Palme d'Or

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Palme d'Or
Palme dor.png
Location Cannes
CountryFrance
Presented by Festival International du Film de Cannes
First awarded1955
Currently held by Triangle of Sadness (2022)
Website http://www.festival-cannes.com

The Palme d'Or (French pronunciation:  [palm(ə) dɔʁ] ; English: Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival. [1] It was introduced in 1955 by the festival's organizing committee. Previously, from 1939 to 1954, the festival's highest prize was the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film. [1] In 1964, The Palme d'Or was replaced again by the Grand Prix, before being reintroduced in 1975. [1]

Contents

The Palme d'Or is widely considered one of the film industry's most prestigious awards. [2] [3] [4] [5]

History

The Commune of Cannes coat of arms FRA Cannes COA.svg
The Commune of Cannes coat of arms

In 1954, the festival decided to present an award annually, titled the Grand Prix of the International Film Festival, with a new design each year from a contemporary artist. The festival's board of directors invited several jewellers to submit designs for a palm, in tribute to the coat of arms of the city of Cannes, evoking the famous legend of Saint Honorat and the palm trees lining the famous Promenade de la Croisette. [1] The original design by Parisian jeweller Lucienne Lazon, inspired by a sketch by director Jean Cocteau, had the bevelled lower extremity of the stalk forming a heart, and the pedestal a sculpture in terracotta by the artist Sébastien. [6]

In 1955, the first Palme d'Or was awarded to Delbert Mann for his film Marty . From 1964 to 1974, the festival temporarily resumed a Grand Prix. [1] In 1975, the Palme d'Or was reintroduced and has since remained the festival's symbol, awarded each year to the director of the winning film, presented in a case of pure red Morocco leather lined with white suede. [1]

As of 2021, Jane Campion and Julia Ducournau are the only female directors to win the Palme d'Or (for The Piano and Titane , respectively). However, 2013, when Blue Is the Warmest Color won the Palme d'Or, the Steven Spielberg-headed jury awarded it to the film's actresses Adèle Exarchopoulos and Léa Seydoux as well as director Abdellatif Kechiche, [7] the only time multiple Palme d'Or trophies have been awarded. [8]

Palme d'Or awarded to Apocalypse Now at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival Palmed'or.jpg
Palme d'Or awarded to Apocalypse Now at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival

The jury decided to present it to the actresses as well due to a Cannes policy forbidding the Palme d'Or-winning film from receiving any additional awards, which would have prevented the jury from recognizing the actresses separately. [9] Of the unorthodox decision, Spielberg said, "Had the casting been 3% wrong, [the film] wouldn't have worked like it did for us". [10] Kechiche later auctioned off his Palme d'Or trophy to fund his new feature film, and, in an interview with The Hollywood Reporter , expressed dissatisfaction that the festival had awarded multiple trophies. He said he felt they had "publicly insulted" him by doing it, and that "liberating myself from this Palme d’Or is a way of washing my hands of this sorry affair". [8]

Since its reintroduction, the prize has been redesigned several times. At the beginning of the 1980s, the rounded shape of the pedestal, bearing the palm has gradually transformed to become pyramidal in 1984. In 1992, Thierry de Bourqueney redesigned the Palme and its pedestal in hand-cut crystal. In 1997, Caroline Scheufele redesigned the statuette; since then, it has been manufactured by the Swiss jewellery firm Chopard. The palm is made from 4.16 oz (118 g) of 18-carat yellow gold while the branch's base forms a small heart. The Palme d’or rests on a dainty crystal cushion shaped like an emerald-cut diamond. [11] A single piece of cut crystal forms a cushion for the palm, which is hand-cast into a wax mould and now presented in a case of blue Morocco leather. In 1998, Theo Angelopoulos was the first director to win the Palme d'or as it appears today, for his film Eternity and a Day . [12]

The presentation of the 2014 Palme d'Or to Winter Sleep , a Turkish film by Nuri Bilge Ceylan, occurred during the 100th anniversary year of Turkish cinema. On receiving the award, Ceylan dedicated it to the "young people" involved in Turkey's ongoing political unrest, and the workers killed in the Soma mine disaster, which occurred on the day before the commencement of the awards event. [13]

In 2017, the award was redesigned to celebrate the festival's 70th anniversary. [1] The diamonds were provided by an ethical supplier certified by the Responsible Jewellery Council. [1]

The 2020 Cannes Film Festival was cancelled due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. 56 films were announced as official selections by the festival, but no awards were presented. [14]

Winners

YearFilmOriginal titleDirector(s)Country of origin
1930s
1939  Union Pacific Cecil B. DeMille United States [15]
1940–1945No festival due to World War II . [16]
1940s
1946 Brief Encounter David Lean United Kingdom [17]
The Last Chance Die Letzte Chance Leopold Lindtberg Switzerland
The Lost Weekend Billy Wilder United States [18]
María Candelaria Emilio Fernández Mexico [19]
Men Without Wings Muži bez křídel František Čáp Czechoslovakia [20]
Neecha Nagar Chetan Anand India [21]
Pastoral Symphony La symphonie pastorale Jean Delannoy France [22]
The Red Meadows De røde enge Bodil Ipsen & Lau Lauritzen, Jr. Denmark [23]
Rome, Open City Roma, città aperta Roberto Rossellini Italy [24]
Torment Hets Alf Sjöberg Sweden [25]
The Turning Point Великий перелом Fridrikh Ermler Soviet Union [26]
1947 Antoine and Antoinette (Best Psychological & Love Film)Antoine et Antoinette Jacques Becker France [27]
Crossfire (Best Social Film) Edward Dmytryk United States [28]
The Damned (Best Adventure & Crime Film)Les Maudits René Clément France [29]
Dumbo (Best Animation Design) Ben Sharpsteen United States [30]
Ziegfeld Follies (Best Musical Comedy) Vincente Minnelli United States [31]
1948No festival due to budgetary problems. [32]
1949 The Third Man Carol Reed United Kingdom [33]
1950s
1950No festival due to budgetary problems. [32]
1951 Miracle in Milan #Miracolo a Milano Vittorio De Sica Italy [34]
Miss Julie #Fröken Julie Alf Sjöberg Sweden [35]
1952 Othello # Orson Welles Morocco [36]
Two Cents Worth of Hope #Due soldi di speranza Renato Castellani Italy [37]
1953 The Wages of Fear Le salaire de la peur Henri-Georges Clouzot France [38]
1954 Gate of Hell 地獄門 Teinosuke Kinugasa Japan [39]
Awarded as "Palme d'Or"
1955 Marty § Delbert Mann United States [40]
1956 The Silent World Le monde du silence Jacques Cousteau & Louis Malle France [41]
1957 Friendly Persuasion William Wyler United States [42]
1958 The Cranes Are Flying Летят журавли Mikhail Kalatozov Soviet Union [43]
1959 Black Orpheus §Orfeu Negro Marcel Camus France [44]
1960s
1960 La Dolce Vita § Federico Fellini Italy [45]
1961 The Long Absence # §Une aussi longue absence Henri Colpi France [46]
Viridiana #§ Luis Buñuel Spain [47]
1962 O Pagador de Promessas § Anselmo Duarte Brazil [48]
1963 The Leopard §Il gattopardo Luchino Visconti Italy [49]
Awarded as "Grand Prix du Festival International du Film"
1964 The Umbrellas of Cherbourg Les parapluies de Cherbourg Jacques Demy France [50]
1965 The Knack ...and How to Get It Richard Lester United Kingdom [51]
1966 The Birds, the Bees and the Italians #Signore e signori Pietro Germi Italy [52]
A Man and a Woman #Un homme et une femme Claude Lelouch France [53]
1967 Blowup Michelangelo Antonioni United Kingdom [54]
1968 No award because the festival was cancelled midway through to show solidarity with the students and workers who were demonstrating in what became known as the May 68 movement. [32]
1969 If.... Lindsay Anderson United Kingdom [55]
1970s
1970 MASH Robert Altman United States [56]
1971 The Go-Between Joseph Losey United Kingdom [57]
1972 The Mattei Affair #§Il caso Mattei Francesco Rosi Italy [58]
The Working Class Goes to Heaven #§La classe operaia va in paradiso Elio Petri Italy [59]
1973 The Hireling # Alan Bridges United Kingdom [60]
Scarecrow # Jerry Schatzberg United States [61]
1974 The Conversation Francis Ford Coppola United States [62]
Awarded as "Palme d'Or"
1975 Chronicle of the Years of Fire Chronique des années de braise Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina Algeria [63]
1976 Taxi Driver Martin Scorsese United States [64]
1977 Padre Padrone Paolo and Vittorio Taviani Italy [65]
1978 The Tree of Wooden Clogs §L'albero degli zoccoli Ermanno Olmi Italy [66]
1979 Apocalypse Now # Francis Ford Coppola United States [67]
The Tin Drum #Die Blechtrommel Volker Schlöndorff West Germany
France [68]
1980s
1980 All That Jazz # Bob Fosse United States [69]
Kagemusha #影武者 Akira Kurosawa Japan [70]
1981 Man of Iron Człowiek z żelaza Andrzej Wajda Poland [71]
1982 Missing #§ Costa-Gavras United States [72]
Yol #§ Yılmaz Güney & Şerif Gören Turkey [73]
1983 The Ballad of Narayama 楢山節考 Shohei Imamura Japan [74]
1984 Paris, Texas § Wim Wenders West Germany, France [75]
1985 When Father Was Away on Business §Отац на службеном путу Emir Kusturica Yugoslavia
1986 The Mission Roland Joffé United Kingdom [76]
1987 Under the Sun of Satan §Sous le soleil de Satan Maurice Pialat France [77]
1988 Pelle the Conqueror Pelle Erobreren Bille August Denmark [78]
1989 Sex, Lies, and Videotape Steven Soderbergh United States [79]
1990s
1990 Wild at Heart David Lynch United States [80]
1991 Barton Fink § Joel Coen United States [81]
1992 The Best Intentions Den goda viljan Bille August Denmark, Sweden [82]
1993 Farewell My Concubine #霸王別姬 Chen Kaige Hong Kong [83]
The Piano # Jane Campion New Zealand, Australia, France [84]
1994 Pulp Fiction Quentin Tarantino United States [85]
1995 Underground Подземље Emir Kusturica France [86]
1996 Secrets & Lies Mike Leigh France, United Kingdom [87]
1997 The Eel #うなぎ Shohei Imamura Japan [88]
Taste of Cherry #طعم گيلاس Abbas Kiarostami Iran
1998 Eternity and a Day §Μια αιωνιότητα και μια μέρα Theo Angelopoulos Greece [89]
1999 Rosetta § Jean-Pierre & Luc Dardenne Belgium, France [90]
2000s
2000 Dancer in the Dark Lars von Trier Denmark [91]
2001 The Son's Room La stanza del figlio Nanni Moretti Italy, France [92]
2002 The Pianist Roman Polanski Poland, France, Germany, United Kingdom [93]
2003 Elephant Gus Van Sant United States [94]
2004 Fahrenheit 9/11 Michael Moore United States [95]
2005 L'Enfant Jean-Pierre & Luc Dardenne Belgium, France [96]
2006 The Wind That Shakes the Barley § Ken Loach Ireland, United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, Spain [97]
2007 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days 4 luni, 3 săptămâni și 2 zile Cristian Mungiu Romania [98]
2008 The Class §Entre les murs Laurent Cantet France [99]
2009 The White Ribbon Das weiße Band, Eine deutsche Kindergeschichte Michael Haneke Germany, Austria, France, Italy [100]
2010s
2010 Uncle Boonmee Who Can Recall His Past Lives ลุงบุญมีระลึกชาติ Apichatpong Weerasethakul United Kingdom, Thailand, France, Germany, Spain [101]
2011 The Tree of Life Terrence Malick United States [102]
2012 Amour Michael Haneke France, Germany, Austria [103]
2013 Blue Is the Warmest Colour §La Vie d'Adèle: Chapitres 1 et 2 Abdellatif Kechiche France, Belgium, Spain [104]
2014 Winter Sleep Kış Uykusu Nuri Bilge Ceylan Turkey, France, Germany [105]
2015 Dheepan Jacques Audiard France [106]
2016 I, Daniel Blake Ken Loach United Kingdom [107]
2017 The Square Ruben Östlund Sweden, Germany, France, Denmark [108]
2018 Shoplifters 万引き家族 Hirokazu Kore-eda Japan [109]
2019 Parasite §기생충 Bong Joon-ho South Korea [110]
2020s
2020 No festival due to the COVID-19 pandemic . [14]
2021 Titane Julia Ducournau France, Belgium [111]
2022 Triangle of Sadness Ruben Östlund Sweden [112]
Notes
# Denotes ex aequo win
§ Denotes unanimous win
The Palme d'Or for Union Pacific was awarded in retrospect at the 2002 festival. The festival's debut was to take place in 1939, but it was cancelled due to World War II. [113] The organisers of the 2002 festival presented part of the original 1939 selection to a professional jury of six members. The films were: Boefje , The Four Feathers , Goodbye Mr. Chips , Lenin in 1918 , La Loi du Nord , Union Pacific & The Wizard of Oz .

Multiple winners

Nine directors or co-directors have won the award twice. [114] Three of these () have won for consecutive films.

Honorary Palme d'Or

In 1997, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Festival, the Cannes jury awarded a "Palme des Palmes" for the first time. [115]

YearRecipientProfessionNationality of recipient
1997 Ingmar Bergman [115] Director/ScreenwriterSweden

In 2002 the festival began to sporadically award a non-competitive Honorary Palme d'Or to directors or actors who had achieved a notable body of work but who had never won a competitive Palme d'Or. [116]

YearRecipientProfessionNationality of recipient
2002 Woody Allen [117] Director/Actor/ScreenwriterUnited States
2003 Jeanne Moreau [118] ActressFrance
2005 Catherine Deneuve [119] ActressFrance
2007 Jane Fonda [120] ActressUnited States
2008 Manoel de Oliveira [121] Director/ScreenwriterPortugal
2009 Clint Eastwood [122] Actor/DirectorUnited States
2011 Jean-Paul Belmondo [123] ActorFrance
Bernardo Bertolucci [124] Director/ScreenwriterItaly
2015 Agnès Varda [125] [126] Director/ScreenwriterFrance
2016 Jean-Pierre Léaud [127] ActorFrance
2017 Jeffrey Katzenberg [128] ProducerUnited States
2019 Alain Delon [129] ActorFrance
2021 Marco Bellocchio [130] Director/ScreenwriterItaly
Jodie Foster [131] Actress/DirectorUnited States
2022 Forest Whitaker [132] Actor/Producer/DirectorUnited States
Tom Cruise [133] Actor/ProducerUnited States

In 2018, the Cannes jury also awarded a "Special Palme d'Or" for the first time. [134]

YearFilmOriginal titleDirector(s)CountryRef(s)
2018 The Image Book Le Livre d'image Jean-Luc Godard Switzerland [135] [134]

See also

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