Pale of Calais
|Motto: Veritas Temporis filia|
"Truth, the daughter of Time"
|Status||Overseas possession of England|
|Common languages||English, Dutch, French, Picard|
|Religion|| Roman Catholic (from 1534 Church of England)|
|Edward III (first)|
|Mary I (last)|
|Reynold Cobham (first)|
|Thomas Wentworth (last)|
|Historical era||Late Middle Ages|
|3 August 1347|
|8 May 1360|
|8 January 1558|
|2 May 1598|
|Today part of||France|
The Pale of Calais (Middle English, Cales // ; West Flemish : Kales; French : Calaisis) was a territory in what is now France, whose sovereigns were the monarchs of England following the Battle of Crécy in 1346 and the subsequent siege, until 1558.
While English, the province was democratically represented in the Parliament of England by members elected by the free Calais constituency. Historically part of Flanders, the Pale was bilingual: English and Flemish were commonly spoken.
The hardships endured during the prolonged siege of 1346–1347 are the subject of Auguste Rodin's poignant sculpture of 1889, The Burghers of Calais . After several centuries of peace and prosperity, France again ignited the great tribulations of the burghers of the Pale of Calais by launching the Siege of Calais in 1558 to expand French imperial ambitions over the Dutch in Flanders.
A Pale is a "jurisdiction, area".English “Cales” (now supplanted by French Calais), derives from Caleti, an ancient Celtic people who lived along the coast of the English Channel.
Calais was a prize of war won in the Battle of Crécy of 1346 by Edward III of England after a long siege. Its capture gave England not only a key stronghold in the world’s textile trade centered in Flanders, but provided a strategic, defensible military outpost for England to regroup in future wars on the continent; the city's position on the English Channel could be reinforced over the short distance by sea. English sovereignty was confirmed under the Treaty of Brétigny, signed on 8 May 1360, when Edward renounced the throne of France in return for substantial lands, namely Aquitaine and the territory around Calais.By 1453, at the end of the Hundred Years' War, the Pale was the last part of mainland France in English hands. It served successfully as a base of English expeditions; for example in 1492, from it Henry VII launched the Siege of Boulogne.
The short trip across the Strait of Dover afforded convenient garrison and supply by sea. However, the lack of natural inland defences necessitated the construction and maintenance of military fortifications, at some expense. Nevertheless, a critical factor in the stability of English government there over the centuries was the rivalry of France and Burgundy, both of which coveted the strategic position of the city; each left it to the English rather than to concede it to each other. Eventually, political strategies shifted at the division of Burgundian territory in the Low Countries between France and Spain and, when Henry VIII suffered setbacks in the Sieges of Boulogne (1544–1546), the approach to Calais opened to the south. Then in 1550 the Crown, in a crisis of royal succession, withdrew from Boulogne.
The Pale of Calais remained part of England until unexpectedly lost by Mary I to France in 1558. After secret preparations, 30,000 French troops, led by Francis, Duke of Guise, took the city, which quickly capitulated under the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559). In England, blame was attached to the Queen, entrenching Protestant resolve against her. Although, the loss of the Pale of Calais was a blow to the English economy less than was feared, the retreat of English power was a permanent blot to her reign. Indeed, the chronicler Raphael Holinshead records that a few months later a distraught Mary, lying on her death bed, graphically confided to her family her feelings: “When I am dead and opened, you shall find ‘Calais’ lying in my heart”.Subsequently, the English wool market adjusted and the English textile trade shifted up to the Habsburg Netherlands.
During English governance, the weavers of the Pale maintained their output, which industry was a distinctive mark of Flemish culture.At the same time, the Pale performed as an integral part of England in election of its members to Parliament, and as English citizens the Pale sent and received people to and from various parts of the British isles.
The territory of the Pale of Calais comprised the modern French communes of Andres, Ardres, Balinghem, Bonningues-lès-Calais, Calais, Campagne-lès-Guines, Coquelles, Coulogne, Fréthun, Guemps, Guînes, Les Attaques, Hames-Boucres, Hervelinghen, Marck, Nielles-lès-Calais, Nouvelle-Église, Offekerque, Oye-Plage, Peuplingues, Pihen-lès-Guînes, Sangatte, Saint-Pierre (Calais absorbed Saint-Pierre-lès-Calais inhabited with 33290 inhabitants in 1885, now southern part of Calais), Saint-Tricat and Vieille-Église.
The area of the Pale of Calais is difficult to appraise since the boundaries were ill-defined over swampy land and waterways, which constantly changed. The Pale spread over Gravelines to as far as Wissant, covering about 20 square miles (52 km2). The French were continually reclaiming small pieces of the territory, particularly in the southwest. Over those wetlands, the territory was roughly divided in low hills on the west and the lower coastlands to the east.
Calais is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Although Calais is by far the largest city in Pas-de-Calais, the department's prefecture is its third-largest town of Arras. The population of the city proper is 73,911, and that of the urban area is 128,931 (2017). Calais overlooks the Strait of Dover, the narrowest point in the English Channel, which is only 34 km (21 mi) wide here, and is the closest French town to England. The White Cliffs of Dover can easily be seen on a clear day from Calais. Calais is a major port for ferries between France and England, and since 1994, the Channel Tunnel has linked nearby Coquelles to Folkestone by rail.
Béthune is a city in northern France, sub-prefecture of the Pas-de-Calais department.
Guînes is a commune in the northern French department of Pas-de-Calais. Historically it was spelt Guisnes.
The Burghers of Calais is a sculpture by Auguste Rodin in twelve original castings and numerous copies. It commemorates an event during the Hundred Years' War, when Calais, a French port on the English Channel, surrendered to the English after an eleven-month siege. The city commissioned Rodin to create the sculpture in 1884 and the work was completed in 1889.
The siege of Calais occurred at the conclusion of the Crécy campaign, when an English army under the command of King Edward III of England successfully besieged the French town of Calais during the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War.
Ardres is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
Calais was a former constituency of the Parliament of England.
Oye-Plage is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
Pihen-lès-Guînes is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
Wissant is a seaside commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
The siege of Calais was fought in early 1558 during the Italian War of 1551–1559. The Pale of Calais had been ruled by England since 1347, during the Hundred Years' War. By the 1550s, England was ruled by Mary I of England and her husband Philip II of Spain. When the Kingdom of England supported a Spanish invasion of France, Henry II of France sent Francis, Duke of Guise, against English-held Calais, defended by Thomas Wentworth, 2nd Baron Wentworth. Following failure in mid-1557, a renewed attack captured the outlying forts of Nieullay and Rysbank and Calais was besieged.
Église Notre-Dame is a Roman Catholic parish church located on Rue de la Paix, in Calais, department of Pas-de-Calais, in northern France. It dates from the 12th century, and chiefly from the 14th century. Arguably, it is the only church built in the English perpendicular style in all of France.
The Battle of Calais took place in 1350 when an English force defeated an unsuspecting French army which was attempting to take the city. Despite a truce being in effect the French commander Geoffrey de Charny had planned to take the city by subterfuge, and bribed Amerigo of Pavia, an Italian officer of the city garrison, to open a gate for them. The English king, Edward III, became aware of the plot and personally led his household knights and the Calais garrison in a surprise counter-attack. The French were routed by this smaller force, with significant losses and all their leaders captured or killed.
The siege of Calais between June and July 1436 was a failed siege of English-held Calais by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, and Flemish militia.
The Truce of Calais was a truce agreed to by King Edward III of England and King Philip VI of France on 28 September 1347, that was mediated by emissaries of Pope Clement VI. The Hundred Years' War had broken out in 1337 and in 1346 Edward had landed with an army in northern France. After heavily defeating Philip and a French army at the Battle of Crécy the English besieged Calais, which fell after 11 months. Both countries were financially and militarily exhausted and the cardinals acting for Pope Clement were able to broker a truce in a series of negotiations outside Calais. This was signed on 27 September to run until 7 July 1348.
Hugh Hastings I was an English administrator and soldier. He fought for Edward III in the first phases of the Second War of Scottish Independence and the Hundred Years' War.
The Crécy campaign was a series of large-scale raids (chevauchées) conducted by the Kingdom of England throughout northern France in 1346 that devastated the French countryside on a wide front, culminating in the eponymous Battle of Crécy. The campaign was part of the Hundred Years' War.
The siege of Guînes took place from May to July 1352 when a French army under Geoffrey de Charny unsuccessfully attempted to recapture the French castle at Guînes which had been seized by the English the previous January. The siege was part of the Hundred Years' War and marked the resumption of full-scale hostilities after six years of an uneasy and ill-kept truce.
The Treaty of Guînes was a draft settlement to end the Hundred Years' War, negotiated between England and France and signed at Guînes on 6 April 1354. The war had broken out in 1337 and was further aggravated in 1340 when the English king, Edward III, claimed the French throne. The war went badly for France: the French army was heavily defeated at the Battle of Crécy and the French town of Calais was besieged and captured. With both sides exhausted, a truce was agreed that, despite being only fitfully observed, was repeatedly renewed.
English offensives in 1345–1347, during the Hundred Years' War, resulted in repeated defeats of the French, the loss or devastation of much French territory and the capture by the English of the port of Calais. The war had broken out in 1337 and flared up in 1340 when the king of England, Edward III laid claim to the French crown and campaigned in northern France. There was then a lull in the major hostilities, although much small-scale fighting continued.