Palma de Mallorca

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Palma
Palma de Mallorca - panoramio (1).jpg
Rathaus Palma de Mallorca abends (Zuschnitt).jpg
Palma von Castell de Bellver.jpg
035 2015 06 02 Castell de Bellver.jpg
"La Seu" bedeutet ,,der Bischofssitz" - panoramio.jpg
From upper left: Railway of Sóller, Palma City Hall, Palma from Bellver Castle, Bellver Castle, Cathedral
Flag of Mallorca.svg
Flag
Escudo de Palma de Mallorca.svg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Ciutat de Mallorca (commonly shortened to Ciutat)
Localitzacio de Palma respecte de Mallorca.svg
Palma shown within Mallorca
Location map Majorca.png
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Palma
Palma shown within Spain
Spain Balearic Islands location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Palma
Palma (Balearic Islands)
Spain location map.svg
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Palma
Palma (Spain)
Coordinates: 39°34′N2°39′E / 39.567°N 2.650°E / 39.567; 2.650 Coordinates: 39°34′N2°39′E / 39.567°N 2.650°E / 39.567; 2.650
Sovereign state Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Autonomous community Flag of the Balearic Islands.svg  Balearic Islands
Province Flag of the Balearic Islands.svg  Balearic Islands
Island Flag of Mallorca.svg  Majorca
Comarca Palma
Judicial district Palma
Founded124 BC
Administrative HQPalma
Government
  Type Municipal corporation
  BodyAjuntament de Palma
  Mayor José Hila (PSOE)
Area
   City and Municipality 208.63 km2 (80.55 sq mi)
Elevation
13 m (43 ft)
Population
 (2018) [1]
   City and Municipality 409,661
  Density2,000/km2 (5,100/sq mi)
   Urban
550,000 [2]
Demonym(s) palmesà, -ana (ca)
palmesano, -na (es)
Time zone UTC+1 (Central European Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (Central European Summer Time)
Postal code
070XX
Dialing code 971
Website www.palma.cat

Palma, unofficially known as Palma de Mallorca [3] ( /ˈpɑːlmə/ or /ˈpɑːmə/ ,[ citation needed ]Catalan:  [ˈpalmə] , Spanish:  [ˈpalma] ), is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain. [4] It is situated on the south coast of Mallorca on the Bay of Palma. The Cabrera Archipelago, though widely separated from Palma proper, is administratively considered part of the municipality. As of 2018, Palma Airport serves over 29 million passengers per year.

Contents

History

Palma was founded as a Roman camp upon the remains of a Talaiotic settlement. The city was subjected to several Vandal raids during the fall of the Western Roman Empire, then reconquered by the Byzantine Empire, then colonised by the Moors (who called it Medina Mayurqa) and, in the 13th century, by James I of Aragon.

Roman period

After the conquest of Mallorca, the city was loosely incorporated into the province of Tarraconensis by 123 BC; the Romans founded two new cities: Palma on the south of the island, and Pollentia in the northeast – on the site of a Phoenician settlement. Whilst Pollentia acted as a port to Roman cities on the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, Palma was the port used for destinations in Africa, such as Carthage, and Hispania, such as Saguntum, Gades and Carthago Nova. Though present-day Palma has no significant remains from this period, occasional archaeological finds are made in city centre excavations. For example, the remains of the Roman Wall can be seen at Can Bordils, the Municipal Archive, and below it, at the Maimó ben Faraig Center. [5]

Byzantine period

Though the period between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Muslim conquest is not well understood (due to lack of documents), there is clear evidence of a Byzantine presence in the city, as indicated by mosaics found in the oldest parts of the Cathedral, which was in early medieval times part of a paleo-Christian temple.

Muslim period

Between 902 and 1229, the city was under Islamic control. It remained the capital of the island and it was known as Medina Mayurqa, which in Arabic means "City of Majorca".

Under the Emirate of Córdoba

The arrival of the Moors in the Balearic Islands occurred at the beginning of the 8th century. During this period, the population developed an economy based on self-sufficiency and piracy, and even showed evidence of a relative hierarchy. The dominant groups took advantage of the Byzantine withdrawal due to Islamic expansion across the Mediterranean, to reinforce their domination upon the rest of the population, thus ensuring their power and the gradual abandonment of Imperial political structures.

In 707, a Muslim fleet, under the command of Abd Allgaht ibn Musa, son of the governor of Ifriqiya, Musa ibn Nusayr, stopped off at the island. It appears that Abd Allah convinced the powers of the city to accept a peace treaty. This treaty was granted in exchange for a tax, respect for social, economic and political structures to the communities that subscribed to it, as well as the continuity of their religious beliefs.

After 707, the city was inhabited by Christians who were nominally in allegiance to the sovereignty of the Umayyad Caliphate, yet who, de facto, enjoyed absolute autonomy. The city, being in Mallorca, constituted an enclave between western Christian and Islamic territories, and this attracted and encouraged increased levels of piracy in the surrounding waters. For wide sectors of the city's population, the sacking of ships (whether Muslim or Christian) which passed through Balearic waters was a source of riches over the next fifteen decades. Eventually, continued piracy in the region lead to a retaliation by Al-Andalus which launched a naval fleet against the city and the whole of the Islands. The Islands were defended by the emperor Charlemagne in 799 from a Muslim pirate incursion.

In 848 (maybe 849), four years after the first Viking incursions had sacked the whole island, an attack from Córdoba forced the authorities to ratify the treaty to which the city had submitted in 707. As the city still occupied an eccentric position regarding the commerce network established by the Moors in the western Mediterranean, the enclave was not immediately incorporated into Al-Andalus.

While the Emirate of Córdoba reinforced its influence upon the Mediterranean, Al-Andalus increased its interest in the city. The consequence of this was the substitution of the submission treaty for the effective incorporation of the islands to the Islamic state. A squad under the command of Isam al-Jawlani took advantage of instability caused by several Viking incursions and disembarked in Mallorca, and after destroying any resistance, incorporated Mallorca, with Palma as its capital, to the Córdoban state.

The incorporation of the city into the Emirate set the basis for a new society. Commerce and manufacturing developed in a manner that was previously unknown. This caused considerable demographic growth, thereby establishing Medina Mayurqa as one of the major ports for trading goods in and out of the Emirate of Córdoba.

Dénia—Balearic taifa (1015–1087)

Sant Nicolau Church 0053-Palma de Mallorca.JPG
Sant Nicolau Church

The Umayyad regime, despite its administrative centralisation, mercenary army and struggle to gain wider social support, could neither harmonise the various ethnic groups inside al-Andalus nor dissolve the old tribes which still organised sporadic ethnic fighting. During the 11th century, the Caliphate's control waned considerably. Provinces broke free from the central Cordoban administration, and became effectively sovereign states — taifas — under the same governors that had been named by the last Umayyad Caliphs. According to their origin, these "taifas" can be grouped under three broad categories: people of Arab, Berber or Slavic origin.[ citation needed ]

Palma was part of the taifa of Dénia. The founder of this state was a client of the Al-Mansur family, Muyahid ibn Yusuf ibn Ali, who could profit from the progressive crumbling of the Caliphate's superstructure to gain control over the province of Dénia. Subsequently, Muyahid organised a campaign throughout the Balearic Islands to consolidate the district and incorporated it into their "taifa" in early 1015.

During the following years Palma became the main port from where attacks on Christian vessels and coasts could be launched. Palma was the base from where a campaign against Sardinia was launched between 1016 and 1017, which caused the Pisans and Genoese forces to intervene. Later, this intervention set the basis for Italian mercantile penetration of the city.

The Denian dominion lasted until 1087, a period during which the city, as well as the rest of the islands, was relatively peaceful. Their supremacy at sea was still not rivalled by the Italian merchant republics, thus there were few external threats.

Balearic Taifa (1087–1115) and Western Mediterranean

The Banu Hud conquest of Dénia and its incorporation to the Eastern district of the taifa of Zaragoza meant the destruction of the legacy of Muyahid. The islands were freed from mainland dominion and briefly enjoyed independence, during which Medina Mayurqa was the capital.

The economy during this period depended on both agriculture and piracy. In the latter 11th century, Christian commercial powers took the initiative at sea against the Muslims. After centuries of fighting defensively in the face of Islamic pressure, Italians, Catalans and Occitans took offensive action. Consequently, the benefits of piracy diminished causing severe economic stress on the city.

The clearest proof of the new ruling relation of forces, from 1090, is the Crusade organised by the most important mercantile cities of the Christian states against the Islands. This effort was destined to finally eradicate Muslim piracy mainly based in Palma and surrounding havens. In 1115, Palma was sacked and later abandoned by an expedition commanded by Ramon Berenguer III the Great, count of Barcelona and Provence, which was composed of Catalans, Pisans and other Italians, and soldiers from Provence, Corsica, and Sardinia, in a struggle to end Almoravid control.

After this, the Islands became part of the Almoravid dynasty. The inglobement[ check spelling ] of all the taifa to a larger state helped to re-establish a balance along the frontier that separated western Christian states from the Muslim world.

Santa Eulalia church, in which James II of Majorca was crowned on 12 September 1276. Santa Eulalia de Palma.JPG
Santa Eulalia church, in which James II of Majorca was crowned on 12 September 1276.

Period of the Banu Ganiya (1157–1203)

The situation changed in the mid-12th century, when the Almoravids were displaced from al-Andalus and western Maghreb by the Almohad. Almoravid dominions, from 1157 on, were restricted to the Balearic Islands, with Palma again acting as the capital, governed by Muhammad ibn Ganiya. Massive arrival of al-Andalus refugees contributed to reinforce the positions of the last Almoravid legitimatists, the Banu Ganiya, who, conscious of their weakness in the Western Mediterranean context, started to get closer to the growing powers represented by Italian maritime republics. Genoa and Pisans obtained in this period their first commercial concessions in the city and the rest of the islands.

The Banu Ganiya, taking advantage of the great loss suffered by Abu Yuqub Yusuf in the Siege of Santarém, attacked Ifriqiya, where the Almohad dominion had not been consolidated yet, in the same year. However, this attack was repelled and the Almohad authorities encouraged anti-Almoravid revolts in the Islands. The city was captured by the Almohads in 1203.

Christian reconquest and late Middle Ages

Bellver Castle, was the first circle castle in Europe. Castillo de Bellver.jpg
Bellver Castle, was the first circle castle in Europe.

On 31 December 1229, after three months of siege, the city was reconquered by James I of Aragon and was renamed Ciutat de Mallorca (Mallorca City). In addition to being kept as capital of the Kingdom of Majorca, it was given a municipality that comprised the whole island. The governing arm was the University of the City and Kingdom of Majorca.

After the death of James I of Aragon, Palma became joint capital of the Kingdom of Majorca, together with Perpignan. His son, James II of Majorca, championed the construction of statues and monuments in the city: Bellver Castle, the churches of St. Francesc and St. Domingo, reformed the Palace of Almudaina and began the construction of the Cathedral of Majorca.

Royal Palace of La Almudaina, built in 1309 over an earlier castle. Almudaina catedral.jpg
Royal Palace of La Almudaina, built in 1309 over an earlier castle.

In 1391, anti-Jewish riots broke out. The Jewish community of Inca was completely wiped out, as were those of Sóller, Sineu, and Alcudia. In spite of the governor's prohibition on leaving the island, many Jews fled to North Africa. The remaining Jews were forced to convert under threat of death. [6]

Abraham Cresques was a 14th-century Jewish cartographer of the Majorcan cartographic school from Palma; Cresques is credited with the authorship of the famous Catalan Atlas.

The river that cut through the city gave rise to two distinct areas within the city; the "Upper town" and "Lower town", depending upon which side of the river one was situated.

Palma's Silk Exchange, a masterpiece of the Gothic architecture in Majorca. Built between 1420 and 1452. Llotja palma.jpg
Palma's Silk Exchange, a masterpiece of the Gothic architecture in Majorca. Built between 1420 and 1452.

The city's advantageous geographical location allowed it extensive commerce with Catalonia, Valencia, Provence, the Maghreb, the Italian republics and the dominions of the Great Turk, which heralded a golden age for the city.

At the beginning of the 16th century, the Rebellion of the Brotherhoods (a peasant uprising against Charles V's administration) and the frequent attack of Turkish and Berber pirates caused a reduction of commercial activities and a huge inversion in defensive structures. As a consequence, the city entered a period of decadence that would last till the end of the 17th century.

17th to 19th centuries

The tower of Porto Pi Torre de Senyals de Porto Pi (1).JPG
The tower of Porto Pí

The 17th century was characterised by the division of the city into two sides or gangs, named Canamunts and Canavalls (from Majorcan Catalan "the ones from the upper/lower side"), with severe social and economic repercussions. During this period, the port became a haven for pirates. During the last quarter of the century, the Inquisition continued its persecution of the city's Jews, locally called xuetes .

The fall of Barcelona in 1714 meant the end of the War of the Spanish Succession and the defeat and destruction of the Crown of Aragon, and this was reflected on the Nueva Planta decrees, issued by Philip V of Spain in 1715. These occupation decrees changed the government of the island and separated it from the municipality's government of Palma, which became the official city name. By the end of the 19th century, the name Palma de Mallorca was generalised in written Spanish, although it is still colloquially named Ciutat ("city") in Catalan. In the 18th century Charles III of Spain removed interdiction of commerce with Spanish colonies in America and the port and commercial activity of the city grew once again.

At the beginning of the 19th century, Palma became a refuge for many who had exiled themselves from the Napoleonic occupation of Catalonia and Valencia; during this period freedom flourished, until the absolutist restoration. With the establishment of contemporary Spanish state administrative organization, Palma became the capital of the new Balearic Islands province in the 1833 territorial division of Spain. The French occupation of Algeria in the 19th century ended the fear of Maghrebi attacks in Majorca, which favoured the expansion of new maritime routes, and consequently, the economic growth of the city.

Modern period

City council of Palma Rathaus Palma de Mallorca abends (Zuschnitt).jpg
City council of Palma
Palma in Christmas Palma de Mallorca in Christmas.jpg
Palma in Christmas

Since the advent of mass tourism in the 1950s, the city has been transformed into a tourist destination and has attracted many workers from mainland Spain. This has contributed to a huge change in the city's traditions, its language, and its economic power.

The boom in tourism has caused Palma to grow significantly. In 1960, Mallorca received 500,000 visitors, in 1997 it received more than 6,739,700. In 2001 more than 19,200,000 people passed through Son Sant Joan airport near Palma, with an additional 1.5 million coming by sea.

In the 21st century, urban redevelopment, by the so-called Pla Mirall (English "Mirror Plan"), had attracted groups of immigrant workers from outside the European Union, especially from Africa and South America.

More than half of the population works in tourism, approximately 80%, therefore being the main economic portal of Palma. Tourism has affected the rapid economic growth of Palma, making the island of Mallorca wealthier compared to other regions in Spain.

The second economic portal of Palma is agriculture. Main exports of Palma's agriculture are, almonds, oranges, lemons and olives. The island is also gifted with a wide variety of natural resources, such as mines of copper, lead and marble. [7]

The city also has several surrounding neighborhood communities including Establiments, Nord, Son Espanyol, Ces Cases Noves, and Sa Creu Vermella. [8]

Geography

Palma pictured from the International Space Station ISS Palma de Mallorca.jpg
Palma pictured from the International Space Station

Palma is a major city and seaport located in the southwest of Mallorca, a western mediterranean island belonging to the Balearic Islands archipelago. The land area of the city is about 21.355 square kilometres (8.245 sq mi) with an altitude of 13 metres (43 feet) above sea level.

The city center of Palma is located north of the homonymous bay (Badia de Palma in the local Catalan language). The area that extends eastwards is mostly a flat fertile plain known as Es Pla. To the north and west, the city borders the Serra de Tramuntana, the island's major mountain range and a Unesco World Heritage site.

Population

Population of Palma (1900-2006) Demografia Palma (Espana).PNG
Population of Palma (1900-2006)

As of the2009 census, the population of the city of Palma proper was 401,270,[ citation needed ] and the population of the entire urban area was 550,000, [2] making it the twelfth largest urban area of Spain. By the start of 2019 the population of the city had risen to 416,065. [9] Almost half of the total population of Mallorca lives in Palma.

As of 2017 over 60,000 non-Spanish foreigners registered with the town hall lived in Palma; the registered foreign population from 2016 to 2017 declined by 832, the numerically highest decline in the Balearics. [10]

Climate

Palma has a Mediterranean climate, the climate classification named after the sea surrounding the city. There is a significant maritime influence to the mild winters, but summers are warmed by the surrounding continental landmasses. These warm up the offshore sea surface temperatures compared to in an ocean and as a result the small confines of Mallorca are still able to build up and sustain heat in spite of being on an island. There is vast seasonal lag, especially in late summer courtesy of the sea water peaking in temperatures long after the summer solstice.

Climate data for Palma de Mallorca, Port (1981-2010) (Satellite view)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)22.4
(72.3)
24.4
(75.9)
26.6
(79.9)
28.0
(82.4)
32.0
(89.6)
36.5
(97.7)
38.0
(100.4)
37.6
(99.7)
35.5
(95.9)
31.2
(88.2)
27.6
(81.7)
23.0
(73.4)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F)15.4
(59.7)
15.5
(59.9)
17.2
(63.0)
19.2
(66.6)
22.5
(72.5)
26.5
(79.7)
29.4
(84.9)
29.8
(85.6)
27.1
(80.8)
23.7
(74.7)
19.3
(66.7)
16.5
(61.7)
21.8
(71.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)11.9
(53.4)
11.9
(53.4)
13.4
(56.1)
15.5
(59.9)
18.8
(65.8)
22.7
(72.9)
25.7
(78.3)
26.2
(79.2)
23.5
(74.3)
20.2
(68.4)
15.8
(60.4)
13.1
(55.6)
18.2
(64.8)
Average low °C (°F)8.3
(46.9)
8.4
(47.1)
9.6
(49.3)
11.7
(53.1)
15.1
(59.2)
18.9
(66.0)
21.9
(71.4)
22.5
(72.5)
19.9
(67.8)
16.6
(61.9)
12.3
(54.1)
9.7
(49.5)
14.6
(58.3)
Record low °C (°F)0.0
(32.0)
0.6
(33.1)
1.6
(34.9)
4.4
(39.9)
8.0
(46.4)
11.0
(51.8)
16.4
(61.5)
15.8
(60.4)
10.0
(50.0)
8.4
(47.1)
3.8
(38.8)
2.5
(36.5)
0.0
(32.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)43
(1.7)
37
(1.5)
28
(1.1)
39
(1.5)
36
(1.4)
11
(0.4)
6
(0.2)
22
(0.9)
52
(2.0)
69
(2.7)
59
(2.3)
48
(1.9)
449
(17.7)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)66554212576753
Mean monthly sunshine hours 1671702052372843153463162272051611512,779
Percent possible sunshine 54555561667075736360545462
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología [11]
Climate data for Palma
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average sea temperature °C (°F)14.4
(57.9)
13.9
(57.0)
14.1
(57.4)
15.9
(60.7)
18.9
(66.1)
22.5
(72.5)
24.9
(76.7)
26.0
(78.8)
25.0
(77.1)
22.7
(72.9)
19.7
(67.4)
16.3
(61.4)
19.5
(67.2)
Mean daily daylight hours10.011.012.013.014.015.015.014.012.011.010.09.012.2
Average Ultraviolet index 2356899864225.3
Source: seatemperature.org [12]
Source: Weather Atlas [13]

Main sights

Video of main sights

Plaça d'Espanya

The Plaça d'Espanya is the transport hub of Palma. The Estació Intermodal caters for buses and trains (the latter controlled by TIB). The two old buildings are home to the tourist information centre and several cafés sit either side of the two large escalators which lead into the Estació, which sits underneath a large and popular park. On the lawns are several glass boxes, which let in light and ventilation to the station below ground. There are also train-themed playing structures, each one shaped like a train carriage and named after towns along the line of the Ferrocarril de Sóller, a railway dating back to 1911 which has its Palma Station right next to the park. Just down the street from here a new bus station is under construction. At the centre of the plaza is a statue of James I, Conquistador of Majorca. [14]

Cathedral area

La Seu, Palma Cathedral, built between 1229 and 1346. Kathedrale von Palma III.jpg
La Seu, Palma Cathedral, built between 1229 and 1346.

Palma is famous for La Seu, its vast cathedral built on a previous mosque which was built atop an original Christian church. Although construction of the present Cathedral began in 1229, it did not finish until 1601. Local architect Antoni Gaudí was drafted in to restore the building in 1901. The Parc de la Mar (Park of the Sea) lies just south, overlooked by the great building which sits above it on the city's stone foundations. Between the two are the town walls.

The Rocks

The rocks located a short walk from the cathedral are a place of calm and tranquility.

Old city

Street in Palma's Old City Mediterranes-stadtleben-mallorca.jpg
Street in Palma's Old City
El Pueblo Espanol ElPuebloEspanol-mallorca-rafax.JPG
El Pueblo Español

The Old City (in the south-east area of Palma behind the cathedral) is a maze of streets clearly hinting at an Arab past. [ citation needed ] With the exception of a few streets and squares which allow traffic and are populated with tourists most of the time, the walkways of this city quarter are fairly narrow, quiet streets, surrounded by a diverse range of interesting buildings, the architecture of which is comparable to cities such as Florence. The majority are private houses, some of which are open to the public as discreet museums or galleries. The Old City is also home to the Ajuntament (or Town Hall), the Convent of the Cathedral and the Banys Àrabs.

Banys Àrabs

The ancient mills of El Jonquet Molins des Jonquet.JPG
The ancient mills of El Jonquet
Colom street (which connects the city hall building with the Plaza Mayor) Carrer Colom.JPG
Colom street (which connects the city hall building with the Plaza Mayor)

The Banys Àrabs, or Arab Baths, one of the few remnants of Palma's Moorish past, [15] are accessed via the quiet Ca'n Serra street near the Convent of the Cathedral, and include the lush gardens of Ca'n Fontirroig, home to Sardinian warblers, house sparrows, cacti, palm trees and a wide range of flowers and ferns. The small two-roomed brick building that once housed the baths is of Byzantine origin, dating back to the 11th century and possibly once part of the home of a Muslim nobleman. The bathroom has a cupola with five oculi which let in dazzling light. The twelve columns holding up the small room were pillaged from an earlier Roman construction. The floor over the hypocaust has been worn away by people standing in the centre, mainly to photograph the entrance and the garden beyond it. The whole room is in a rather dilapidated condition. The other room is a brick cube with a small model of the baths as they once were in the corner.

Notable people

Notable people who were born in the city include the following individuals.

Sports

Estadi de Son Moix Panor mica de Son Moix (569234728).jpg
Estadi de Son Moix

Football is the most popular sport on the island, led by the Palma-based Segunda División club Real Mallorca, who play at the Estadi de Son Moix, and Segunda División B club CD Atlético Baleares.

Basketball is also a popular sport. Palma's top team is CB Bahía San Agustín, which plays its home games at the 5,076 capacity Palau Municipal d'Esports Son Moix.

Because of its maritime location all sea sports have also a big presence in Palma. Maybe the most important sporting event in the city is the Ciutat de Palma Prizes.

Road cycling is very popular in Mallorca. An international race for professional cyclists, the Vuelta a Mallorca, is held in February, the first day of which consists of a circuit race around the streets of Palma. The city is also home to the Palma Arena, a multi-platinum venue featuring a velodrome. The arena also hosted the Battle of Surfaces tennis event.

In June 2016, the city of Palma participated in the First World Company Sports Games which included five days of culture, sport and inclusivity within the community of Mallorca as a whole. It was operated through the World Federation Company Sport and was promoted for both local people and tourists to come together in the city. It became a large business venture by offering packages including accommodations close to the events and additional tourism information for future events.

Platja de Palma in El Arenal Platja de Palma 1.jpg
Platja de Palma in El Arenal
Marina at night 2016 Palma de Mallorca.jpg
Marina at night

Transport

Correfocs in Palma Correfocs2.JPG
Correfocs in Palma

Twin towns – sister cities

Palma de Mallorca is twinned with Portofino, Italy, Alghero, Italy and Naples, Italy [16]

See also

Notes

  1. Municipal Register of Spain 2018. National Statistics Institute.
  2. 1 2 "Demographia: World Urban Areas — April 2017" (PDF) (13th Annual ed.). Archived from the original on 17 May 2017.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  3. Since December 2016 the city is officially "Palma", "Llei 15/2016, de 2 de desembre, de modificació de la Llei 23/2006, de 20 de desembre, de capitalitat de Palma de Mallorca" [Law 15/2016, of 2 December, of modification of Law 23/2006 of 20 December, capital of Palma de Mallorca] (in Catalan). Govern de les Illes Balears.
  4. "Palma de Mallorca?" (in Catalan). Bibiloni.net. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
  5. "Municipal Archive of Palma". Municipality of Palma (in Spanish). Municipality of Palma. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 29 March 2019. Restos de la muralla romana se muestran descubiertos en la fachada lateral de Can Bordils
  6. "Majorca". Jewish Virtual Library.
  7. "Majorca Economy - Information on Business and Investment in Majorca". www.majorca.com. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  8. "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  9. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Madrid, 2019.
  10. "British and German foreign communities decreasing". Majorca Daily Bulletin. 19 January 2018. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  11. "Guía resumida del clima en España (1981-2010)". Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  12. "Palma de Mallorca Sea Temperature". seatemperature.org. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  13. "Palma, Spain - Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  14. Tisdall, Nigel (2003). Mallorca. Section 1 – Plaça d'Espanya – description of statue of James I. Thomas Cook Publisher. p. 48. ISBN   9781841573274.
  15. "IIHS Rough Writing Guides". 2020. doi: 10.24943/rwg.2020 .Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. Vacca, Maria Luisa. "Comune di Napoli - Gemellaggi" [Naples - Twin Towns]. Comune di Napoli (in Italian). Archived from the original on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.

Bibliography

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Mallorca Island in the Mediterranean Sea

Mallorca or Majorca is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean. The local language, as on the rest of the Balearic Islands, is Catalan, which is co-official with Spanish.

Menorca Island in Spain

Menorca or Minorca is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain. Its name derives from its size, contrasting it with nearby Mallorca. Its largest city and capital is Mahón, situated on the island's eastern side, although Menorca is not a province and forms a political union with the other islands in the archipelago.

Dénia Municipality in Valencian Community, Spain

Dénia, is a historical coastal city in the province of Alicante, Spain, on the Costa Blanca halfway between Alicante and Valencia, and the capital and judicial seat of the comarca of Marina Alta. Denia's historical heritage has been influenced by Iberian, Greek, Roman, Islamic, Napoleonic and Christian civilizations. As of 2014, it had a population of 41,672, although this is more than doubled by tourism during the summer months.

Al-Andalus The territories of the Iberian Peninsula under Moorish rule between 711 and 1492

Al-Andalus was the Muslim-ruled area of the Iberian Peninsula. The term is used by modern historians for the former Islamic states based in modern Portugal and Spain. At its greatest geographical extent, its territory occupied most of the peninsula and a part of present-day southern France, Septimania, and for nearly a century extended its control from Fraxinet over the Alpine passes which connect Italy to Western Europe. The name more specifically describes the different Arab or Berber states that controlled these territories at various times between 711 and 1492, though the boundaries changed constantly as the Christian Reconquista progressed, eventually shrinking to the south and finally to the vassalage of the Emirate of Granada.

Taifa Independent states of al-Andalus (Muslim-occupied Iberian Peninsula) from the 11th-13th centuries

The taifas were the independent Muslim principalities of the Iberian Peninsula, referred to by Muslims as al-Andalus, that emerged from the decline and fall of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba between 1009 and 1031. They were a recurring feature of al-Andalus history. Conquered by the Almoravids in the late 11th century, on its collapse many taifas re-appeared only to be subsumed by the Almohads. The fall of the latter resulted in a final flourishing of the taifas, but by the end of the 13th century only one remained, Granada, the rest being incorporated into the Christian states of the north.

This is a timeline of notable events during the period of Muslim presence in Iberia, starting with the Umayyad conquest in the 8th century.

Calvià Municipality in Balearic Islands, Spain

Calvià is a municipality on the island of Majorca, part of the Spanish autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. It is located in the southwestern part of the island of Majorca, between the Serra de Tramuntana and the Serra de Na Burguesa. The municipal seat is the town of Vila Calvia.

Abû ‘Uthman Sa’îd ibn Hakam al Qurashi was the first Ra’îs of Manûrqa from 1234 to 1282.

Bay of Palma

The Bay of Palma is a bay located to the south of Palma, Majorca, Spain. It is in the south-west of the Balearic Island of Mallorca. Palma de Majorca's harbour is located on the northern shores along with some famous beaches. It is bounded to the west by Cape Cala Figuera, to the north by the city of Palma, to the south by the Mediterranean Sea and to the east by the White Cape. The Serra de Na Burguesa terminates at its shore.

Xueta

The Xuetes are a social group on the Spanish island of Majorca, in the Mediterranean Sea, who are descendants of Majorcan Jews that either were conversos or were Crypto-Jews, forced to keep their religion hidden. They practiced strict endogamy by marrying only within their own group. Many of their descendants observe a syncretist form of Christian worship known as Xueta Christianity.

Balearic Islands Archipelago in the Mediterranean, autonomous community, and province of Spain

The Balearic Islands are an archipelago of islands in Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

The Liber maiolichinusde gestis pisanorum illustribus is a Medieval Latin epic chronicle in 3,500 hexameters, written between 1117 and 1125, detailing the Pisan-led joint military expedition of Italians, Catalans, and Occitans against the taifa of the Balearic Islands, in particular Majorca and Ibiza, in 1113–5. It was commissioned by the commune of Pisa, and its anonymous author was probably a cleric. It survives in three manuscripts. The Liber is notable for containing the earliest known reference to "Catalans" (Catalanenses), treated as an ethnicity, and to "Catalonia" (Catalania), as their homeland.

1113–1115 Balearic Islands expedition

In 1114, an expedition to the Balearic Islands, then a Muslim taifa, was launched in the form of a Crusade. Founded on a treaty of 1113 between the Republic of Pisa and Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, the expedition had the support of Pope Paschal II and the participation of many lords of Catalonia and Occitania, as well as contingents from northern and central Italy, Sardinia, and Corsica. The Crusaders were perhaps inspired by the Norwegian king Sigurd I's attack on Formentera in 1108 or 1109 during the Norwegian Crusade. The expedition ended in 1115 in the conquest of the Balearics, but only until the next year. The main source for the event is the Pisan Liber maiolichinus, completed by 1125.

Taifa of Majorca

The Taifa of Majorca was a medieval Moorish taifa kingdom which existed from 1018 to 1203 in Majorca.

Serra de Na Burguesa

Serra de Na Burguesa is a well-defined mountain on the island of Majorca, part of the Spanish autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. It is the southernmost portion of the Serra de Tramuntana range, terminating in the Mediterranean Sea at Bay of Palma. Na Burguesa is located approximately halfway between Santa Ponsa and Palma. The municipality of Calvià is located between Na Burguesa and Serra de Tramuntana.

Talaiotic culture

The Talaiotic Culture or Talaiotic Period is the name used to describe the society that existed on the Gymnesian Islands during the Iron Age. Its origins date from the end of the second millennium BC, when the inaccurately named Pre-Talaiotic Culture underwent a crisis and evolved into the Talaiotic Culture. Its name is derived from the talaiots, which are the most abundant and emblematic structures from the prehistoric period of the Balearic Islands.

Mural paintings of the conquest of Majorca

The Mural paintings of the Conquest of Majorca is a group of paintings conserved at the National Art Museum of Catalonia, in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Conquest of Majorca

The Conquest of the island of Majorca on behalf of the Christian kingdoms was carried out by King James I of Aragon between 1229 and 1231. The pact to carry out the invasion, concluded between James I and the ecclesiastical and secular leaders, was ratified in Tarragona on August 28, 1229. It was open and promised conditions of parity for all who wished to participate.

Battle of Portopí

The Battle of Portopí was an open field military conflict between the Almohad troops that occupied the island of Majorca and the Christian army led by King James I the Conqueror with the aim of annexing it to the Crown of Aragon in order to expand their domain. It was carried out at various points in the current Sierra de Na Burguesa, approximately halfway between the current resort town of Santa Ponsa and the City of Majorca. It was the second major battle in the campaign for the conquest of the island of Majorca initiated by the Aragonese king.