Pacific hurricane

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Cumulative average number of tropical cyclones in the north Pacific East pacific tc climatology.png
Cumulative average number of tropical cyclones in the north Pacific

A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern (North America to 140°W), central (140°W to 180°), and western (180° to 100°E), while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region (90E to 160°E) and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. [1] Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Typhoon type of tropical cyclone when is located i northwest Pacific. Classified by JMA typhoons wind scale and JTWC typhoons wind scale

A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere. This region is referred to as the Northwestern Pacific Basin, and is the most active tropical cyclone basin on Earth, accounting for almost one-third of the world's annual tropical cyclones. For organizational purposes, the northern Pacific Ocean is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western. The Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for tropical cyclone forecasts is in Japan, with other tropical cyclone warning centers for the northwest Pacific in Hawaii, the Philippines and Hong Kong. While the RSMC names each system, the main name list itself is coordinated among 18 countries that have territories threatened by typhoons each year A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean or the northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and a tropical cyclone occurs in the South Pacific or the Indian Ocean.

Contents

List of seasons

PeriodSeasons
Pre-1950s Before 1900, 1900–09, 1910–19, 1920–29, 1930–39, 1939, 1940–48, 1949
1950s 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959
1960s 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969
1970s 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979
1980s 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989
1990s 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999
2000s 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
2010s 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019

1950s

YearTDTSHUMHStrongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
1950 --760 Hiki 1UnknownIncludes the third wettest tropical cyclone in the United States
1951 --920 Two and Eight 0Unknown
1952 --730 Seven and Five 0Unknown
1953 --420 One 0Unknown
1954 111130 Seven 40Unknown
1955 --620 One 0Unknown
1956 --1170 One 0Unknown
1957 --1391 Twelve 21$100,000
1958 141450 Eleven 0Unknown
1959 151553 Patsy >1,800$280 millionFirst Category 5 hurricane in the Central Pacific basin
Includes deadliest tropical cyclone in the Eastern Pacific
>1,862$280.10 million

1960s

YearTDTSHUMHStrongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
1960 8850 Estelle 0Unknown
1961 111020 Iva 436$16 million
1962 181220 Doreen Unknown$11 million
1963 8840 Mona UnknownUnknown
1964 6620 Odessa UnknownUnknownLeast active season since 1953
1965 111010 Emily 6$10 million
1966 181380 Connie 9$5.6 millionIncludes the farthest traveled storm in the Eastern Pacific
1967 171761 Olivia 121Unknown
1968 262060 Rebecca 9UnknownTied with 2009 for having the most storms named in the month of August
1969 151040 Doreen 10UnknownIncludes latest first named storm, which formed in July
591$42.6 million

1970s

YearTDTSHUMHStrongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
1970 211950 Lorraine 22Unknown
1971 2218126 Olivia 52UnknownTied with 2018 a s the highest number of tropical cyclone landfalls in a single season
1972 201494 Celeste 1$75,000
1973 181273 Ava 0Unknown
1974 2518113 Maggie 18-33UnknownFeatured one of the most active periods of tropical cyclones on record with five existing simultaneously
1975 211794 Denise 30Unknown
1976 191595 Annette 614-964$360 millionOne of the deadliest seasons on record
1977 17840 Florence Unknown$25 millionLeast active season until 2010
Featured no major hurricanes tied with 2003
1978 2519147 Fico, Hector, and Norman UnknownUnknown
1979 131064 Ignacio UnknownUnknownMost recent year in which no tropical cyclones crossed into the Central Pacific basin
767-1,102$385.075 million

1980s

Track mapYearTDTSHUMHStrongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
1980 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 1980 161573 Kay 0Unknown
1981 Pacific hurricane season summary.png 1981 171581 Norma 79$134 million
1982 Pacific hurricane season summary.png 1982 3023125 Olivia 1,937$1.3 billionFifth most active season on record
Includes second deadliest hurricane in the Eastern Pacific
1983 Pacific hurricane season summary.png 1983 2621128 Kiko and Raymond 168$303.33 millionTied with 1984 for the fourth most active season at the time
Longest season recorded at the time
One tropical storm formed in December
1984 Pacific hurricane season summary.png 1984 2621137 Douglas 21UnknownTied with 1983 for the fourth most active season at the time
1985 Pacific hurricane season summary.png 1985 2824128 Rick 1$1 millionThird most active season on record
Tied with 2018 for having five named storms in the month of June
Tied with 2015 and 2016 for the most active month of July since reliable records began
1986 Pacific hurricane season summary.png 1986 261793 Roslyn 2$352 million
1987 Pacific hurricane season summary.png 1987 2020104 Max 3$144.22 millionLast year in which the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center was the primary warning center for tropical cyclones in the eastern Pacific Ocean
1988 Pacific hurricane season summary.jpg 1988 231573 Hector 25Unknown Hurricane Joan crossed over Central America and was named Miriam in the Eastern Pacific basin
1989 Pacific hurricane season summary.jpg 1989 251894 Raymond 14$1.75 million
2371899946Hector2,250$2.240 billion

1990s

MapYearTDTSHUMHStrongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
1990 Pacific hurricane season summary.png 1990 2721166 Trudy 18UnknownFifth most active season on record and third most active in terms of ACE indices
Tied with 1992, 2014, and 2015 for the most number of hurricanes in a single season
1991 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 1991 1614105 Kevin 1-3Unknown
1992 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 1992 30271610 Tina 25$3.15 billionThe second-most active Pacific hurricane season on record in terms of ACE
Tied with 1990, 2014, and 2015 for the most hurricanes in a single season
Includes the costliest hurricane in the East/Central Pacific, Hurricane Iniki
Includes the longest-lasting Pacific hurricane
Hurricane Ekeka is the most intense off-season hurricane in the Pacific basin
1993 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 1993 1815119 Lidia 50~$1.74 billion
1994 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 1994 2320105 Gilma 26$735 millionTied with 2002 and 2018 for having the most number of category 5 hurricanes in a single season
Includes both the farthest distance and longest-lasting tropical cyclone ever observed
1995 Pacific hurricane season summary.jpg 1995 111073 Juliette 124$31 millionLeast active season since 1979
1996 Pacific hurricane season summary.jpg 1996 14952 Douglas 41UnknownSaw a record of four Pacific hurricanes strike Mexico, the most in a single season
Hurricane Cesar crossed over from Central America and was renamed Douglas in the Pacific basin
1997 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 1997 241997 Linda 261-531$551 millionOne of the most active, deadliest and costliest seasons in the Pacific basin
Two category 5 hurricanes formed
Hurricane Linda was the most intense hurricane in the Pacific basin until Patricia of 2015
1998 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 1998 161396 Howard 22$10 million
1999 Pacific hurricane season summary.jpg 1999 14962 Dora 16Unknown
1931579955Linda581-853$4.9 billion

2000s

MapYearTDTSHUMHStrongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
2000 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2000 221962 Carlotta 27$84 million
2001 Pacific hurricane season summary.jpg 2001 191582 Juliette 13$401 million
2002 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2002 211686 Kenna 7$101 millionTied with 1994 and 2018 for having the most number of category 5 hurricanes in a single season
Includes the fourth most intense hurricane in the Pacific basin
2003 Pacific hurricane season summary.jpg 2003 171670 Nora 23$129 millionFeatured no major hurricanes tied with 1977
2004 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2004 181263 Javier NoneNoneThe first season in which he did not have a number of death and damage figures
2005 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2005 171572 Kenneth 6$12 million
2006 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2006 2519116 Ioke 14$355.1 millionMost active since 2000
Includes the most intense hurricane in the Central Pacific basin
Three storms developed in the month of October, the most since 1961
2007 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2007 151141 Flossie 42$80 million
2008 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2008 191772 Norbert 45$152.5 million
2009 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2009 232085 Rick 16$188.7 millionMost active since 1994
Tied with 1968 for having the most storms named in the month of August
Includes the third most intense hurricane in the Pacific basin
1921607229Rick194$1,54 billion

2010s

MapYearTDTSHUMHStrongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
ACENotes
2010 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2010 13832 Celia 268$1.62 billion49Least active Pacific hurricane season on record tied with 1977
2011 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2011 1311106 Dora 43>$203.67 million118
2012 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2012 1717105 Emilia 8$27.9 million98
2013 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2013 212091 Raymond 181$4.201 billion76
2014 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2014 2322169 Marie 49>$1.47 billion198Fourth most active season on record
Tied with 1990, 1992, and 2015 for the most number of hurricanes in a single season.
2015 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2015 31261611 Patricia 45$565 million287Second most active season on record
Includes the most intense hurricane in the Pacific basin
Tied with 1990, 1992, and 2014 for the most number of hurricanes in a single season
Tied with 1985 and 2016 for the most active month of July since reliable records began
Latest ending to a season on record.
2016 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2016 2722136 Seymour 11$95.8 million184Earliest start on record in the Pacific basin
Fourth most active season on record
Tied with 1985 and 2015 for the most active month of July since reliable records began
2017 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2017 201894 Fernanda 45$69.78 million100Earliest start on record in the Eastern Pacific basin
2018 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2018 27241310 Walaka 52>$1.57 billion318Fourth-most active season on record
Most active Pacific hurricane season on record in terms of ACE
Tied with 1985 for the most named storms on record in the month of June (5).
Tied with 1994 and 2002 for having the most number of category 5 hurricanes in a single season
2019 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png 2019 TBATBATBATBAN/ANoneUnknown0
1871679949Patricia703$9,76 billion

History

Tracks of East Pacific tropical cyclones (1980-2005) Pacific hurricane tracks 1980-2005.jpg
Tracks of East Pacific tropical cyclones (1980–2005)

Documentation of Pacific hurricanes dates to the Spanish colonization of Mexico, when the military and missions wrote about "tempestades". In 1730, such accounts indicated an understanding of the storms. After observing the rotating nature of tropical cyclones, meteorologist William Charles Redfield expanded his study to include storms in the eastern North Pacific Ocean in the middle of the 19th century. Between June and October 1850, Redfield observed five tropical cyclones along "the southwestern coast of North America", along with one in each of the three subsequent years. In 1895, Cleveland Abbe reported the presence of many storms between 5° to 15° N in the eastern Pacific, although many such storms dissipated before affecting the Mexican coast. Two years later, the German Hydrography Office Deutsche Seewarte documented 45 storms from 1832 to 1892 off the west coast of Mexico. [2]

New Spain viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire (1535-1821)

The Viceroyalty of New Spain was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. It covered a huge area that included territories in North America, South America, Asia and Oceania. It originated in 1521 after the fall of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the main event of the Spanish conquest, which did not properly end until much later, as its territory continued to grow to the north. It was officially created on 8 March 1535 as a viceroyalty, the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas. Its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, and the capital of the viceroyalty was Mexico City, established on the ancient Mexico-Tenochtitlan.

William Charles Redfield American meteorlogist

William Charles Redfield was an American meteorologist. He was the first president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1843).

Cleveland Abbe United States meteorologist and advocate of time zones

Cleveland Abbe was an American meteorologist and advocate of time zones.

Despite the documentation of storms in the region, the official position of the United States Weather Bureau denied the existence of such storms. In 1910, the agency reported on global tropical cyclones, noting that "the occurrence of tropical storms is confined to the summer and autumn months of the respective hemispheres and to the western parts of the several oceans." In 1913, the Weather Bureau reinforced their position by excluding Pacific storms among five tropical cyclone basins; however, the agency acknowledged the existence of "certain cyclones that have been traced for a relatively short distance along a northwest course... west of Central America." [2]

National Weather Service United States weather agency

The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States federal government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information. It is a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) branch of the Department of Commerce, and is headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland, within the Washington metropolitan area. The agency was known as the United States Weather Bureau from 1890 until it adopted its current name in 1970.

Tropical cyclone basins area of tropical cyclone formation

Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. These include the north Atlantic Ocean, the eastern and western parts of the northern Pacific Ocean, the southwestern Pacific, the southwestern and southeastern Indian Oceans, and the northern Indian Ocean. The western Pacific is the most active and the north Indian the least active. An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense tropical cyclones, super typhoons, or major hurricanes.

After California became a state and the discovery of gold there in 1848, shipping traffic began increasing steadily in the eastern Pacific. Such activity increased further after the Panama Canal opened in 1914, and the shipping lanes moved closer to the coast. By around 1920, Pacific hurricanes were officially recognized due to widespread ship observations, radio service, and a newly created weather network in western Mexico. Within 60 years, further studies of the region's tropical activity indicated that the eastern Pacific is in fact the second most active basin in the world. [2]

California State of the United States of America

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.

Panama Canal Large artificial waterway in the Republic of Panama, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

The Panama Canal is an artificial 82 km (51 mi) waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a conduit for maritime trade. Canal locks are at each end to lift ships up to Gatun Lake, an artificial lake created to reduce the amount of excavation work required for the canal, 26 m above sea level, and then lower the ships at the other end. The original locks are 34 m wide. A third, wider lane of locks was constructed between September 2007 and May 2016. The expanded canal began commercial operation on June 26, 2016. The new locks allow transit of larger, post-Panamax ships, capable of handling more cargo.

During the 1920s, a few documents in the Monthly Weather Review reported additional storms within 2,000 mi (3,200 km) off the Mexican coastline. [3] [4]

<i>Monthly Weather Review</i> journal

The Monthly Weather Review is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Meteorological Society. It covers research related to analysis and prediction of observed and modeled circulations of the atmosphere, including technique development, data assimilation, model validation, and relevant case studies. This includes papers on numerical techniques and data assimilation techniques that apply to the atmosphere and/or ocean environment. The editor-in-chief is David M. Schultz.

The Eastern and Central Pacific hurricane database

The Eastern Pacific hurricane best track database was initially compiled on magnetic tape in 1976 for the seasons between 1949 and 1975, at the NHC to help with the development of two tropical cyclone forecast models, which required tracks of past cyclones as a base for its predictions. [5] [6] The database was based on records held by the United States Navy and were interpolated from 12 hourly intervals to 6 hourly intervals based on a scheme devised by Hiroshi Akima in 1970. [7] [8] Initially tracks for the Central Pacific region and tracks for tropical depressions that did not develop into tropical storms or hurricanes were not included within the database. [8] After the database had been created Arthur Pike of the NHC made some internal adjustments, while in 1980 a review was made by Arnold Court under contract from the United States National Weather Service and resulted in additions and/or modifications to 81 tracks in the database. [7] [9] Between 1976–1987, the NHC archived best track data from the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center (EPHC), and in 1982 started including information on Central Pacific tropical storms and hurricanes started to be included in the database based on data from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center and research done by Samuel Shaw of the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) in 1981. [5] [7]

Magnetic tape medium for magnetic recording

Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film. It was developed in Germany in 1928, based on magnetic wire recording. Devices that record and play back audio and video using magnetic tape are tape recorders and video tape recorders respectively. A device that stores computer data on magnetic tape is known as a tape drive.

Tropical cyclone forecast model

A tropical cyclone forecast model is a computer program that uses meteorological data to forecast aspects of the future state of tropical cyclones. There are three types of models: statistical, dynamical, or combined statistical-dynamic. Dynamical models utilize powerful supercomputers with sophisticated mathematical modeling software and meteorological data to calculate future weather conditions. Statistical models forecast the evolution of a tropical cyclone in a simpler manner, by extrapolating from historical datasets, and thus can be run quickly on platforms such as personal computers. Statistical-dynamical models use aspects of both types of forecasting. Four primary types of forecasts exist for tropical cyclones: track, intensity, storm surge, and rainfall. Dynamical models were not developed until the 1970s and the 1980s, with earlier efforts focused on the storm surge problem.

The Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center was formerly the center responsible for forecasting Pacific hurricanes in the eastern north Pacific east of 140°W. It was part of the Weather Bureau Forecast Office San Francisco and was based in Redwood City.

The format of the database was completely revised by the NHC during 1984, so that the format could resemble the Atlantic database before they took over the warning responsibility from the EPHC for the Eastern Pacific during 1988. [7] [9] [10] During 2008 and 2013 several revisions were made to the database to extend tracks in land, based on reports in the Mariners Weather Log and extrapolation of the tracks since the EPHC stopped issuing advisories on systems before they made landfall. [11] The archives format was significantly changed during 2013 to include non-synoptic best track times, non-developing tropical depressions and wind radii. [12] During February 2016, the NHC released the 1959 Mexico hurricane's reanalysis, which was the first system to be reassessed, using methods developed for the Atlantic reanalysis process. [13]

Climatology

The presence of a semi-permanent high-pressure area known as the North Pacific High in the eastern Pacific is a dominant factor against formation of tropical cyclones in the winter, as the Pacific High results in wind shear that causes environmental conditions for tropical cyclone formation to be not conducive. Its effects in the central Pacific basin are usually related to keeping cyclones away from the Hawaiian Islands. Due to westward trade winds, hurricanes in the Pacific rarely head eastward, unless recurved by a trough. A second factor preventing tropical cyclones from forming during the winter is the occupation of a semi-permanent low-pressure area designated the Aleutian Low between January and April. Its presence over western Canada and the northwestern United States contributes to the area's occurrences of precipitation in that duration. In addition, its effects in the central Pacific near 160° W causes tropical waves that form in the area to drift northward into the Gulf of Alaska and dissipate. The retreat of this low allows the Pacific High to also retreat into the central Pacific, leaving a warm and moist environment in its wake. The Intertropical Convergence Zone comes northward into the East Pacific in mid-May permitting the formation of the earliest tropical waves, [14] coinciding with the start of the eastern Pacific hurricane season on May 15. [15]

Eastern North Pacific

Historical East Pacific Seasonal Activity, 1971-2007. Data on ACE is considered reliable starting with the 1971 season Hist east pac ace trend 1971-2007.gif
Historical East Pacific Seasonal Activity, 1971–2007. Data on ACE is considered reliable starting with the 1971 season

Hurricane season runs between May 15 and November 30 each year. [16] These dates encompass the vast majority of tropical cyclone activity in this region.

The Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for this basin is the United States' National Hurricane Center. Previous forecasters are the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center and the Joint Hurricane Warning Center. The RSMC monitors the eastern Pacific and issues reports, watches and warnings about tropical weather systems and cyclones as defined by the World Meteorological Organization.

This area is, on average, the second-most active basin in the world. There are an average of 16 tropical storms annually, with 9 becoming hurricanes, and 4 becoming major hurricanes. [17] Tropical cyclones in this region frequently affect mainland Mexico and the Revillagigedo Islands. Less often, a system will affect the Continental United States or Central America. Northbound hurricanes typically reduce to tropical storms or dissipate before reaching the United States: there is only one recorded case of a Pacific system reaching California as a hurricane in almost 200 years of observationsthe 1858 San Diego Hurricane. [18]

Most east Pacific hurricanes originate from a tropical wave that drifts westward across the intertropical convergence zone, and across northern parts of South America. Once it reaches the Pacific, a surface low begins to develop, however, with only little or no convection. After reaching the Pacific, it starts to move north-westward and eventually west. By that time, it develops convection and thunderstorm activity from the warm ocean temperatures but remains disorganized. Once the tropical wave becomes organized, it becomes a tropical depression. Formation usually occurs from south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec to south of Baja California with a more westerly location earlier in the season. In the eastern Pacific, development is more centered than anywhere else. If wind shear is low, a tropical cyclone can undergo rapid intensification as a result of very warm oceans, becoming a major hurricane. Tropical cyclones weaken once they reach unfavorable areas for a tropical cyclone formation. Their remnants sometimes reach Hawaii and cause showers there.[ citation needed ]

There are a few types of Pacific hurricane tracks: one is a westerly track, another moves north-westward along Baja California and another moves north. Sometimes storms can move north-east either across Central America or mainland Mexico and possibly enter the Caribbean Sea becoming a North Atlantic basin tropical cyclone, but these are rare.[ citation needed ]

Central Pacific

Hurricane season runs from June 1 to November 30, with a strong peak in August and September. However, tropical cyclones have formed outside those dates. [16] Should a tropical cyclone enter the central north Pacific from the western north Pacific, where they occur year-round, or from the eastern north Pacific, where the season starts in May, it is not known if such a system will be considered out of season or not.

The Central Pacific Hurricane Center is the RSMC for this basin and monitors the storms that develop or move into the defined area of responsibility. A previous forecaster was the Joint Hurricane Warning Center.

Central Pacific hurricanes are rare and on average 3 or 4 storms form or move in this area per year. Most often, storms that occur in the area are weak and often decline in strength upon entry. The only land masses impacted by tropical cyclones in this region are Hawaii and Johnston Atoll. Due to the small size of the islands in relation to the Pacific Ocean, direct hits and landfalls are rare.

Steering factors

Hurricanes in the Eastern Pacific tend to move westward out to sea, harming no land—unless they cross into the Central Pacific or Western Pacific basins, in which case they might harm land such as Hawaii or Japan. However, hurricanes can recurve to the north or northeast, hitting Central America or Mexico early and late in the hurricane season.

See also

Related Research Articles

National Hurricane Center Division of the United States National Weather Service

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.

Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots, names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

Tropical cyclones are ranked on one of five tropical cyclone intensity scales, according to their maximum sustained winds and which tropical cyclone basin(s) they are located in. Only a few scales of classifications are used officially by the meteorological agencies monitoring the tropical cyclones, but some alternative scales also exist, such as accumulated cyclone energy, the Power Dissipation Index, the Integrated Kinetic Energy Index, and the Hurricane Severity Index.

Atlantic hurricane tropical cyclone that forms in the North Atlantic Ocean

An Atlantic hurricane or tropical storm is a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean, usually between the months of June and November. A hurricane differs from a cyclone or typhoon only on the basis of location. A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and a cyclone occurs in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean.

The Hurricane Databases (HURDAT), managed by the National Hurricane Center, are two separate databases that contain details on tropical cyclones, that have occurred within the Atlantic Ocean and Eastern Pacific Ocean since either 1851 or 1949.

Invest (meteorology) area of weather being monitored for cyclone development

An invest in meteorology is a designated area of disturbed weather that is being monitored for potential tropical cyclone development. Invests are designated by three separate United States forecast centers: the National Hurricane Center, the Central Pacific Hurricane Center, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center.

The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back several centuries, with storms named after places, saints or things they hit before the formal start of naming in each basin. Examples of such names are the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane and the 1938 New England hurricane. The system currently in place provides identification of tropical cyclones in a brief form that is easily understood and recognized by the public. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named tropical cyclones and anticyclones between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Over the following decades formal naming schemes were introduced for several tropical cyclone basins, including the North and South Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean.

Tropical cyclones of 2010 were spread across seven oceanic basins in their respective seasons; the strongest of these tropical cyclones was Typhoon Megi, which strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 885 mbar before striking the east coast of Luzon in the Philippines. Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers (RSMC) and Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWC) designated names to 70 systems worldwide, of which 46 occurred in the northern hemisphere while 21 developed in the southern hemisphere. The most active basin in 2010 was the North Atlantic, which documented 19 named systems, while the North Indian Ocean, despite only amounting to five named systems, was its basin's most active since 1998. Conversely, both the West Pacific typhoon and East Pacific hurricane seasons experienced the least number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity in recorded history, numbering 14 and 8, respectively. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece. That hemisphere's strongest tropical cyclone was Cyclone Edzani, which bottomed out with a barometric pressure of 910 mbar in the South-West Indian Ocean.

Hurricane Genevieve (2014) Pacific hurricane and typhoon in 2014

Hurricane Genevieve, also referred to as Typhoon Genevieve, was the fourth-most intense tropical cyclone of the North Pacific Ocean in 2014. A long-lasting system, Genevieve was the first one to track across all three northern Pacific basins since Hurricane Dora in 1999. Genevieve developed from a tropical wave into the eighth tropical storm of the 2014 Pacific hurricane season well east-southeast of Hawaii on July 25. However, increased vertical wind shear caused it to weaken into a tropical depression by the following day and degenerate into a remnant low on July 28. Late on July 29, the system regenerated into a tropical depression, but it weakened into a remnant low again on July 31, owing to vertical wind shear and dry air.

Tropical cyclone tracking chart

A tropical cyclone tracking chart is used by those within hurricane-threatened areas to track tropical cyclones worldwide. In the north Atlantic basin, they are known as hurricane tracking charts. New tropical cyclone information is available at least every six hours in the Northern Hemisphere and at least every twelve hours in the Southern Hemisphere. Charts include maps of the areas where tropical cyclones form and track within the various basins, include name lists for the year, basin-specific tropical cyclone definitions, rules of thumb for hurricane preparedness, emergency contact information, and numbers for figuring out where tropical cyclone shelters are open.

Tropical cyclones in 2015

Tropical cyclones in 2015 were spread out across seven different areas called basins; the strongest of these tropical cyclones was Hurricane Patricia, which strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 872 mbar before striking the east coast of Colima in Mexico. 133 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 92 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC).

Tropical cyclones in 2014

Tropical cyclones in 2014 were spread out across seven different areas called basins; the strongest of these tropical cyclones was Typhoon Vongfong, which strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 900 mbar before striking the east coast of Japan. 119 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 82 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC). The most active basin in 2014 was the Western Pacific, which documented 23 named systems, while the Eastern Pacific, despite only amounting to 22 named systems, was its basin's most active since 1992. Conversely, both the North Atlantic hurricane and North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons experienced the least number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity in recorded history, numbering 9 and 3, respectively. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece.

Tropical cyclones in 2004 were spread out across seven different areas called basins; the strongest of these tropical cyclones was Cyclone Gafilo, which strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 895 mbar becomes the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the South-West Indian Ocean before striking the east coast of Madagascar. 130 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 81 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC). The most active basin in 2004 was the Western Pacific, which documented 29 named systems, while the North Atlantic, despite only amounting to 15 named systems, was its basin's hyperactive season since 1995. Conversely, both the Eastern Pacific hurricane and North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons experienced the least number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity in recorded history, numbering 12 and 4, respectively. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece.

Tropical cyclones in 2012

Tropical cyclones in 2012 were spread out across seven different areas called basins; the strongest tropical cyclone was Typhoon Sanba strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 900 mbar before striking South Korea. 132 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 88 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC). The most active basin in the year was the Western Pacific, which documented 25 named systems, while the North Atlantic Pacific, despite only amounting to 19 named systems, was its basin's hyperactive since 2010 becoming the third-most active season on record. Conversely, the Eastern Pacific hurricane season experienced the average number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity, numbering 17 respectively. The least tropical cyclone season was North Indian Ocean had a late start, with the first system forming in October. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece.

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