Palawan bearded pig

Last updated

Palawan bearded pig
Sus ahoenobarbus.png
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Suidae
Genus: Sus
Species:
S. ahoenobarbus
Binomial name
Sus ahoenobarbus
Huet, 1888
Range Sus ahoenobarbus.png
Synonyms
  • Species Level:
    • Chaetorhinus ahoenobarbus
  • Subspecies Level:
    • Sus barbatus ahoenobarbus
    • Chaetorhinus barbatus ahoenobarbus

The Palawan bearded pig (Sus ahoenobarbus) is a pig species in the genus Sus endemic to the Philippines, where it occurs on the archipelago of islands formed by Balabac, Palawan, and the Calamian Islands. [1] It is 1 to 1.6 m (3.3 to 5.2 ft) in length, about 1 m (3.3 ft) tall and weigh up to 150 kg (330 lb).

Contents

Taxonomy

Until recently, it was considered a subspecies of the Bornean bearded pig (Sus barbatus), but at least under the phylogenetic species concept, it must be classified as a separate species. For its treatment under other (and more widely used) species concepts, more study is required, but the presently available information seems to argue for full species status in any case. [2]

Fossils

Fossils excavated in Palawan were identified as being of the Palawan bearded pig, deer, Philippine long-tailed macaques, tiger, small mammals, lizards, snakes and turtles. From the stone tools, besides the evidence for cuts on the bones, and the use of fire, it would appear that early humans had accumulated the bones. [3] [4]

Borneo might have been connected to Palawan during the penultimate and previous glacial periods, judging from the molecular phylogeny of murids. [5] Remains of pigs were compared with the wild boar (Sus scrofa)and Palawanese wild boar (Sus ahoenobarbus). It is known that the wild boar was imported as a domesticate to the islands from mainland Southeast Asia during the late Holocene. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Sus</i> (genus) Genus of even-toed ungulates

Sus is the genus of wild and domestic pigs, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae. Sus include domestic pigs and their ancestor, the common Eurasian wild boar, along with other species. Sus species, like all suids, are native to the Eurasian and African continents, ranging from Europe to the Pacific islands. Suids other than the pig are the babirusa of Indonesia, the pygmy hog of South Asia, the warthogs of Africa, and other pig genera from Africa. The suids are a sister clade to peccaries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wild boar</span> Species of mammal

The wild boar, also known as the wild swine, common wild pig, Eurasian wild pig, or simply wild pig, is a suid native to much of Eurasia and North Africa, and has been introduced to the Americas and Oceania. The species is now one of the widest-ranging mammals in the world, as well as the most widespread suiform. It has been assessed as least concern on the IUCN Red List due to its wide range, high numbers, and adaptability to a diversity of habitats. It has become an invasive species in part of its introduced range. Wild boars probably originated in Southeast Asia during the Early Pleistocene and outcompeted other suid species as they spread throughout the Old World.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Palawan</span> Province in Mimaropa, Philippines

Palawan, officially the Province of Palawan, is an archipelagic province of the Philippines that is located in the region of Mimaropa. It is the largest province in the country in terms of total area of 14,649.73 km2 (5,656.29 sq mi). The capital and largest city is Puerto Princesa, administered independently from the province. Palawan is known as the Philippines' Last Frontier and as the Philippines' Best Island.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leopard cat</span> Small wild cat species

The leopard cat is a small wild cat native to continental South, Southeast, and East Asia. Since 2002 it has been listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List as it is widely distributed although threatened by habitat loss and hunting in parts of its range.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Palawan (island)</span> Island in the Philippines

Palawan is the largest island of the province of Palawan in the Philippines and fifth-largest by area and tenth-most populous island of the country, with a total population of 994,101 as of 2020 census. The north west coast of the island is along the South China Sea, while the south east coast forms part of the northern limit of the Sulu Sea. Much of the island remains traditional and is considered by some as under-developed. Abundant wildlife, jungle mountains, and some white sandy beaches attract many tourists, as well as international companies looking for development opportunities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Domestication of animals</span> Overview of animal domestication

The domestication of animals is the mutual relationship between non-human animals and the humans who have influence on their care and reproduction.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pig</span> Domesticated omnivorous even-toed ungulate

The pig, often called swine, hog, or domesticpig when distinguishing from other members of the genus Sus, is an omnivorous, domesticated, even-toed, hoofed mammal. It is variously considered a subspecies of Sus scrofa or a distinct species. The pig's head-plus-body length ranges from 0.9 to 1.8 m, and adult pigs typically weigh between 50 and 350 kg, with well-fed individuals even exceeding this range. The size and weight of hogs largely depends on their breed. Compared to other artiodactyls, a pig's head is relatively long and pointed. Most even-toed ungulates are herbivorous, but pigs are omnivores, like their wild relative. Pigs grunt and make snorting sounds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bornean bearded pig</span> Species of mammal

The Bornean bearded pig, also known as the Sunda bearded pig or simply bearded pig, is a species in the pig genus, Sus.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Philippine deer</span> Species of deer

The Philippine deer, also known as the Philippine sambar or Philippine brown deer, is a vulnerable deer species endemic to the Philippines. It was first described from introduced populations in the Mariana Islands, hence the specific name.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Calamian deer</span> Species of deer

The Calamian deer, also known as Calamian hog deer, is an endangered species of deer found only in the Calamian Islands of Palawan province in the Philippines. It is one of three species of deer native to the Philippines, the other being the Philippine sambar and the Visayan spotted deer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Philippine warty pig</span> Species of mammal

The Philippine warty pig is one of four known species in the pig genus (Sus) endemic to the Philippines. The other three endemic species are the Visayan warty pig, Mindoro warty pig and the Palawan bearded pig, also being rare members of the family Suidae. Philippine warty pigs have two pairs of warts, with a tuft of hair extending outwards from the warts closest to the jaw. It has multiple native common names, but it is most widely known as baboy damo in Tagalog.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Celebes warty pig</span> Suid from Sulawesi (Sus celebensis)

The Celebes warty pig, also called Sulawesi warty pig or Sulawesi pig, is a species in the pig genus (Sus) that lives on Sulawesi in Indonesia. It survives in most habitats and can live in altitudes of up to 2,500 m (8,000 ft). It has been domesticated and introduced to a number of other islands in Indonesia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oliver's warty pig</span> Species of mammal

Oliver's warty pig or Mindoro warty pig is a small species in the pig genus (Sus) which can only be found on the island of Mindoro in the central Philippines. This species previously treated to be a subspecies of S. philippensis, was shown to be morphologically and genetically different.

The Philippines has four endemic types of species of wild pigs. This makes the Philippines unique in having arguably the largest number of endemic wild pigs. Two separate populations of unstudied wild pig species have been reported on the islands of Tawi-Tawi, and Tablas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Philippine long-tailed macaque</span> Subspecies of Old World monkey

The Philippine long-tailed macaque is a subspecies of the crab-eating macaque, known in various Philippine languages as matching/matsing or the more general term unggoy ("monkey"). It is endemic to the Philippine forests and woodlands, but especially in the mangrove forests of western central Philippines— particularly in Palawan, the Visayas, and Mindanao. The names M. f. philippinensis and M. f. philippinenesis have also been used, but arise from orthographical error.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Banded pig</span>

The banded pig also known as the Indonesian wild boar is a subspecies of wild boar native to the Thai-Malay Peninsula and many Indonesian islands, including Sumatra, Java, and the Lesser Sundas as far east as Komodo. It is known as the wild boar in Singapore. It is the most basal subspecies, having the smallest relative brain size, more primitive dentition, and unspecialised cranial structure. It is a short-faced subspecies with a white band on the muzzle, as well as sparse body hair, no underwool, a fairly long mane, and a broad reddish band extending from the muzzle to the sides of the neck. It is much smaller than the mainland S. s. cristatus subspecies, with the largest specimens on Komodo weighing only 48 kg.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Japanese boar</span>

The Japanese boar, also known as the white-moustached pig, nihon-inoshishi (ニホンイノシシ), or yama kujira, is a subspecies of wild boar native to all of Japan, save for Hokkaido and the Ryukyu Islands.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bornean tiger</span> Tiger population from the Greater Sunda island of Borneo

The Bornean tiger or Borneo tiger is possibly an extinct tiger population that lived on the island of Borneo in prehistoric times. A live Bornean tiger has not been conclusively recorded, but the indigenous Dayak people believe in its existence, and occasionally report sightings.

Domesticated animals in the Philippines include pigs, chickens, water buffalo, goats, cats, and dogs. Domestication is when a species is selectively bred to produce certain traits that are seen as desirable. Some desirable traits include quicker growth and maturity, increased fertility, adaptability to various conditions, and living in herds. Domesticated animals play an important socioeconomic role in the Philippines, as seen through their widespread use in rituals.

References

  1. 1 2 Meijaard, E.; Widmann, P. (2017). "Sus ahoenobarbus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2017: e.T21177A44140029. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T21177A44140029.en . Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. Lucchini, V.; Meijaard, E.; Diong, C. H.; Groves, C. P.; Randi, E. (2005). "New phylogenetic perspectives among species of South-east Asian wild pig (Sus sp.) based on mtDNA sequences and morphometric data". The Journal of Zoology. London. 266: 25–35. doi:10.1017/S0952836905006588.
  3. Piper, P. J.; Ochoa, J.; Lewis, H.; Paz, V.; Ronquillo, W. P. (2008). "The first evidence for the past presence of the tiger Panthera tigris (L.) on the island of Palawan, Philippines: extinction in an island population". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 264 (1–2): 123–127. Bibcode:2008PPP...264..123P. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.04.003.
  4. Ochoa, J.; Piper, P. J. (2017). "Tiger". In Monks, G. (ed.). Climate Change and Human Responses: A Zooarchaeological Perspective. Springer. pp. 79–80. ISBN   978-9-4024-1106-5.
  5. Van der Geer, A.; Lyras, G.; De Vos, J.; Dermitzakis, M. (2011). "15 (The Philippines); 26 (Carnivores)". Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 220–347. ISBN   9781444391282.
  6. Larson, G.; Dobney, K.; Albarella, U.; Fang, M.; Matisso-Smith, E.; Robins, J.; Lowden, S.; Finlayson, H.; Brand, T.; Willersley, E.; Rowley-Conwy, P.; Andersson, L.; Cooper, A. (2005). "Worldwide Phylogeography of wild boar reveals multiple centers of pig domestication". Science. 307 (5715): 1618–1621. Bibcode:2005Sci...307.1618L. doi:10.1126/science.1106927. PMID   15761152. S2CID   39923483.
  7. Larson, G.; Cucchi, T.; Fujita, M.; Matisoo-Smith, E.; Robins, J.; Anderson, A.; Rolett, B.; Spriggs, M.; Dolman, G.; Kim, T.-H.; Thi, N.; Thuy, D.; Randi, E.; Doehrty, M.; Due, R. A.; Bolt, R.; Griffin, B.; Morwood, M.; Piper, P.; Bergh, G.v.d.; Dobney, K. (2007). "Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insight into Neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America . 104 (12): 4834–4839. Bibcode:2007PNAS..104.4834L. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0607753104 . PMC   1829225 . PMID   17360400.
  8. Dobney, K.; Cucchi, T.; Larson, G. (2008). "The pigs of Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific: new evidence for taxonomic status and human-mediated dispersal" (PDF). Asian Perspectives. 47 (1): 59–74. doi:10.1353/asi.2008.0009. JSTOR   42928732. S2CID   55390219.
  9. Cucchi, T.; Fujita, M.; Dobney, K. (2009). "New insights into pig taxonomy, domestication and human dispersal in Island Southeast Asia: molar shape analysis of Sus remains from Niah Caves, Sarawak". International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. 19 (4): 508–530. doi:10.1002/oa.974.
  10. Piper, P. J.; Hung, H.-C.; Campos, F. Z.; Bellwood, P.; Santiago, R. (2009). "A 4,000 year old introduction of domestic pigs into the Philippine archipelago: implications for understanding routes of human migration into through Island Southeast Asia and Wallacea". Antiquity . 83: 687–695. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00098914. S2CID   161296257.