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Palmer Archipelago, also known as Antarctic Archipelago, Archipiélago Palmer, Antarktiske Arkipel or Palmer Inseln, is a group of islands off the northwestern coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. It extends from Tower Island in the north to Anvers Island in the south. It is separated by the Gerlache and Bismarck straits from the Antarctic Peninsula and Wilhelm Archipelago, respectively.
Palmer Archipelago is located at.
Adrien de Gerlache, leader of the Belgian Antarctic Expedition (1897–1899), discovered the archipelago in 1898. He named it Archipelago Palmer for American Captain Nathaniel Palmer, who navigated these waters in 1820.
Both Argentina and the United Kingdom have operated research stations there.
The archipelago includes:
Anvers Island or Antwerp Island or Antwerpen Island or Isla Amberes is a high, mountainous island 61 km long, the largest in the Palmer Archipelago of Antarctica. It was discovered by John Biscoe in 1832 and named in 1898 by the Belgian Antarctic Expedition under Adrien de Gerlache after the province of Antwerp in Belgium. It lies south-west of Brabant Island at the south-western end of the group. The south-western coastline of the island forms part of the Southwest Anvers Island and Palmer Basin Antarctic Specially Managed Area. Cormorant Island, an Important Bird Area, lies 1 km off the south coast.
Brabant Island is the second largest island of the Palmer Archipelago within the British Antarctic Territory, lying between Anvers Island and Liège Island. Brabant Island is 59 km (37 mi) long north-south, 30 km (19 mi) wide, and rises to 2,520 m (8,268 ft) in Mount Parry. The interior of the island is occupied by two mountain ranges, Solvay Mountains in its southern part and Stribog Mountains in its central and northern parts.
Gerlache Strait or de Gerlache Strait or Détroit de la Belgica is a channel/strait separating the Palmer Archipelago from the Antarctic Peninsula. The Belgian Antarctic Expedition, under Lt. Adrien de Gerlache, explored the strait in January and February 1898, naming it for the expedition ship Belgica. The name was later changed to honor the commander himself.
Doumer Island is an island 8.3 km (4.5 nmi) long and 3.7 km (2 nmi) wide, surmounted by a snow-covered pyramidal peak, 515 m (1,690 ft), lying between the south portions of Anvers Island and Wiencke Island in the Palmer Archipelago of Antarctica. It was first seen by the Belgian Antarctic Expedition, 1897–99, under Adrien de Gerlache. It was resighted and charted by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1903–05, under Jean-Baptiste Charcot, who named it for Paul Doumer, President of the French Chamber of Deputies and later President of France.
Inverleith Harbour is a small bay between Andrews Point and Briggs Peninsula along the northeast coast of Anvers Island, in the Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica. It was presumably discovered by whalers working in this area who gave the name "Inverleith" or "Leith Harbour". "Inverleith Harbour" is recommended because the name "Leith Harbour" is used elsewhere in the Antarctic. Leith, Scotland, is the home of Salvesen and Company, a whaling firm which has operated extensively in Antarctic waters.
Ryswyck Point is a point marking the east extremity of Anvers Island, in the Palmer Archipelago. It was discovered and named by the Belgian Antarctic Expedition, 1897–99, under de Gerlache.
Dallmann Bay is a bay lying between Brabant Island and Anvers Island, connected to Gerlache Strait by the Schollaert Channel, in the Palmer Archipelago. It was discovered and first roughly charted in 1874 by the German whaler Captain Eduard Dallmann, and was named for Dallmann by the Society for Polar Navigation, Hamburg, which sponsored Dallmann's Antarctic exploration. It was later charted by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1903–05, under Jean-Baptiste Charcot.
William Glacier is a glacier flowing south from the interior highlands of Anvers Island to the head of Börgen Bay on the southeast coast of the island, in the Palmer Archipelago. Discovered by the Belgian Antarctic Expedition, 1897–99, under Gerlache, and charted by them simply as a "grand glacier." The name William Glacier first appears on a chart based upon a 1927 survey by DI personnel on the Discovery. Gateway Ridge separates William Glacier from Hooper Glacier.
Andrews Point is a headland between Hackapike Bay and Inverleith Harbour on the northeast coast of Anvers Island, in the Palmer Archipelago. It was charted and named in 1927 by DI personnel on the RRS Discovery.
The Briggs Peninsula is a small peninsula forming the west side of Inverleith Harbour on the northeast coast of Anvers Island, in the Palmer Archipelago. The northeast point of the peninsula was charted in 1927 by DI personnel on the RSS Discovery, who named it Briggs Point for Able Seaman A.C. Briggs, a member of the survey party. As air photos show no distinct point in this location, the name was applied to the entire peninsula by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee in 1959.
Mount Camber is a mainly snow-covered mountain, 1,400 metres (4,600 ft) high, 1 nautical mile (2 km) northeast of Molar Peak in the Osterrieth Range of Anvers Island, in the Palmer Archipelago. It was first seen by the Belgian Antarctic Expedition, 1897–99, under Gerlache. The name High Peak was probably given to the feature by Lieutenant Commander J.M. Chaplin, Royal Navy, during a sketch survey in 1927 on the RRS Discovery. A resurvey in 1955 by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey found this descriptive name to be unsuitable. The new name, given by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee, is descriptive of the summit, which is long and gently sloping like a cambered road surface.
Dobrowolski Island is a small island which lies close to the east coast of Anvers Island, 3 nautical miles (6 km) southwest of Ryswyck Point, in the Palmer Archipelago. It was charted in 1927 by Discovery Investigations personnel on the Discovery, who gave the name "Astrolabe Island". To avoid duplication, the name was changed in 1958 by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee, and the island is now named after Antoni B. Dobrowolski, assistant meteorologist of the Belgian Antarctic Expedition which explored this area in 1898.
Gourdon Peninsula is a snow-covered peninsula 6 nautical miles (11 km) long, forming the southeast side of Lapeyrere Bay on the northeast coast of Anvers Island, in the Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica. The northeast coast of Anvers Island was roughly surveyed by the French Antarctic Expedition under Jean-Baptiste Charcot in 1905 and the name "Pointe Gourdon," for Vice-Admiral Gourdon of the French Navy, was given to a point between Lapeyrere Bay and Fournier Bay. The UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee in 1956 altered the name to Gourdon Peninsula and applied it to the peninsula described, which almost certainly is the feature Charcot had in mind when he gave the original name.
Fournier Bay is a bay 8 nautical miles (15 km) long and 3 nautical miles (6 km) wide, indenting the northeast coast of Anvers Island immediately west of Briggs Peninsula and south of Dralfa Point, in the Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica. Its head is fed by Rhesus, Thamyris, Kleptuza and Altimir Glaciers.
Gerlache Island is the largest of the Rosenthal Islands lying off Gerlache Point on the west coast of Anvers Island, in the Palmer Archipelago of Antarctica. It was first roughly charted and named "Pointe de Gerlache" by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1903–05, under Jean-Baptiste Charcot, for Lieutenant Adrien de Gerlache. As a result of surveys by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey in 1956–58, this island is considered to be the feature named by Charcot; there is no prominent point in this vicinity which would be visible from seaward.
Malpighi Glacier is a glacier 5 nautical miles (9 km) long and 1 nautical mile (2 km) wide, draining southeast from the Harvey Heights in Stribog Mountains along Basarbovo Ridge to join Mackenzie Glacier and flow into Kayak Bay at the east coast of Brabant Island, in the Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica. It was first roughly charted by the Belgian Antarctic Expedition, 1897–99, under Gerlache. The glacier was photographed by Hunting Aerosurveys Ltd in 1956–57, and mapped from these photos in 1959. It was named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee for Marcello Malpighi, an Italian physiologist and pioneer histologist who first demonstrated the existence of the blood capillaries.
Schollaert Channel is a channel in the Antarctic between Anvers Island on the southwest and Brabant Island on the northeast, connecting Dallmann Bay and Gerlache Strait, in the Palmer Archipelago. It was discovered in 1898 by the Belgian Antarctic Expedition under Gerlache, who named it for the Belgian statesman Frans Schollaert.
The Rosenthal Islands are a group of about islands fringing the west coast of Anvers Island, 11 km (6.8 mi) north of Cape Monaco, in the Palmer Archipelago of Antarctica.
Lapeyrère Bay is 7 nautical miles (13 km) long and 2 nautical miles (4 km) wide, and lies north of Gourdon Peninsula, indenting the northeast coast of Anvers Island, in the Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica. Its head is fed by Iliad Glacier.
Southwest Anvers Island and Palmer Basin is a 3275 km2 Antarctic Specially Managed Area. It lies towards the northern end of the Antarctic Peninsula, encompassing the south-western coastline of Anvers Island, in the Palmer Archipelago, with the adjacent deep marine waters of the Palmer Basin, the shallower Bismarck Strait, and fringing island groups.
Media related to Palmer Archipelago at Wikimedia Commons