway (Brisbane–Brunswick Heads) motorway in New South Wales and Queensland

The Pacific Motorway is a motorway in Australia between Brisbane, Queensland, and Brunswick Heads, New South Wales, through the New South Wales–Queensland border at Tweed Heads.

Pacific Motorway (Sydney–Newcastle) motorway in New South Wales

The M1 Pacific Motorway, also known by the former names F3 Freeway, Sydney–Newcastle Freeway, and Sydney–Newcastle Expressway; is a 127 km (79 mi) stretch of freeway linking Sydney to the Central Coast, Newcastle and Hunter regions of New South Wales. It is part of the AusLink road corridor between Sydney and Brisbane. The name "F3 Freeway", reflects its former route allocation, but is commonly used by both the public and the government to refer to the roadway long after the route allocation itself was no longer in use.

Sydney City in New South Wales, Australia

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to approximately 65% of the state's population.

The Pacific Highway is one of the busiest highways in Australia,[ citation needed ] and is subject to continual upgrade to a dual carriageway (minimum four-lane) divided road, with about 81% of the entire route built to this standard as of 1 October 2017. [7] In June 2015, the Commonwealth and NSW governments announced their intention to upgrade the entire highway to dual carriageway by 2020. [8]

Dual carriageway road

A dual carriageway or divided highway is a class of highway with carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation. Roads with two or more carriageways which are designed to higher standards with controlled access are generally classed as motorways, freeways, etc., rather than dual carriageways.

Government of New South Wales state government of New South Wales, Australia

The Government of New South Wales, also referred to as the New South Wales Government or NSW Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of New South Wales. It is currently held by a coalition of the Liberal Party and the National Party. The Government of New South Wales, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1856 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, New South Wales has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, and the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, New South Wales ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth.

Route description

PacificHwy-StripMap.png

A map of the Pacific Highway between Nambucca Heads to its northern terminus, northwest of Byron Bay. Thereafter the Pacific Motorway continues north to Brisbane.
KEY

Nambucca Heads, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Nambucca Heads is a town on the Mid North Coast of New South Wales, Australia in Nambucca Shire. It is located on a ridge, north of the estuary of the Nambucca River near the Pacific Highway. Its 2011 population was 6,137, including 602 (9.7%) indigenous persons and 5,180 (83.3%) Australian-born persons in the Shire. The place name is derived from an Gumbaynggirr word Ngambagabaga. Clement hodgkinson asked two Ngamba men what the name of the area was they responded to Nyambagabaga as the spot they were standing was a bend in the river where a Ngamba giant was speared in the leg in the Dreaming. This location is the Foreshore Caravan Park now. Ngamba is a subsection of Gumbaynggirr Nation & Baga Baga means Knee. This was later interpreted as Nambucca. It is a popular holiday and retirement destination.

Byron Bay, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Byron Bay is a beachside town located in the far-northeastern corner of the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located 772 kilometres (480 mi) north of Sydney and 165 kilometres (103 mi) south of Brisbane. Cape Byron, a headland adjacent to the town, is the easternmost point of mainland Australia. At the 2016 census, the town had a permanent population of 9,246. It is the largest town of Byron Shire, though not the shire's administrative centre.

Brisbane capital city of Queensland, Australia

Brisbane is the capital of and the most populated city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of approximately 2.5 million, and the South East Queensland metropolitan region, centred on Brisbane, encompasses a population of more than 3.6 million. The Brisbane central business district stands on the historic European settlement and is situated inside a peninsula of the Brisbane River, about 15 kilometres from its mouth at Moreton Bay. The metropolitan area extends in all directions along the floodplain of the Brisbane River Valley between Moreton Bay and the Great Dividing Range, sprawling across several of Australia's most populous local government areas (LGAs)—most centrally the City of Brisbane, which is by far the most populous LGA in the nation. The demonym of Brisbane is "Brisbanite" or "Brisbanian".

  Pacific Hwy
  Other major highways
  Other freeways/motorways/expressways

The Pacific Highway is a 790-kilometre-long (490 mi) [1] [2] [3] [4] national highway and major transport route along the central east coast of Australia, with the majority of it being part of Australia's national route 1.

Various sections of the route are dual carriageway or motorway-standard:

The Pacific Highway passes through some of Australia's fastest growing regions, the NSW's Central Coast and North Coast and also the Brisbane-Gold Coast corridor, with tourism and leisure being the primary economic activity. Hence the traffic is heavy, particularly during holiday seasons, resulting in major congestion. For direct Sydney–Brisbane travel, the New England Highway is an alternative that passes through fewer major towns and carries less local traffic. Another alternate route is via the scenic Bucketts Way and Thunderbolts Way to the Northern Tablelands at Walcha before rejoining the New England Highway at Uralla. This route reduces the distance of the Sydney to Brisbane trip by about 70 kilometres (43 mi).

Major cities and towns along the Pacific Highway include: Gosford, Wyong, Newcastle, Taree, Port Macquarie, Kempsey, Coffs Harbour, Grafton, Ballina and Byron Bay, all in New South Wales; and Gold Coast in Queensland.

Major river crossings include the Hawkesbury, Hunter, Myall (just to the east of Bulahdelah), Manning (south of Coopernook), Hastings (west of Port Macquarie), Macleay (just to the east of Frederickton), Nambucca (near Macksville), Bellinger (near Raleigh), Clarence (via the Harwood Bridge near Maclean), Richmond (at Ballina), Brunswick, and Tweed rivers.

Sydney to Kariong

From Sydney the Pacific Highway starts as the continuation of the Bradfield Highway at the northern end of the Sydney Harbour Bridge, immediately north of the Sydney central business district and is the main route as far as the suburb of Wahroonga. From the Harbour Bridge to the Gore Hill Freeway at Artarmon it has no route number and from the Gore Hill Freeway to Wahroonga it is designated as A1. When the Warringah Freeway was built in the late 1960s, southbound traffic was diverted through North Sydney via Mount Street. In the late 1980s it was again diverted via Berry Street.

From Wahroonga, the Pacific Highway is mostly parallel to the freeway until Kariong (at which point it diverts into the Central Coast through Gosford and Wyong). The section of the highway from Cowan to Kariong follows a scenic winding route with varying speed limits, typically 60 or 80 km/h (37 or 50 mph).

Somersby to Hexham

The section of what was formerly the Pacific Highway from the Wiseman's Ferry Road junction at Somersby, through to the Pacific Highway exit at Gosford (adjacent to Brian McGowan Bridge), has been rebadged as the Central Coast Highway with the route number A49. Then the highway continues north without a route number through the Central Coast suburbs of Ourimbah and Wyong as a regional route before meeting with a spur of the Pacific Motorway near Doyalson numbered as "A43". At this point the Pacific Highway becomes "A43" for most of its length, and is a four-lane regional highway passing Lake Macquarie and on through the suburbs of the cities of Lake Macquarie and Newcastle before rejoining national route 1 at Hexham.

From Bennetts Green to Sandgate it is supplemented by the Newcastle Inner City Bypass, through New Lambton and Jesmond. Two lengths of this route (Bennetts Green-Kotara Heights and Jesmond-Sandgate) have been replaced by freeway.

North of Hexham

From the hill, showing the Chinderah-Yelgun section of the highway as it sweeps through the Tweed Valley. Chindrea-yelgen freeway.JPG
From the hill, showing the Chinderah-Yelgun section of the highway as it sweeps through the Tweed Valley.

From Hexham, the Pacific Highway (A1) passes up the NSW north coast to Brunswick Heads [6] where it becomes the Pacific Motorway (M1) through to Brisbane.

Gazette definition

The Pacific Highway used to be an undivided road from Sydney to Brisbane when it was first proclaimed. Since the most recent declaration of the highway in the April 2010 gazette, the New South Wales section of the highway is officially made up of four separate sections within New South Wales: Warringah Freeway, North Sydney to Gosford Interchange near Kariong; Henry Parry Drive, Wyoming to Sydney-Newcastle Freeway at Ourimbah Interchange; Wyong Road, Tuggerah to Hunter Street, Wickham; and Maitland Road, Warrabrook to the Queensland Border. [9] Since February 2013, the freeway section of the highway north of Brunswick Heads is also concurrently gazetted and is named and signposted Pacific Motorway. South of here, the section between Brunswick Heads and Bruxner Highway near Ballina is also signposted Pacific Motorway, however it is not declared as so in the gazette as of February 2019, therefore it remains as only Pacific Highway in the gazette. Former sections of the highway that were removed from the gazette, such as between Gosford and Tuggerah, also continue to be signposted Pacific Highway.

Former sections

Former sections of Pacific Highway were created when the sections were removed from the gazette definition, or were bypassed by new sections of Pacific Highway. However, as mentioned, some former sections of Pacific Highway that were removed from gazette definition continue to be referred and signposted as Pacific Highway.

Removed from gazette definition

Between Sydney and Hexham or Newcastle, some sections of the highway were re-gazetted as other roads and/or not gazetted as part of Pacific Highway anymore. However, As of January 2019 many of these are still referred to and signposted as Pacific Highway.

The first two sections of the highway to be removed from the gazette was the Calga to Kariong section and a section in Gosford between Racecourse Road/Etna Street and Brian McGowan Bridge in November 1996. The remaining section within Gosford, between Kariong and Brian McGowan Bridge, was re-gazetted and renamed Central Coast Highway in August 2006. [10] [11] [12] These changes resulted in the previously undivided section between Ourimabah and Sydney to be split into two: Kariong to Sydney, and Ourimbah to Wyoming.

The April 2010 gazette removed the sections between Racecourse Road/Etta Street and Henry Parry Drive/Pemmel Street in Gosford, between Ourimbah and Tuggerah, and between Hunter Street and Industrial Drive in Newcastle from the existing declaration of the highway, but redeclared the section between Calga and Kariong. [13] [14] As of January 2019, this is the most recent gazette to redefine the declaration of Pacific Highway. Even though these three removed sections are not gazetted as part of Pacific Highway any more, street signage continues to show "Pacific Highway" and maps often show both the current road name and "Pacific Highway" together.

In Queensland, Pacific Highway used to go into Brisbane, however, most sections have been renamed to other roads or highways. For example, the section of Pacific Highway between Coolangatta and Currumbin is now part of Gold Coast Highway.

Bypassed

Sections of the highway between Hexham and the Queensland/NSW border that were bypassed and replaced by new sections of the Pacific Highway, were renamed and downgraded to local roads, and are no longer part of Pacific Highway. As the new sections are just bypasses, this meant that the section between Hexham and Queensland border is still a continuous route. The former 39 kilometres (24 mi) section through Kempsey and Frederickton was a bypassed section that was replaced by a new freeway bypass and bridge over the Macleay River in 2013 and 2016. The original route, which included the site of the Kempsey bus crash, was renamed the Macleay Valley Way. [15]

In May 2009, the portion of the Tugun Bypass (newly opened in June 2008) within New South Wales boundaries was declared as the new alignment of Pacific Highway between Tweed Heads interchange and the Queensland border. The 1-kilometre-long (0.62 mi) older bypassed alignment along Tweed Heads Bypass (opened 1992) towards the border at Coolangatta was gazetted as Gold Coast Highway instead, extending the already existing Gold Coast Highway in Queensland, into New South Wales. [16] [17] The Tugun Bypass was handed over to the NSW government in June 2018. [18] The section of the bypassed highway within Queensland borders between Stewart Road and Gold Coast Highway was officially renamed Tugun-Currumbin Road, but is signposted as Stewart Road. [19] [20]

All of these bypassed sections have been renamed to different names including Old Pacific Highway, such as the sections in Raleigh and Brunswick Heads.

Major intersections

The major intersections of the Pacific Highway, spread over 790 kilometres (490 mi) on the eastern seaboard of New South Wales comprise a mix of freeway grade-separated conditions, suburban and urban roads. Between the Pacific Motorway at Brunswick Heads in the north, and the highway's southern terminus at Bradfield Highway and Cahill Expressway in North Sydney, major intersections include:

New South Wales alphanumeric route B60.svg Bruxner Highway (B60)
New South Wales alphanumeric route B76.svg Gwydir Highway (B76)
New South Wales alphanumeric route B78.svg Waterfall Way (B78)
New South Wales alphanumeric route B56.svg Oxley Highway (B56)
New South Wales alphanumeric route A43.svg New England Highway (A43)
New South Wales alphanumeric route A37.svg Newcastle Inner City Bypass (A37)
New South Wales alphanumeric route A49.svg Central Coast Highway (A49)
New South Wales alphanumeric route M1.svg Pacific Motorway (M1)
New South Wales alphanumeric route A28.svg Cumberland Highway (A28)
New South Wales alphanumeric route A3.svg Mona Vale Road / Ryde Road (A3)
New South Wales alphanumeric route M1.svg Gore Hill Freeway (M1)
New South Wales alphanumeric route M2.svg Lane Cove Tunnel (M2)
New South Wales alphanumeric route M1.svg Warringah Freeway (M1)

History

Initially, the primary mode of transport of the coastal areas between Sydney and Brisbane was by boat. From the roads radiating out from the port towns, the intervening hills were eventually crossed to create a continuous route along the coast, but this did not occur until the first decade of the 20th century. By contrast a continuous inland route from Newcastle to Brisbane via the Northern Tablelands had been in existence since the 1840s. A direct coastal route between Sydney and Newcastle was not completed until 1930, and completion of the sealing of the Pacific Highway did not occur until 1958 (at Koorainghat, south of Taree). The last of the many ferries across the coastal rivers was not superseded by a bridge until 1966 (the Harwood Bridge across the south channel of the Clarence River – the north channel had been bridged in 1931).

Between 1925 and 1930 the then-Main Roads Board reconstructed a route between Hornsby and Calga that had been abandoned some forty years earlier, in order to provide a direct road link between Sydney and Newcastle. In addition a replacement route, from Calga into the gorge of Mooney Mooney Creek and up to the ridge at Kariong above Gosford, was also required. This new Sydney–Newcastle route via Calga and Gosford was some 80 kilometres (50 mi) shorter than the previous route via Parramatta, McGraths Hill, Maroota, Wisemans Ferry, Wollombi and Cessnock. At first Peats Ferry was reinstituted to cross the Hawkesbury River, with construction of the bridge not beginning until 1938, due to the Great Depression. Due to the onset of World War II, the Peats Ferry Bridge was not completed until May 1945.

Shark Creek bridge near Maclean, formerly part of the Pacific Highway Shark Creek Bridge NSW.jpg
Shark Creek bridge near Maclean, formerly part of the Pacific Highway

In 1928 the road from Sydney to Newcastle (still under construction) was proclaimed as part of the Great Northern Highway, and the road from Hexham to Tweed Heads as the North Coast Highway. In 1931 the full length from Sydney to Brisbane was proclaimed as the Pacific Highway.

Until the 1990s most road freight between Sydney and Brisbane passed along the New England Highway instead, due to the easier topography of the Northern Tablelands it traverses. Between 1950 and 1967, traffic on the Pacific Highway quadrupled due to the attraction of coastal towns between Sydney and Brisbane for retirement living and tourism.

Two major coach accidents on the Pacific Highway in 1989 near Grafton (in which 20 people died) and at Clybucca near Kempsey (in which 35 people died) resulted in a public outcry over the poor quality of the road and its high fatality rate. [21] The Pacific Highway was never part of the federally funded system of National Highways. This appears to be because when the federal government funding of the 'national highway' system began in 1974, the longer New England Highway was chosen rather than the Pacific Highway as the Sydney–Brisbane link due to its easier topography and consequent lower upgrade costs.

Yet the highway was undeniably heavily used by interstate traffic and its upgrade was beyond the resources of the New South Wales government alone. The NSW and federal governments argued for years about how the responsibility for funding the highway's upgrade should be divided between themselves, only coming up with a mutually acceptable upgrade package just after the 1996/97 financial year.

Pacific Highway near Burleigh Heads, ~1934 Queensland State Archives 2083 Main Pacific Highway near Burleigh Heads with Big Burleigh in the background c 1934.png
Pacific Highway near Burleigh Heads, ~1934

1996 upgrade masterplan

Single carriageway sections from Tweed Heads to Hexham are progressively being converted to freeway or dual carriageway standards. These are currently being upgraded as part of a joint New South Wales and federal funding arrangement and upgrade masterplan commencing in 1996. At the time, the plan targeted to have the Pacific Highway upgraded to dual carriageway by 2016. The current strategy divides the remaining sections into three levels of priority: [22]

In the meantime, numerous sections of existing single carriageway road have been upgraded by re-alignments and safety improvement work including the addition of overtaking lanes, pavement widening and median barriers. Most large towns have bypasses of a freeway standard, with Coffs Harbour and Grafton being important remainders. Overall the highway has become safer and travelling times have been substantially reduced, particularly during holiday periods. As of 31 October 2018, about 19% of the Pacific Highway from Tweed Heads to Hexham remained one lane in each direction with some form of overtaking opportunity occasionally, but dual carriageway was under construction to replace all of these sections. The other 81% (528 km) was dual carriageway. [22] Continuous dual carriageway, much of it freeway standard, now extends from Mayfield West to Halfway Creek, 38 km south of Grafton. [23]

As of 31 March 2016 the status of four lane dual carriageway on the highway was: [24]

Four lane dual carriageway status
SectionTotal length (km)4-lane divided highway (km)
CurrentCompletionCurrentUnder
construction
Planned
Tweed Heads to Ballina (Bruxner Highway)
including part of Pacific Motorway
90.588.588.500
Ballina to Coffs Harbour 206.5198.58122.5103
Coffs Harbour to Port Macquarie (Oxley Highway)15114640.5105.50
Port Macquarie to Mayfield West 22122322300
Totals666653428127103

Projects

List of projects on the Pacific Highway
ProjectLength (km)Construction datesValueStatusDescriptionDistance from
Sydney (km)
StartEnd
Tugun Bypass 7June 2006 [25] 3 June 2008 [25] $543 million [25] CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway, partly in Queensland823
Banora Point 2.5 [26] December 2009 [26] 22 September 2012 [26] $359 million [26] CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway 817
Chinderah bypass5.8 [27] 1993 [28] 29 November 1996 [27] $67 million [27] CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway 812
Yelgun to Chinderah28.6 [29] May 2000 [29] 6 August 2002 [29] $348 million [29] CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway, includes 3 interchanges784
Brunswick Heads Bypass (stage 1)3.4 [30] 12 September 1996 [30] 5 June 1998 [30] $17 million [30] CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway, first 2 lanes774
Brunswick Heads to Yelgun8.6 [31] July 2005 [28] 11 July 2007 [31] $219 million [32] CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway, duplication777
Tandy's Lane realignment5.5 [33] October 1999 [34] 19 December 2001 [35] $44 million [34] CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway 773
Ewingsdale to Tyagarah realignment4.3 [36] Late 1996 [35] 16 October 1998 [36] $22 million [36] CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway 765
Ewingsdale interchange1.9 [37] February 1999 [37] 20 December 2000 [37] $22.5 million [37] CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway 764
Tintenbar to Ewingsdale17 [38] May 2012 [38] 18 December 2015 [38] $862 million [38] CompleteFour lane motorway (limited access), new alignment, 110 km/h speed limit, twin-tube road tunnel under St Helena Hill.749
Ballina Bypass12 [39] May 2008 [39] 28 April 2012 [39] $640 million [39] CompleteNew alignment737
Pimlico to Teven 2.3 [40] November 2013 [40] 5 May 2016 [41] $92 million [40] Stage 2 completeDuplication, rebuilding of old carriageway, stage 3 to be completed as part of Woolgoolga to Ballina project733
Devils Pulpit7.3 [42] December 2011 [42] 20 March 2014 [42] $77 million [42] CompleteFour lanes, partly new alignment678
Glenugie upgrade2.5 [43] 20109 February 2012 [43] $60 million [44] CompleteFour lanes, partly new alignment. Northbound carriageway due to open in 2019 [45] 590
Halfway Creek3.4 [46] Late 2002 [47] June 2004TBACompletePartly new alignment.583
Woolgoolga to Ballina155 [48] Early 2015 (est.) [49] 2020

Woolgoolga to Halfway Creek 24 October 2017

Halfway Creek to Glenugie 23 August 2017 [50]

$4.3 billion [51] Under Construction

26 km Complete

Duplication of existing highway with a major realignment of the existing Pacific Highway between Kangaroo Trail Road to Range Road, Glenugie to Maclean and Trustums Hill Road to Coolgardie Road561
Sapphire to Woolgoolga25 [52] August 2010 [52] 30 July 2014 [53] $850 million [52] CompleteFour lane divided highway, new alignment, 10 km Woolgoolga bypass opened to traffic on 16 December 2013535
Korora Hill Reconstruction1.5 [54] January 1997 [54] 15 December 1997 [54] $6 million [54] CompleteDuplication and reconstruction533
Coffs Harbour Bypass12 [55] 2020 [55] 2023 [55] $1.2 billion [55] In planningfour lane freeway with 3 interchanges, new alignment, 2 tunnels and a cut and cover tunnel524
Lyons Rd to Englands Rd5.3 [56] October 1997 [57] 25 May 2001 [57] $73m [58] CompleteDuplication and reconstruction520
Bonville upgrade9.6 [59] November 2006 [60] 16 September 2008 [60] $245m [59] CompleteDuplication and reconstruction, covered tunnel for koalas514
Raleigh Deviation8 [61] January 1995 [61] 24 September 1998 [61] $72m [61] CompleteDuplication and reconstruction506
Nambucca Heads to Urunga 22 [62] November 2013 [63] 22 July 2016 [64] [65] [66] $780 million [62] CompleteFour lane limited access freeway, 110 km/h, 3 interchanges, bypasses Urunga 484
Warrell Creek to Nambucca Heads20 [22] December 2014 [22] 18 December 2017 (Nambucca and Macksville bypass)

Warrell Creek bypass opened 29 June 2018 [65] [67] [68]

$830 million [22] Open to Traffic with finishing work underwayFour lane limited access freeway, 110 km/h, 2 interchanges, including bypasses of Warrell Creek, Macksville and Bellwood464
Eungai Duplication4.2 [69] January 1998 [61] March 1999 [61] $15m [69] CompleteDuplication of first carriageway, which was opened on 23 February 1994 [70] 455
Frederickton to Eungai26.5 [71] August 2013 [71] 16 May 2016 [71] $675 millionCompleteFour lane divided highway. Freeway from Stuarts Point interchange to South Kempsey. 110 km/h speed limit427
Kempsey Bypass14.5 [72] June 2010 [72] 27 March 2013 [72] $618 million [72] CompleteDual carriageway freeway with 3.2 kilometres (2.0 mi) bridge over Macleay River, New alignment413
Kundabung to Kempsey14 [22] November 2014 [22] 6 September 2017 (Opened to 2 lanes each way on 1 November 2017) [73] [22] $230 million [22] CompleteUpgrade of current road to four lanes, partially limited-access (One lane opened in each carriageway. Other lanes will open end of October 2017)398
Oxley Highway to Kundabung [22] 23 [22] October 2014 [22] 17 November 2017 [74] $820 million [22] CompleteFour lane divided road (freeway south of Haydon's Wharf Road interchange), bridges over the Hastings and Wilson rivers, 2 interchanges, deep cutting through Cooperabung range.373
Herons Creek Deviation Duplication14 [75] November 1997 [76] 3 July 1998 [75] $19m [75] CompleteDuplication of the first carriageway, which was opened in 2 stages: the northern stage from Ryans Road to the Oxley Highway in December 1990 and the southern stage in November 1993. [75] 359
Herons Creek to Stills Road Upgrade3.5 [77] March 2011 [77] 25 October 2013 [78] $60m [77] CompleteReplacement of substandard carriageway (part of the old highway) to raise the road to freeway standard.356
Coopernook to Herons Creek33 [79] November 2007 [79] 23 July 2010 [79] $555m [80] CompleteUpgrade of highway to four lanes including a western bypass of Moorland, Johns River and an eastern bypass of Kew.325
Coopernook Bypass4.2 [81] February 2004 [82] 22 March 2006 [81] $44m [82] CompleteFour lane bypass.321
Taree to Coopernook7.5 [83] November 2001 [82] 4 August 2005 [83] $59m [83] CompleteUpgrade to four lanes, two new bridges over Ghinni Ghinni Creek and two cattle underpasses. Some upgrading, including fout-lane sections had commenced in September 1996 and was completed in 1998.312
Taree Bypass14.5 [84] July 1993 (first carriageway) [85] 14 December 1997 (first carriageway); 12 April 2000 (second carriageway) [85] $126m [86] CompleteFour lane highway, new alignment303
Possum Brush to Taree17 [87] 1990 [87] 19 August 1991 (Possum Brush Deviation); 24 May 1994 (Rainbow Flat Deviation) [87] TBACompleteFour lane highway, old road used for northbound carriageway between Failford Road and Bonvale Close, planned to be replaced as part of Failford Road to Tritton Road upgrade294
Failford Road to Tritton Road upgrade3 [88] TBATBATBAIn planningNew carriageway and interchange with Failford Road293
Bundacree Creek to Possum Brush9.7 [89] September 2004 [90] 4 November 2006 [91] $115m [91] CompleteFour lanes generally along old alignment, including upgrade of existing Nabiac bypass, new interchange and bridges.277
Wang Wauk to Bundacree Creek4.8 [92] August 1997 [92] 10 December 1998 [92] $21m [92] CompleteFour lanes generally along old alignment.272
Coolongolook to Wang Wauk11.7 [93] December 1999 [94] 29 July 2001 [93] $49m [95] CompleteFour lanes generally along old alignment, 80 km/h zone through Coolongolook.263
Bulahdelah to Coolongolook23 [96] April 1997 [94] 27 October 1999 [94] $130m [95] CompleteFour lanes freeway on new alignment. Replaces the original winding highway which is now called Wootton Way.236
Bulahdelah upgrade8.6 [97] August 2010 [97] 27 June 2013 [97] $315 million [97] CompleteFour lane highway, new alignment232
Karuah to Bulahdelah11 (section 1), [98] 23 (section 2 and 3) [99] June 2005 (section 1) [100] February 2007 (sections 2 and 3)15 December 2006 (section 1), [100] 2 October 2009 (sections 2 and 3) [100] $114m (section 1), [98] - (sections 2 and 3)CompleteFour lane highway (section 1 from Karuah to 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) north of Myall Way and sections 2 and 3 further north)193
Karuah bypass9.8 [101] June 2002 [102] 22 September 2004 [103] $117m [102] CompleteFour lane freeway, bridge over Karuah River and interchanges at either end.187
Raymond Terrace to Karuah18 [104] August 1998 [104] 1 December 2000 [104] $86m [104] CompleteFour lane highway, consisting of new 2-lane northbound carriageway and upgrade of old road as southbound carriageway165
Raymond Terrace Bypass7.6 [105] November 1993 [105] 17 December 1998 [105] $78m [105] CompleteFour lane freeway, including 1 interchange and pairs of bridges at three other places162
M1 to Raymond Terrace15 [106] TBATBATBAIn planningFour lane freeway connecting the M1 to Pacific Highway, four interchanges, 2.6 km bridge over the Hunter River, bypasses Hexham, Tarro and Beresfield while replacing the existing route through Heatherbrae147

Most of the Pacific Highway is freeway standard with single lane sections between Glenugie and Ballina, 6 km around Warrell Creek and the Coffs Harbour urban area (not freeway standard – but still 4 lanes)

Environmental impact assessments have been completed for every section with these exceptions. Coffs Harbour Bypass and M1 to Raymond Terrace

Preferred routes have been selected for every stretch on the Pacific Highway.

Bulahdelah was the last town to be bypassed between Hexham and Port Macquarie. A joint federal-New South Wales A$315 million initiative was approved in July 2007, and enabled the construction of about 8.6 kilometres (5.3 mi) of four lane divided road with an eastern bypass of the Bulahdelah township. [107] The bypass opened in late 2013.

The 12.4 kilometres (7.7 mi) long Ballina Bypass was completed and open to traffic from 28 April 2012 at a cost of A$640 million. The northern section of the bypass (Cumbalum Interchange to Ross Lane Interchange) opened in March 2011 while the central section (Teven Road Interchange to Cumbalum Interchange) partially opened in December 2011; with northbound lanes from Teven to Bruxner opened in February 2012. [108]

Funding issues

A 2009 project sign for the Ballina Bypass, subsequently completed. 20091201 - Ballina Bypass - Sign.JPG
A 2009 project sign for the Ballina Bypass, subsequently completed.

In 2007 mounting pressure was placed on the federal government to provide additional funding for the highway.[ citation needed ] On 10 October 2007 the Federal Minister for Transport and Regional Services pledged $2.4 billion in funding for the highway, subject to dollar for dollar funding by the NSW state government. However, the NSW state government refused to match funding. In the lead up to the 2007 federal election, then opposition leader Kevin Rudd pledged $1.5 billion in funding. [109] As part of Auslink 2 (Nation Building Program), the federal government announced in its 2009 federal budget that $3.1 billion would be spent on the highway up until 2014 [110] at which time just 63% of the highway would be duplicated. [111] The NSW government will spend just $500 million over that same period, with $300 million cut as a result of the 2008 mini budget. [112] [113]

From time to time, there are proposals in the media for the private sector to build a fully controlled-access high-speed tollway between Newcastle and the Queensland border, possibly using the BOT system of infrastructure provision. Nothing has eventuated from these proposals. [114]

The section of the highway from Cowan to Kariong follows a scenic winding route with varying speed limits, typically 60 or 80 km/h (37 or 50 mph). This section was damaged quite severely during severe weather in June 2007. Five people died when a bridge over Piles Creek collapsed and the entire section was closed due to subsidence 2 km (1.2 mi) further south. The road was reopened in 2009 when the Holt-Bragg Bridge was opened, named after the family that had perished.

Former route numbers

Former road routes have included: [115]

Safety

Hunter River bridge, Pacific Highway, Hexham, New South Wales is the largest of few surviving lift span bridges in NSW, still in working order. Hexham.JPG
Hunter River bridge, Pacific Highway, Hexham, New South Wales is the largest of few surviving lift span bridges in NSW, still in working order.

The Pacific Highway is one of the most dangerous and deadly stretches of road in Australia. Between 1995 and 2009, over 400 people died on the highway. In 1989, two separate bus crashes, the Grafton bus crash (in which 20 people died) and the Kempsey bus crash (in which 35 died) on the highway were two of the worst road accidents in Australia's history. [121] In 2010, 38 people died on the Pacific Highway, and in 2011, 25 people. [122] Over the past 15 years, the New South Wales Roads & Traffic Authority reports that about 1,200 people have been injured each year. [122]

Much of the danger of the Pacific Highway lies in the fact that it contains long stretches of undivided road along which all types of vehicles, including private automobiles, buses, vans and trucks, simultaneously travel at speeds approaching and in excess of 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph). The undivided sections carry a high risk of head-on collisions. After the 1989 crashes, the investigating coroner, Kevin Waller, recommended that the highway be fully divided along its entire length, but only 51% had been divided by 2012. [123] Motorists surveyed by the National Roads and Motorists' Association voted the Pacific Highway the worst road in New South Wales in 2012. [124]

See also

Related Research Articles

Hume Highway highway in New South Wales and Victoria

The Hume Highway, inclusive of the sections now known as the Hume Freeway and Hume Motorway, is one of Australia's major inter-city national highways, running for 840 kilometres (520 mi) between Melbourne in the southwest and Sydney in the northeast. Upgrading of the route from Sydney's outskirts to Melbourne's outskirts to dual carriageway was completed on 7 August 2013.

Princes Highway highway in Australia

The Princes Highway is a major road in Australia, extending from Sydney to Adelaide via the coast through the states of New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. It has a length of 1,941 kilometres (1,206 mi) or 1,898 kilometres (1,179 mi) via the former alignments of the highway, although these routes are slower and connections to the bypassed sections of the original route are poor in many cases.

Bruxner Highway highway in New South Wales

The Bruxner Highway is a 420-kilometre (260 mi)state highway located in New South Wales, Australia. The highway forms an east-west link from the Northern Rivers coast, across the Northern Tablelands in northern New South Wales, close to the border with Queensland.

Sturt Highway Australian national highway in New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia

The Sturt Highway is an Australian national highway in New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. The Sturt Highway is an important road link for the transport of passengers and freight between Sydney and Adelaide and the regions situated adjacent to the route.

Mid-Western Highway highway in New South Wales

The Mid-Western Highway, sometimes the Mid Western Highway, is a 522-kilometre (324 mi) state highway located in the central western and northern Riverina regions of New South Wales, Australia. The highway services rural communities and links the Great Western, Mitchell, Olympic, Newell, Cobb and Sturt highways. The Mid-Western Highway forms part of the most direct route road link between Sydney and Adelaide, with its eastern terminus in Bathurst and western terminus in Hay.

Princes Motorway motorway in New South Wales

The Princes Motorway is a 55-kilometre (34 mi) predominately dual carriage untolled motorway that links Sydney to Wollongong and further south through the Illawarra region to Albion Park Rail. Part of the Australian Highway 1 network, the motorway is designated with the route number M1.

Roads & Traffic Authority government agency in New South Wales, Australia

The Roads & Traffic Authority (RTA) is a former Australian government agency in New South Wales that was responsible for major road infrastructure, licensing of drivers, and registration of motor vehicles. The RTA directly managed State roads and provided funding to local councils for regional and local roads. In addition, with assistance from the Federal Government, the RTA also previously managed the NSW national highway system. The agency was abolished in 2011 and replaced by NSW Roads and Maritime Services.

Bradfield Highway (Sydney) highway in Sydney

The Bradfield Highway is a highway in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. At 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) long it is one of the shortest highways in Australia.

Warringah Freeway road in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

The Warringah Freeway is a 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) divided freeway located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The freeway forms part of the M1, the Sydney Orbital Network, and the Highway 1 network. The primary function of the freeway is to provide an alternative high-grade route from the Sydney Harbour Tunnel and the Bradfield Highway at Milsons Point to the A8 and the Gore Hill Freeway. The freeway reduces traffic demands on the Pacific Highway throughout Sydney's lower north shore, bypassing North Sydney and Crows Nest. Completed in a series of stages between June 1968 and August 1992, the Warringah Freeway provides a vital link to access most of the suburbs in Sydney and is also a major route to the north, south, east and west of the central business district.

AusLink is a former Australian Government land transport funding program, that operated between June 2004 and 2009. The former program was administered by the former Department of Transport and Regional Services. In 2009, the program was replaced with the Nation Building Program under the Nation Building Program Act 2009. The Nation Building Program was administered by the Department of Infrastructure and Transport and that program was replaced by The National Land Transport Network, as determined by the Minister for Infrastructure and Regional Development under the National Land Transport Act 2014.

The Kempsey bus crash occurred in Australia on 22 December 1989 when two full Denning Landseer tourist coaches, each travelling at 100km/h, collided head-on on the Pacific Highway at Clybucca Flat, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) north of Kempsey, New South Wales. It remains the worst road accident in Australia; 35 people died, including both drivers, and another 41 were injured.

M4 Western Motorway Motorway in Sydney

The M4 Western Motorway is a 46-kilometre-long (29 mi) dual carriageway motorway in western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The partially-tolled motorway stretches from North Strathfield in the east, where it connects with the Great Western Highway/Parramatta Road as the A4 to Glenbrook in west, where it continues as the Great Western Highway as the A32.

The Central Coast Highway is a major road corridor through the Central Coast region of New South Wales, Australia. The route was officially named by the New South Wales state government on 9 August 2006 and aims to provide an easily identifiable route through the Coast for visitors to the region.

Duncan John Gay, an Australian politician, was the Vice-President of the Executive Council of New South Wales and the Leader of the Government in the Legislative Council from May 2014 to January 2017; and the Minister for Roads, Maritime and Freight from April 2015 to January 2017. Gay was the Leader of the Nationals in the Legislative Council until January 2017 and was a member of the Council from 1988 to 2017, representing The Nationals.

Sydney Bypass refers to a number of roads, existing and proposed, that motorists can use to avoid the congested approaches to the city's central business district (CBD). The main bypasses are:

Newcastle Inner City Bypass freeway in New South Wales

The Newcastle Inner City Bypass is a road in Newcastle and Lake Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia. Alternate titles include State Highway 23, Main Road 123 and H23.

The Camden Valley Way is a 24-kilometre (15 mi) arterial road between Sydney and the historic town of Camden. Since 2018, all of the route is dual carriageway.

Roads and Maritime Services is an agency of the New South Wales Government responsible for building and maintaining road infrastructure and managing the day-to-day compliance and safety for roads and waterways.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Pacific Highway, Valery NSW 2454, Australia to 3776 Pacific Highway, Tyagarah NSW 2481, Australia (Map). Google Maps. 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 Hunter River, Hexham NSW, Australia to Pacific Highway, Valery NSW 2454, Australia (Map). Google Maps. 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  3. 1 2 3 Peats Ferry Bridge, Australia to Hunter River, Hexham NSW Australia (Map). Google Maps. 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  4. 1 2 3 Peats Ferry Bridge, Australia to 32 Pacific Highway, North Sydney NSW 2060, Australia (Map). Google Maps. 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  5. "Alpha Numeric route numbers - Region information". NSW Roads & Maritime Services. Archived from the original on 6 April 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  6. 1 2 "NEW SOUTH WALES GOVERNMENT GAZETTE No. 57" (PDF). Parliament of New South Wales. 10 May 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016.
  7. "Pacific Highway upgrade achievement report" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Government of New South Wales. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  8. "Pacific Highway upgrade six monthly report card" (PDF). Roads & Maritime Services . Government of New South Wales. June 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  9. "Schedule of Classified Roads and Unclassified Regional Roads" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services. April 2017. pp. 2–4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 October 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  10. "Kariong to Doyalson". Roads & Traffic Authority. Archived from the original on 4 October 2006.
  11. "Central Coast Highway - Kariong to Doyalson" (PDF). Roads & Traffic Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 September 2007.
  12. "Government Gazette of NSW 11 August 2006 Page 46" (PDF). NSW Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  13. "Government Gazette of NSW 23 April 2010 Page 55" (PDF). NSW Government. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 June 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  14. "Maps - Hunter Region Gazettal maps?publisher=NSW Roads & Maritime Services" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 June 2011.
  15. "Renaming of the Pacific Highway following completion of the Kempsey Bypass" (PDF). Kempsey Shire Council. 21 August 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  16. "Government Gazette of NSW 1 May 2009 Page 35" (PDF). NSW Government. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 June 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  17. "Gold Coast Highway - New South Wales section: Tweed Heads West to Bilinga". Ozroads. Archived from the original on 26 April 2018.
  18. "Bypass handed back to NSW". Tweed Daily News. 4 June 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  19. "Gold Coast Highway Southern Corridor - Newsletter" (PDF). Department of Transport and Main Roads. September 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  20. "Tugun Bypass Layouy" (PDF). Department of Transport and Main Roads. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  21. "Pacific Highway Upgrade". Parliament of New South Wales. 3 December 2003.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 "Pacific Highway upgrade: Achievement report - September October 2018" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services. October 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  23. "Warrell Creek to Nambucca Highway upgrade completed". Nambucca Guardian. 29 June 2018. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  24. http://www.rms.nsw.gov.au/documents/projects/key-build-programs/pacific-highway/pacific-highway-dual-carriageway-status-map.pdf
  25. 1 2 3 "Tugun Bypass project". Queensland Government. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  26. 1 2 3 4 "Banora Point project". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  27. 1 2 3 "Project Fact Sheet: Chinderah Bypass" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  28. 1 2 "Pacific Highway: Section: Chinderah to Tweed Heads". ozroads. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  29. 1 2 3 4 "Yelgun to Chinderah (official opening brochure)" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  30. 1 2 3 4 "Project Fact Sheet: Brunswick Heads Bypass (stage 1)" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  31. 1 2 "Brunswick Heads to Yelgun". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  32. "Brunswick Heads to Yelgun - Pacific Highway". AbiGroup. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  33. "Tandy's Lane". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  34. 1 2 "Tandy's Lane". Baulderstone. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  35. 1 2 "Pacific Highway: Section: Ewingsdale to Brunswick Heads". ozroads. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  36. 1 2 3 "Project Fact Sheet: Ewingsdale to Tyagarah" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  37. 1 2 3 4 "Project Fact Sheet: Ewingsdale interchange" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  38. 1 2 3 4 "Tintenbar to Ewingsdale". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  39. 1 2 3 4 "Ballina bypass". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  40. 1 2 3 "Pimlico to Teven upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  41. http://www.northernstar.com.au/news/new-section-of-pacific-highway-to-open-this-aftern/3017320/
  42. 1 2 3 4 "Devils Pulpit upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  43. 1 2 "Glenugie upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  44. "Glenugie upgrade". Roads Australia. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  45. NSW, Roads and Maritime Services,. "Woolgoolga to Ballina - Pacific Highway upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
  46. "Halfway Creek". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  47. "Pacific Highway: Section: Halfway Creek". ozroads. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  48. Woolgoolga to Ballina. Roads and Maritime Services
  49. Pacific Highway upgrade continues. The Land
  50. Charles, Caitlan. "Highway works 70% complete". Grafton Daily Examiner. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  51. Green Light for The Woolgoolga to Ballina Upgrade. NBN News
  52. 1 2 3 "Sapphire to Woolgoolga". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  53. "Honk, honk". ABC News Coffs Coast. 30 July 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
  54. 1 2 3 4 "Project Fact Sheet: Korora Hill Reconstruction" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  55. 1 2 3 4 "Coffs Bypass timeline". Coffs Coast Advocate . Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  56. "Lyons Rd to Englands Rd". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  57. 1 2 "Pacific Highway: Section: Lyons Rd to Englands Rd". ozroads. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  58. "Lyons Rd to Englands Rd" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  59. 1 2 "Bonville upgrade" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  60. 1 2 "Pacific Highway: Section: Bonville (9-19km south of Coffs Harbour)". ozroads. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  61. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Project Fact Sheet: Raleigh Deviation" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  62. 1 2 "Nambucca Heads to Urunga upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  63. Pacific Highway Upgrade. Roads and Maritime Services
  64. "Final countdown for Pacific Hwy opening" . Retrieved 2016-07-20.
  65. 1 2 "Pacific Highway Upgrade Achievement Report - September 2015" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services.
  66. Ramsey, Britt (2016-07-21). "Nambucca Heads to Urunga bypass open" . Retrieved 2016-07-22.
  67. Davis, Mel (2017-12-06). "Macksville highway bypass to open before Christmas". Port Macquarie News. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  68. "Pacific Highway upgrade of 'notorious' section now open to traffic" . Retrieved 2018-06-29.
  69. 1 2 "Project Fact Sheet: Eungai Duplication" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  70. "Pacific Highway: Section: Eungai Creek/Allgomera Creek". ozroads. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  71. 1 2 3 "Frederickton to Eungai". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  72. 1 2 3 4 "Kempsey Bypass". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  73. NSW, Roads and Maritime Services,. "Kundabung to Kempsey project". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
  74. Fairhurst, Tracey (17 November 2017). "Port Macquarie to Kundabung - Pacific Highway upgrade officially opens". Macquarie PortNews. Fairfax Regional Media. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  75. 1 2 3 4 "Project Fact Sheet: Herons Creek Duplication" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  76. "Pacific Highway: Herons Creek to Oxley Highway". ozroads. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  77. 1 2 3 "Herons Creek to Stills Road Upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  78. Pacific Highway Achievement Report October 2013
  79. 1 2 3 "Coopernook to Herons Creek". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  80. "Kew Bypass opens on Pacific Highway" (Press release). Peter Besseling. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  81. 1 2 "Coopernook Bypass". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  82. 1 2 3 "Pacific Highway: Section: Coopernook". ozroads. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  83. 1 2 3 "Taree to Coopernook" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  84. "Taree Bypass". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  85. 1 2 "Pacific Highway: Section: Taree". ozroads. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  86. "Taree Bypass" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  87. 1 2 3 "Pacific Highway: Section: Possum Brush to Taree". ozroads. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  88. "Failford Road to Tritton Road upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  89. "Bundacree Creek to Possum Brush". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  90. "Pacific Highway: Section: Bundacree Creek to Possum Brush". ozroads. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  91. 1 2 "Bundacree Creek to Possum Brush" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  92. 1 2 3 4 "Wang Wauk to Bundacree Creek" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  93. 1 2 "Coolongolook to Wang Wauk". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  94. 1 2 3 "Pacific Highway: Section: Coolongolook to Wang Wauk River". ozroads. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  95. 1 2 "Coolongolook to Wang Wauk" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  96. "Bulahdelah to Coolongolook" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  97. 1 2 3 4 "Bulahdelah upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  98. 1 2 "Karuah to Bulahdelah section 1" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  99. "Karuah to Bulahdelah sections 2 and 3". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  100. 1 2 3 "Pacific Highway: Section: Karuah to Bulahdelah". ozroads. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  101. "Karuah bypass". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  102. 1 2 "Pacific Highway: Section: Karuah". ozroads. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  103. Peter Phibbs, Alexa Heidrich, Cole Cooney (eds.). "The Karuah Highway: Bypass Economic and Social Impacts: 5 year report". Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 8 February 2014.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  104. 1 2 3 4 "Raymond Terrace to Karuah Upgrade" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  105. 1 2 3 4 "Raymond Terrace Bypass" (PDF). Roads and Maritime Services . Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  106. NSW, Roads and Maritime Services,. "M1 Pacific Motorway extension to Raymond Terrace" . Retrieved 2016-07-20.
  107. "Bulahdelah upgrade". Pacific Highway Upgrade. Roads and Maritime Services. 11 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
  108. "Ballina Bypass". Road projects: Pacific Highway upgrade. Roads and Maritime Services. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
  109. "Rudd pledges $1.5b for Pacific Hwy upgrade". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 6 November 2007. Retrieved 27 November 2007.
  110. (12 May 2009). Federal Road Investment Program Steps Up A Gear. Media Release. Minister for Infrastructure and Transport.
  111. "Nation Building program Projects Pacific Highway". Australian Government. Archived from the original on 29 September 2009. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
  112. "Pacific Highway upgrade". NSW Roads & Traffic Authority. 19 October 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
  113. Gordon, Josh (8 March 2009). "Pacific Highway to hell". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 29 September 2009. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
  114. Lewis, Steve (28 June 2007). "Drivers hit with more toll roads". news.com.au.
  115. Highway One – NSW Section, Ozroads Website. Retrieved on 15 May 2013[ self-published source ]
  116. NSW State Route 111, Ozroads, Retrieved on 1 June 2013.[ self-published source ]
  117. NSW State Route 83, Ozroads, Retrieved on 1 June 2013.[ self-published source ]
  118. Metroad 1, Ozroads, Retrieved on 1 June 2013.[ self-published source ]
  119. NSW State Route 14, Ozroads, Retrieved on 3 June 2013.[ self-published source ]
  120. Metroad 10, Ozroads, Retrieved on 1 June 2013.[ self-published source ]
  121. Scott, Belinda (22 December 2009). "Australia's worst crash". The Coffs Coast Advocate. North Coast News. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  122. 1 2 "Crash statistics". NSW Centre for Road Safety, New South Wales Roads & Traffic Authority. Government of New South Wales. 11 June 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  123. "Death road detour for retired NSW coroner Kevin Waller". Daily Telegraph.
  124. "Motorists vote Pacific Highway worst" (Press release). National Roads and Motorists' Association. 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2013.

Pacific Highway Upgrade project page

Route map:

KML file (edithelp)
    KML is from Wikidata