|Palazzo della Consulta|
|Town or city||Rome|
|Client||Pope Clement XII|
|Design and construction|
The Palazzo della Consulta (built 1732-1735) is a late Baroque palace in central Rome, Italy, that since 1955 houses the Constitutional Court of the Italian Republic. It sits across the Piazza del Quirinale from the official residence of the President of the Italian Republic, the Quirinal Palace.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, music, dance, painting, sculpture and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It followed Renaissance art and Mannerism and preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles. It was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture, art and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well.
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Italian Alps and surrounded by several islands. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean sea and traversed along its length by the Apennines, Italy has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. The country covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares open land borders with France, Slovenia, Austria, Switzerland and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous member state of the European Union.
Prior to the 17th century, a palace had been erected for the Cardinal Ferrero during the reign of Pope Sixtus V. The Pope Clement XII (Corsini) commissioned the present palace from Ferdinando Fuga, and it was completed in 1737 to house the secretariat of the Sacra Congregazione della Consulta (which served as the main council of state of the Papal states and tribunal) as well as the Segnatura dei Brevi, as well as two corps of Papal Guard units. From 1798 to 1814, the palace was used as the Prefecture of Rome. In 1849, during the Roman Republic, it was the home of the ruling Triumvirate. After the annexation of the Papal States to the Kingdom of Italy, from 1871 to 1874, Prince Umberto I and his wife Margherita of Savoy lived here. From 1874 to 1922, it housed the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and from 1924 to 1953 it housed the Ministry of Colonies. In 1955, it became the home of the Constitutional Court of Italy.
Guido Luca Ferrero (1537–1585) was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal.
Pope Sixtus V or Xystus V, born Felice Piergentile, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590. As a youth, he joined the Franciscan order, where he displayed talents as a scholar and preacher, and enjoyed the patronage of Pius V, who made him a cardinal.
Pope Clement XII, born Lorenzo Corsini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 12 July 1730 to his death in 1740.
Fuga ordered the two-storey facade with a piano nobile whose windows have low arched heads set in fielded panels, over a ground floor with low mezzanine. On the lower story the panels have channeled rustication and rusticated quoins at the corners. Pilasters are applied only to the central three-bay block, which barely projects, and to the corners. The roof-line of the facade is topped by a large coat of arms of the Corsini pope, and is similar to the one of Fontana di Trevi. Lower down, at the entrance, a King of Italy installed his coat of arms.
The piano nobile is the principal floor of a large house, usually built in one of the styles of Classical Renaissance architecture. This floor contains the principal reception and bedrooms of the house.
The interiors have undergone a series of fresco decorations over the centuries. The initial 18th-century frescoes by Antonio Bicchierai and Giovanni Domenico Piastrini, are nearly vanished except for a few allegorical figures in the apartments of the Cardinals. In 1787, the new Cardinale dei Brevi, Cardinal Romoaldo Braschi-Onesti, had the palaced redecorated by Bernardino Nocchi, which was also nearly lost except for frescoes on the Myth of Proserpine in the "Salone Pompeiano" and decoration in the ceiling of the "Studio dei Giudici" depicting charity and the four virtues. The Savoy monarchy had frescoed completed by Domenico Bruschi, Cecrope Barilli and Annibale Brugnoli.
Giovanni Domenico Piastrini (1678–1740) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active in Tuscany and Rome.
Romoaldo Braschi-Onesti was a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Bernardino or Giovanni Bernardino Nocchi was an Italian painter, mainly of sacred and historic subjects.
The Quirinal Hill is one of the Seven Hills of Rome, at the north-east of the city center. It is the location of the official residence of the Italian head of state, who resides in the Quirinal Palace; by metonymy "the Quirinal" has come to stand for the Italian president. The Quirinal Palace has an extension of 1.2 million square feet.
The Quirinal Palace is a historic building in Rome, Italy, one of the three current official residences of the President of the Italian Republic, together with Villa Rosebery in Naples and Tenuta di Castelporziano in Rome. It is located on the Quirinal Hill, the highest of the seven hills of Rome in an area colloquially called Monte Cavallo. It has housed thirty Popes, four Kings of Italy and twelve presidents of the Italian Republic.
Palazzo Farnese or Farnese Palace is one of the most important High Renaissance palaces in Rome. Owned by the Italian Republic, it was given to the French government in 1936 for a period of 99 years, and currently serves as the French embassy in Italy.
The Palazzo della Cancelleria is a Renaissance palace in Rome, Italy, situated between the present Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and the Campo de' Fiori, in the rione of Parione. It was built between 1489–1513 by Donato Bramante (1444–1514) as a palace for Cardinal Raffaele Riario, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, and is regarded as the earliest Renaissance palace in Rome. The Palazzo houses the Papal Chancellery, is an extraterritorial property of the Holy See, and is designated as a World Heritage Site.
The Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica (GNAA), or National Gallery of Ancient Art, is an art gallery in Rome, Italy, the main national collection of older paintings in Rome. It has two sites: the Palazzo Barberini and the Palazzo Corsini.
The Nobility of Italy comprises individuals and their families of the Italian peninsula, and the islands linked with it, recognized by sovereigns, such as the Holy Roman Emperor, the Holy See, the Kings of Italy, and certain other Italian kings and sovereigns, as members of a class of persons officially enjoying hereditary privileges which distinguished them from other persons and families. They often held lands as fiefs and were sometimes endowed with hereditary titles or nobiliary particles. From the Middle Ages until 1871, "Italy" was not a single country but was a number of separate kingdoms and other states, with many reigning dynasties. These were often related through marriage to each other and to other European royal families.
Corsini is the name of a Florentine princely family.
Palazzo Schifanoia is a Renaissance palace in Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna (Italy) built for the Este family. The name "Schifanoia" is thought to originate from "schivar la noia" meaning literally to "escape from boredom" which describes accurately the original intention of the palazzo and the other villas in close proximity where the Este court relaxed. The highlights of its decorations are the allegorical frescoes with details in tempera by or after Francesco del Cossa and Cosmè Tura, executed ca 1469–70, a unique survival of their time.
Palazzo Madama in Rome is the seat of the Senate of the Italian Republic.
Ferdinando Fuga was an Italian architect who was born in Florence, and is known for his work in Rome and Naples. Much of his early work was in Rome, notably, the Palazzo della Consulta (1732–7) at the Quirinal, the Palazzo Corsini (1736–54), the façade of the Santa Maria Maggiore (1741–3), and the Church of Sant'Apollinare (1742–8). He later moved to Naples and notably designed the Albergo de'Poveri (1751–81), the façade of the Church of the Gerolamini, and that of the Palazzo Giordano.
The Palazzo Montecitorio is a palace in Rome and the seat of the Italian Chamber of Deputies.
Sant'Apollinare alle Terme is a titular church in Rome, Italy, dedicated to St Apollinare, the first bishop of Ravenna. It is the station church for the Thursday of the fifth week in Lent.
The Palazzo Chigi is a palace and former noble residence in Rome which is the official residence of the Prime Minister of Italy. Since June 1, 2018, the occupant of the Palazzo Chigi is Giuseppe Conte.
The Palazzo Corsini is a prominent late-baroque palace in Rome, erected for the Corsini family between 1730–1740 as an elaboration of the prior building on the site, a 15th-century villa of the Riario family, based on designs of Ferdinando Fuga. It is located in the Trastevere section of the city, and stands beside the Villa Farnesina. During 1659–1689, the former Riario palace had hosted the eccentric Christina, Queen of Sweden, who abdicated, converted, and moved to Rome. Under her patronage, this was the site for the first meetings of the Roman Accademia dell'Arcadia.
Palazzo Della Rovere is a palace in Rome, Italy, facing Via della Conciliazione. It is also known as Palazzo dei Penitenzieri.
The Altoviti are a prominent noble family of Florence.
The Sacred Congregation of the Consulta or Sacra Consulta was a dicastery of the Roman Curia. It was set up as a 'special commission' by pope Paul IV in 1559 and officialised on 22 January 1588 by Pope Sixtus V in the papal bull Immensa Aeterni Dei. Sixtus named it the 'Congregation over the consultations of the ecclesiastical state' and established its composition of four cardinals, the Secretary of State as prefect and a suitable number of prelates, one of whom would act as secretary.